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The Russian War Machine And The Race To The Sea I THE GREAT WAR - Week 9

1914年 9月25日
September 25, 1914.
速战速决的高强度运动战已经结束 随之开始的是脏兮兮的阵地战
The mobile war of short intense battles was over and the filthy war in the trenches had begun
本周 西线战场的战壕如火光一般朝大海延伸
and this week we see the trenches grow like lighting on the western front in the race to the sea.
随着这场拥有大型火炮 机动车辆等现代机器的战争
We also see something even more sinister, as the war of the modern great
往天上和海下扩散 我们也会目睹更加恐怖的事情发生
machines like mega artillery and motorized vehicles spreads to the skies and beneath the sea.
我是印地·奈德尔 欢迎收看《第一次世界大战》
I’m Indy Neidell, welcome to the Great War.
本周初 埃纳河之战仍激烈进行
At the beginning of the week, the battle of the Aisne was raging,
and British, French,and German alike were digging in.
东面战场 在俄军步步紧逼的攻势下
In the east, the Austro-Hungarian army was retreating back
within its own borders, pursued by the Russians.
虽然在对德作战中 俄军损失惨重
The Russians had suffered some great losses against the Germans,
but they had also had a string of victories over the Austrians.
至此 奥匈军被公认为一战中实力最弱的一方
By this time, the Austro-Hungarian army was recognized by both sides as the weakest of
渐渐地 我们异常清晰地看到 奥匈军只有在德军持续不断的援助下
the conflict, and it was becoming fairly obvious that it would require constant German assistance
才能尚存一线生机 因此 俄军穷追猛打
just to survive, and the Russians were thus committed to serious and continuous efforts
以便彻底击败奥军 然后集中火力对付德军
to finish it off so they could focus on Germany.
尼科莱·伊万诺夫将军 俄帝国军团西南方面军总指挥官
General Nikolay Ivanov, in charge of the Imperial Russian army on the Southwestern Front, put
他对正往南面撤退的奥军施加了尽可能多的压力 在加利西亚击败奥军后
what pressure he could on the retreating Austrians to the south, and after beating them in the
伊万诺夫又计划逐个攻破普热梅斯 克拉科夫 以及布达佩斯这些城市要塞
battle of Galicia, planned to take the city fortress of Przemsyl, then Krakow, and then on to Budapest.
这令德军坐立不安 于是德军将四支部队从西线调往东线
This put the fear into the Germans, and they sent four army corps from the western front
就驻扎在克拉科夫以北 事实证明 俄军侧翼即刻受到威胁
to the east, just north of Krakow, which proved to be an immediate threat to the Russian flank.
This was very much a tribute to the German railway system,
and highlights again the German high command’s comments just before the war
到1917年 俄国铁路系统可与德国匹敌
that by 1917 the Russian railway system would be a match for the German one
and Germany would not then be able to win a war with Russia
so war must happen in 1914.
伊万诺夫调转30个师应对德军的威胁 并开始向北面进军
Ivanov diverted 30 entire divisions to tackle this threat and they began to march north,
leaving only 30 divisions in Galicia to deal with the Austrians.
But there were a further 25 divisions up in East Prussia
so it began to look like Ivanov had a real war machine to take on the Germans.
当然 俄军也迫切的想报一箭之仇
Of course, the Russians were also eager to get back at the Germans for the disastrous
几周前 俄军在坦能堡和马苏里亚恩湖畔溃败于德军
losses at Tannenberg and Masurian lakes a few weeks ago,
因此东线有大量士兵在行军 覆盖了一大片开阔的领土
so on the eastern front you now had a lot of people in motion, covering huge expanses of territory.
It was completely the opposite in the west.
埃纳河旁僵局依旧 英德挖掘战壕
At the Aisne River, it was a stalemate with the two sides dug into trenches separated
相距不过数百米 双方即无一方占优 也无一方有意撤退
by only a few hundred meters; neither side able to gain the upper hand or willing to retreat.
