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这所俄罗斯学校专门培养家庭主妇 – 译学馆
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这所俄罗斯学校专门培养家庭主妇

The Russian Schools Training Women To Be Housewives

一个男人应该爱护他的女人
而女人应该接受他的全部 爱他 相信他
并感激他 你要相信你男人
旁白:不 这并不是旧时代的反女权主义观点
NARRATOR: No, this isn’t an anti-feministstatement from a bygone era.
这些是现今俄罗斯的妇女学校共享的理念
These are ideas that are being shared today in Russia’s womanhood schools.
我的科目叫做女性的内涵
建立这所学校呢 是为了塑造在各个方面都很完美的女孩或女人
关于你的礼仪 说话的方式 保持交谈的能力
不能废话连篇 或在指定的场合表现失礼
而要用女性的方式去做
我们学校涵盖了愉悦 幸福 乐观 和谐的东西
以及女性在世界里的正确地位
旁白:在她的一对一课程里
NARRATOR: In her one-on-one courses,
艾丽西娅提供咨询 美容和造型的建议
Alicia offers counseling, beauty, and styling tips
致力于塑造出她认为的理想女性
all with the aim of creating what she believes is the ideal woman.
据艾丽西娅说 女性们去她那里
According to Alicia, women come to her
主要是为了三件事情
seeking three main things.
她们基本上都是需要三样东西:和睦 丈夫 金钱
因为你有一个丈夫 就有了一个保护者处处呵护你
让你免于遭受在俄罗斯会面临的困境
旁白:然而 据珍妮弗·乌塔拉塔
NARRATOR: But according to Jennifer Utrata,
《没有男人的女人–新俄罗斯的单亲妈妈以及家庭变化》的作者所言:
author of “Women Without Men– Single Mothers and Family Change in a New Russia”
女性为照顾者 男性为保护者的角色
the role of women as caretakers and men as protectors
并不像艾丽西娅所展现的那么理想
is not as idealized as Alicia makes it out to be.
乌塔拉塔博士:她们渴望找到一个头脑清醒和可靠的人
DR. ULTRATA: There’s a longing for a sober, reliable
赚钱养家
breadwinner.
旁白:乌塔拉塔在俄罗斯采访了数百名男女
NARRATOR: Utrata interviewed hundredsof Russian men and women
以了解那里的家庭状况
to understand family there.
她发现的是俄罗斯人的婚姻里一个反复出现的问题
What she found was a reoccurring problemwithin Russian marriages–
酗酒
alcoholism.
2014年 一项研究指出25%的俄罗斯男人在55岁之前去世
In 2014, a study indicated that 25% of Russian males died before the age of 55,
大部分都是由于酗酒
largely because of alcohol.
于是 乌塔拉塔指出
As a result, Utrada noted that
女人们被迫担任家里的照顾者角色
women were being forced to take up the role of caretaker in the home.
乌塔拉塔博士:对家庭的研究发现这是个大问题
DR. ULTRATA: Studying families, it is a big problem,
无法依靠伴侣问题就会出现
and it would come up in terms of just not being able to count on a partner.
旁白:她采访的那些女性
NARRATOR: And among the women she interviewed,
觉得自己生活中的男人不可靠
the idea that the men in their lives were unreliable
还不仅仅是因为酗酒
wasn’t just down to alcohol.
和西方不同 俄罗斯社会从来没有真正接受
Unlike the West, Russian society never really embraced feminist ideas that
能鼓励男人们更多地参与到家庭生活中的女权主义想法
would encourage men to become more involved in home life.
在苏维埃时期 女人们要工作
During the Soviet era, women were required to work,
但人们仍然希望她们担任家庭主妇
but they were also still expected to be homemakers.
乌塔拉塔博士: 苏联建立后 平等更像是一句口号而已
DR. ULTRATA: With establishment of the Soviet Union, equality felt like more of a slogan
因为没有什么行动
because there wasn’t a movement to
让男人们真正参与到家庭生活中 去照顾孩子 干家务
really involve men in domesticity, childcare, housework.
女人们实际上是背着双重负担
Women really had this double burden.
在现代俄罗斯 没有规定要求女人必须工作
NARRATOR: In modern day Russia, there areno rules requiring women to work.
但在俄罗斯总统普京的保守统治下
But under Russian President Putin’sconservative government,
能帮助职业女性的福利不如以前那么多了
benefits that help working womenare not as plentiful as before.
据乌塔拉塔说 很多女性感到她们的人生选择很有限
And according to Utrada, many womenfeel like their life choices are limited.
乌塔拉塔博士:在为这本书做调查时 我想我发现了其中一个重要话题
DR. ULTRATA: I think one of the main themesI found in researching this book is that
