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日本的社会规则

The Rules that Rule Japan

一些人认为日本是陌生和不同的
Some people think Japan is a strange and different land,
他们也觉得自己不能理解
that they’ll never understand.
为什么日本人的行为习惯是这样的
Why do the Japanese do what they do? Well,
其实也没那么难理解日本和日本人
Japan and its people are not so hard to comprehend,
一旦你意识到 你就会发现这一切都源于规则
once you realize that it’s all about the rules.
只要你了解了规则 你就能过得轻松舒适
Once you know them, your time here will be easy peasy, Japaneasy.
现在我要打破自己的一条规则
And I’m going to break a rule of my own,
规则是“每一个镜头都是至关重要的 因为我们的故事需要它们”
which is that every shot should be there because it helps tell the story.
这些镜头嘛…
These shots…
我拍了好多美丽
I just had a bunch
的夜景镜头 我也不想它们被浪费掉
of sweet night time shots and I didn’t want them to go to waste.
所以嘛…
Anyways…
带领你寻找制约日本
It’d be my pleasure if you join me
的规则是我的荣幸
in discovering the rules that rule Japan.
不要误会
Don’t get me wrong,
有很多的规则 不管是白纸黑字还是潜规则
there are a lot of rules, both written and unwritten.
先别感到焦虑 这是我做这个视频的理由
But don’t fret, that’s why I made this video.
为了让你安心
And to ease you in,
我们先从简单的规则开始
let’s start with a very simple one:
走在街道的哪一边
what side of the street to walk on.
没有比这个更简单的了 就和开车一样
And it couldn’t be easier, it’s just like driving.
靠左行驶就对了
Drive on the left, pass on the right.
世界上35%的地区
To the 35 % of the world,
尤其是那些来自前大英帝国的地区
especially those hailing from the former British empire,
完全没问题
this will make complete sense.
不过另外的65%嘛
To the other 65%, well,
想想你们是平时
focus on what you think is
是怎么做的
the right way to do it,
然后反着做就是了
and do the complete opposite.
所以在步行的时候 左侧是对的 而右侧
So when walking, left is right, and right is wrong. Tsk…
是错误的这听上去有点怪怪的
that’s a bit confusing.
左侧是好的
Left is good, right is bad? Ahhh…
右侧是坏的啊…反正…如果迎面走来的是大妈的话
just… if you’re playing chicken with some oba-san,
向左转大概是可以避免直接撞击的
veer left and you should avoid a direct confrontation.
这个规则也同样适用于其他区域
And this basic rules flows tonon-street situations as well.
比如乘坐自动扶梯时
Like take escalators.
站在左边不会错
Sticking left will always work.
除非你在大阪(大阪手扶梯站左 其原因可能为大阪1970年举办世界博览会时 为顺应来自习惯右侧
Except if you’re in Osaka,
行走的各国人潮而改 ) 因为他们是反着来的
because they do it the other way just to be different.
我们先把他们排除在外在东京
We’ll leave them out of it.
不对
In Tokyo, which, come on people,
在日本 人们是左侧通行
is Japan, people stick to the left.
看到了吧
See. Well,
好吧这是特殊情况
this is a special situation,
可能是由于建筑结构
where they probably had building constraints
他们不得不把两边交换了 所以在这种情况下
where they had to switch sides,so in this case,
靠左是错误的而靠右是正确的
left is wrong and right is right.
不过和开车一样
But just the same as driving, stick to the left,
左立右行
pass on the right.
也不是所有的地铁站都有手扶电梯
There are not always escalators in train stations,
如果你不得不走楼梯 也是一样的规则
so if you have to use the stairs, it’s the same thing.
靠左走
Move on over to the left side.
很明显这个车站把标签贴反了
Clearly this station put their labelson the wrong sides,
对于通常遵守规则的日本公民来说 这是相当令人困惑的
and it’s quite confusing for the normally very rule abiding Japanese citizens.
为了保证不出错
I played it safe and walked up the middle.
我走在中间这是唯一犯错的机会 两边都是没错的
It’s the only way to be wrong,whichever way was right.
除非在这种情况下 走中间才是正确的
Except in this situation, where staying in the middle was the correct move.
如果是混乱的人群中的话
And when it comes to scrambles, well,
呃他们开心就好
it’s everyone for themselves.
我觉得关键在于 要自信地走出去
I think the key is to move with confidence.
关于你行动的规则在神社也有讲究
Rules about how and where you movecontinues at Shinto shrines,
你常常能看到这样的“鸟居”
where you’ll always find a Torii gate.
这是圣地和俗世的边界
This is the boundary between holy groundand the secular world.
当你走过这个门
When you pass through the gate,
就等同于你迈入了神的领域
you are stepping into the domain of the deity.
在进入前鞠个躬是适当的礼节还有
Proper etiquette is to bow once before entering. Also,
正中央是神走的
the middle is where the deity walks,
所以请靠边走
so stick to the sides.
如果你在鸟居前走来走去会怎么样呢
What happens if you walk around the gate?
我也不确定
It’s uncertain…
大概是某个漏洞了
it’s got to be some type of loophole though.
我还发现一些事情
Something I also found out,
如果你在明治神宫
is that if you’re at Meiji Jingu
做一些必要的照片或者视频拍摄
and doing your requisite photo or video taking,
不要用“三脚” 字面意义上就是三只脚
don’t use sankyaku,which literally means three legs,
不过这里的意思就是三脚架
but in this cases means tripod.
不管怎么说
But by all means, photograph away.
不要拍照这些精致的水槽是怎么回事
What about these elaborate water troughs?