每天都有战斗 英军和法军平均一天伤亡2000人
The British and French were suffering an average of 2,000 casualties each and every
day of the ongoing battle, which would last for several more weeks,
and the Germans were taking heavy losses as well.
现在 所有人都意识到正面攻击如同自杀
Everyone now realized that frontal attacks were suicide,
so the armies began to try one of the oldest maneuvers in the history of warfare
they began to try to attack each other from the side, the flank,
敌人在侧翼的防御要弱的多 且侧翼基本上成一条直线
where an opponent’s defenses are much weaker and he would basically be in a straight line.
此时 埃纳河与英吉利海峡之间有300公里的开阔地
Now, there were 300 kilometers of open ground between the Aisne and the English Channel,
open ground that was as yet un-ravaged by either army,
and the new German chief of staff Falkenhayn, who very much believed in a hard offensive war,
thought he saw an opportunity to envelop the allied forces in a way
that his predecessor, Moltke, was not able to in August.
而采用此方式有额外的好处 即使伊万诺夫未能包围敌军
As a bonus, even if he couldn’t surround his opponent,
只要他向西行军至加来 拿下期间的数个港口
if he could take the channel ports as far as Calais in the west,
he would have an excellent strategic advantage,
所以 伊万诺夫出发了
so he began to move.
为迎接新一轮威胁 英法联军重新部署
The French and the British armies re-deployed to meet this new threat,
而事实证明 他们干的非常漂亮
and they actually did an incredible job of it,
so as the autumn rains and cold came on in force,
各支部队互相躲避 战壕一点点朝西南方向延伸
the trench lines grew and grew to the northwest as each army tried to get around the other.
现在的问题是 没有一方可以发动足够快的快攻
The problem now was that neither side was able to attack quickly enough,
尤其是无法在带着大炮的情况下 在一天内结束战斗 所以他们越走越远
or especially to bring up artillery quickly enough to seize the day, so further and further they went.
This is known as the race to the sea.
西面的法军在铁路上占有大优势 这一点与东面的德军很相似
The French in the west, much like the Germans in the east, had a major advantage in railways.
1870年普法战争中 法国快速落败 主要原因便是其铁路系统落后
See, in the war with Prussia in 1870 the weaknesses of the French system had been a major factor
不过法国已经吸取了教训 接下来的40年中
in her quick defeat, but France had learned her lesson, and over the next 40 years had
法国修建了世界上最密集 最发达的铁路系统之一
built one of the densest and most highly developed networks in the world,
而现在让德军感到焦头烂额的是 撤退的比利时人在毁坏他们的铁轨
while the German headache now was that the retreating Belgians had sabotaged their tracks
and taken away anything that could roll,
即使德国雇佣26000人清理隧道 修理铁轨
and even though Germany committed 26,000 men to clearing tunnels and fixing track,
it would take several more weeks to really get it up to speed.
恐怕 德军连几个星期也等不起了
Weeks that the German army might not have.
工业化战争的开端 阵地战的开端
The beginning of the industrial war, the beginning of trench warfare, the beginning of the war
on other continents, there were still a lot of new beginnings at this point of the war,
包括意义重大的一个 空战的开端
including a big one- the beginning of the war in the air.
September 22nd marked the first British air raid on Germany.
英军袭击了杜塞尔多夫和科隆的齐柏林飞艇停放棚 德军彻底目瞪口呆
They attacked the Zeppelin sheds in Dusseldorf and Cologne and took them completely by surprise.
People had realized in August, though, just what sort of advantages airplanes could bring to the war.
这通常是经验所得 比如有一次 驻扎在南锡的德军看见
Often it was learning by experience, such as when German troops in Nancy watched
一架飞机在他们上方环绕 之后投下一颗闪着光的“炸弹”
a plane circle over them for a while before dropping what turned out to be a bright light.
士兵们围站在这个明显无杀伤力的“炸弹”旁 想着这是干嘛用的
The men stood around the obviously harmless “bomb” and wondered what its purpose was
突然间 知晓德军所在地的法军发起了一轮轰炸
until the French suddenly started shelling them now that they knew where they were.