就是一种切实的失望 既包括对俄罗斯的男人
there is a real disappointment in both Russian men
也包括对于政府为她们做点什么的念头
and also the idea of governmentdoing anything for them,
比如像以前提供的那些福利
like it used to provide these benefits,
免费课外辅导 产假等
and free after-school programs, and maternity leave,
她们再也不能依靠那些了
They can’t rely on that anymore.
事实上 几乎每个女人都会说 我可以只靠我自己
Literally, almost every womansaid I can rely on myself alone.
她们可以接受各种各样的事情
There were a range of things that they’re open to.
她们可以在闺蜜或其她女人那里得到帮助
They would get support from their girlfriends and other women
从而得以专注于“靠自己”
that would help them keep this focus on relying on themselves.
旁白:依靠自己
NARRATOR: The idea of self-reliance,
在婚姻里做一个具有凝聚力的人
of being the person within the marriagewho is holding everything together,
是艾丽西娅的思想体系不断重复的理念
is one that is echoed in Alicia’s ideology.
我认为女人就应该做女人的家务
在你丈夫回家时 把一切布置完美才是重要的
你要打扮得漂漂亮亮 给他做饭 喂他吃
还要照看你的孩子 恕我直言 要做这么多事情 哪还有时间去工作呢?
旁白:当然不是每个俄罗斯女人都像艾丽西娅那样想
NARRATOR: Of course, not every womanin Russia feels the same way as Alicia.
2012年 主张女权的摇滚乐队“造反猫咪”在教堂里面举办了一场即兴音乐会
In 2012, the feminist rock band Pussy Riotstaged an impromptu concert inside a church
演唱的歌词是鼓动男人女人都成为女权主义者
singing lyrics that incited men and women to become feminists.
他们被逮捕了 但人们认为他们的抗议是
They were arrested,but it’s thought that their protest was one that
代表了一种在俄罗斯年轻女性中日益增长的想法
represented a growing feelingamong young Russian women
即她们被当作二等公民来对待
that they were being treated as second-class citizens.
但俄罗斯的性别角色不平等现象也许还会继续扩散
But inequality surrounding gender role expectationsin Russia may continue to permeate
因为不管普京的政策如何 他似乎对于一部分俄罗斯女性很有吸引力
because despite his policies, it seems there isan appeal in Putin to some Russian women
由于他表现得可靠又阳刚 相比前任领导人也更冷静
because he appears reliable, masculine, and more sober than previous leaders.
也许在某些人看来会觉得奇怪
And though it may seem strange to some,
有很多女人像艾丽西娅那样不相信女权主义
there are a lot of women like Alicia who just don’t believe in feminism.
西方不一样 女人们接受的是另一种教育方式
她们被教导要工作 要赚钱 要成功
可能这就是为什么她们并没有特别需要找一个丈夫
但值得注意的是 在工作赚钱的时候
女性会失去她的女人味 不再是100%令人满意了
这是事实
旁白:尽管艾丽西娅还在教数十名年轻女性成为完美的妻子
NARRATOR: And while Alicia continues to school dozens of young women to be the perfect wife,
但她自己却保持未婚
she herself remains unwed,
打造着一间看起来蒸蒸日上的企业
building what seems to be a thriving business.
在下一期的“每日探寻”
In this next episode over on “Seeker Daily,”
了解更多关于俄罗斯女性的生活现状
learn more about what life is like in Russia for women.
说话者1:尽管法律允许俄罗斯的妇女休产假
SPEAKER 1: And although women in Russiaare legally allowed maternity leave,
但有些妇女却被迫签订协议
some women are forced to sign contracts
实际上是放弃了她们在怀孕时工作的权利
which effectively waive their rights to work in case they get pregnant.
这是无视俄罗斯宪法第十九条
This is in spite of the fact thatArticle 19 of the Russian Constitution
对男女权利平等的保障
guarantees equal rights for men and women.
旁白:谢谢观看
NARRATOR: Thanks for watching and
记得订阅“探寻者故事” 每周观看最新视频哦
be sure to subscribe to Seeker Stories for new videos every week.

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视频概述

俄罗斯的一所妇女学校专门打造完美的家庭主妇,折射出俄罗斯的婚姻状况及男女关系,西方的女权主义思想在俄罗斯是否有市场呢?让我们一起探个究竟吧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Jane

审核员

瞌睡虫儿

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G-rhH1Xg67I

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