新兴的航空业依然处于危险期 1912年 飞行员死于飞行事故概率为五十分之一
Aviation was still in its dangerous infancy- in 1912 the accidental death rate for pilots
但这场战争会改变一切 有几项数字你可以参考一下
was one in fifty- but the war would change all of that. Here’s some numbers for you:
英军有113架飞机服役 奥军48架 比利时军12架
the British went to war with 113 airplanes; the Austrians had 48, and the Belgians 12.
事实上法国才是战前的欧洲航空业巨头 而且是交战国中唯一一个
The French were actually the European aviationleaders before the war, and were alone among
曾在战场上使用过飞机的国家 法军在1913年对摩洛哥发动过空袭
the warring nations in having used planes in military service, which they had in Morocco 1913
到1914年10月 法国已订购了2300架飞机 3400台引擎
By October 1914, France had ordered 2,300 aircraft and 3,400 engines.
法国还是第一个划分机种的国家 分为战斗机 轰炸机 以及侦察机
They were also the first nation to organize their planes by types- fighter, bombers, and reconnaissance planes
所有作战方也都如法炮制 很快
all of the other armies followed suit and soon the “romantic” war of the flying aces would begin.
Another big first happened on September 22nd, when the German sub U9 sank three British
cruisers in one day off the Dutch coast.
Now, these three cruisers were sort of obsolete,
and the British government was worried they might be attacked by modern German cruisers,
但却从未忧虑过潜水艇的威胁 德军潜水艇只发射了6枚鱼类
but no one worried about the threat from a U-boat. That U-boat sunk all three ships with
only 6 torpedoes in under 90 minutes.
由于无人设想过潜艇战 当第一艘巡洋舰遭袭时
Since no one had any concept of submarine warfare, when the first cruiser was hit, the
另一艘却停下打捞幸存者 而没有选择躲开潜水艇
other ones stopped to pick up survivors instead of getting the hell out of Dodge, and when
当第二艘遭袭时 第三艘又做了同样的事 最终 共有1459人阵亡
the second one was hit, the third one did the same. 1,459 men died. It was the worst
这是整个一战中 英国海军损失最惨重的一次
British naval disaster of the entire war.
至此之后 英军海军部决定
The British Admiralty after that decided to
mine the North Sea “on a Napoleonic Scale”.
This event was an instant lesson on how important submarine warfare was to become,
and it shook the reputation of the supposedly invincible Royal Navy.
到了本周末 埃纳河的战壕里血战 轰炸不断
So at the end of the week, the bloody fighting and continuous shelling in the trenches in Aisne,
which heralded the new era of endless continuous battles- had yet to stop.
英法两军还在持续向大海移动 试图找到一处地方
Both sides were also moving further and further toward the sea trying to find ground somewhere-
任何一处位于瑞士和大海之间的地方 以最终或许决定性优势
anywhere between Switzerland and the sea where they might finally gain a decisive advantage.
俄军在波兰集结 试图同时攻击
The Russians were massing in Poland to try to attack
both the mobile Germans and the Austrians in their fortress.
从长远来看 本周最重要的进展是
But what would be the biggest news of the week in the long run was that the war of the
随着战场往天上和海下转移 拥有现代机器的一战上升到了新的高度
great machines was taken to new levels with the war in the sky and the war under the sea-
two types of warfare that were completely new in the entire history of mankind. They
它将永久改变战争的进行方式 并在接下来的一个世纪中
would change the way war was fought forever and over the next century would claim untold
millions of lives of soldier and civilian alike.
有关运动战到西线阵地战的转变过程 如果你想了解更多
If you want to find out more about the transition from mobile warfare to the filthy trenches
of the Western Front, check out our episode from last week right here, and please share
你也可以在评论区 脸书或者推特上留言 与我们进行交流
your thoughts with us in the comments section or on Facebook or Twitter.