“手水や”是一个让你做“禊”的地方
The temizuya, is there so that youcan perform misogi,
能让你的身体和你的心灵得到净化
which purifies your body and mind.
虽然起初是要在大海边或者
While originally this was done in the nude
河边裸体完成的
at places like an ocean or river,
不过现在洗洗手和嘴也就够了
now it’s enough to only wash your hands and mouth.
人们不遵循以前的传统了
People just don’t follow traditionslike they used to.
是这样做的 清洗你的左手
But this is what you do.Clean your left hand,
然后是你的右手 之后用左手清洗你的嘴
then your right hand,then your mouth using your left hand.
让水冲洗勺柄 总共是一勺水
Let the water wash the ladle,all in one scoop!
我不得不说 真是干净利落
I gotta say, clean execution all-around.
如何在神社供奉
How about making an offering at the shrine?
首先你要投入香钱来表示对神的供奉
First you throw in your saisen coin as an offering to the deity.
然后拉响钟来表示欢迎
Then ring the bell as a greeting.
鞠躬两次
Bow twice,
拍两次手 然后不要分开 最后鞠一躬来许愿
clap your hands twice and keep them together, then bow once to pray.
如果来到的是佛寺
When it comes to Buddhist temples, well,
那就别管上面这些规则了
the rules go out the window.
没有像神社这么严格的规则
It’s not as strict as a Shinto shrine.
除了一件事
Except clapping, don’t clap.
别拍手我不知道为什么
I don’t know why, just don’t do it.
反正不要你怎么知道自己
And how do you know if you’re
是在神社还是佛寺呢
at a Shinto shrine or a Buddhist temple?
神社通常都有“鸟居”而佛寺没有
Shrines always have torii gates,while temples don’t,
除了那些有“鸟居”的佛寺
except when there’s the temples that do.
比如浅草寺佛寺就有浅草神社建在内
Like the Senso-ji Buddhist temple grounds that has this Shinto shrine within it.
那么这个不要拍手的准则在这里管用吗
So how would the clap rule apply in this situation?
如果在神社
If you’re at a shrine clapping is good.
拍手没问题如果在佛寺 拍手就不对了
If you’re at a temple, clapping is bad.
如果有神社在佛寺内的话…那么拍手是…
If you’re at a shrine on temple grounds, clapping is…
我们都认为这家伙
What we can all agree on though,
挺可爱的
is that this guy is very cute.
在佛寺你可以做的是 用这些香来净化自己
What you can do at a Buddhist temple is wash yourself with incense smoke.
甚至你的宠物也可以让身体和心灵得到净化
Even your pet can have theirbody and spirit purified.
既然让烟缭绕你的身体是不错的
If smoke flowing over your body is a good thing,
那么吸入烟肯定是件好事
then surely smoke being inhaledmust be a great thing.
我敢肯定 这就是日本人为什么要吸烟的原因
I’m certain that’s why the Japanesereally took to tobacco
从1543年葡萄牙水手带来它开始
when Portuguese sailors introduced it in 1543.
不同于大多数发达国家
Because unlike most other developed countries,
在日本室内吸烟仍然是一件很普通的事情
smoking indoors in Japan is still a common thing.
你在东京到处都能找到那样烟雾缭绕的佛寺
You can also find outdoor temples to smokingall throughout Tokyo.
考虑到并不是每个人都有相同的宗教信仰
Conscious of the fact that not everyoneshares the same religion,
有标志提醒你在走路的时候就不要做“公开礼拜”啦
there are signs to not openly practice when just walking out and about though.
总结一下 边走路边抽烟是不对的
To summarize, smoking while walking is bad,
如果你不得不要这样做 就在那些有标志的“寺庙”里吧
but if you to have to, do it at a designated temple.
如果在室内的话 就要遵循大家的信仰了
If you’re indoors,then follow the proprietor’s religion.
我又要说回到步行的规则上来了
You know, I’d like to circle back around to the walking rules.
我发现汽车的规则
I realized that they’re not as easy
没那么简单
as the rules for automobiles,
因为对于人来说 一套规则是复杂的
because one’s a set of rules for people,who are complicated,
而对于机器来说就不是了
and the other is a rule for machines,which aren’t.
自行车是机械 因此它们的规则会比较简单
Bicycles are machines, so surely the rules for them will also be simple.
马路是为交通工具准备的 所以在那里骑车
Roads are for vehicles, so bikes go there. See,
看到了吗 标志就是这么说的
the markings say so!
人行道就不是了 所以是行人在上面行走
Sidewalks are not, so pedestrians go there.
这个人遵循着交通规则呢
And this guys is following the rules, good guy!
真棒我现在发现我逻辑上的错误了
I have now realized the error in my logic.
车不是人力交通工具
Cars are not human powered vehicles,
所以它们必须在马路上行驶
so they have to go on the road,
但是自行车是人力的
but bikes are human powered,
所以它们可以骑到人行道上实际上
so they can go on the sidewalk or the road!
一些人行道上还有特殊的标志
In fact, some sidewalks havespecial markings on them
划分了自行车行驶区域和行人的步行区域
to show where bikes go and where pedestrians go.
打个比方 自行车走右
For example, bikes are on the right,humans on the left.
人走左那个人也用的是某种机械呢
I mean that guy had a kind of machine,
所以他也可以走自行车道
so he’s allowed in the bike lane.
但是这个女士嘛…哇哦
This lady though… woh,
她真是明目张胆地在打破规则呢
she’s clearly and brazenlybreaking the rules.
还有这些人
As are these people.
当你在人行横道上时
When you’re at a crosswalk,
也有行人和自行车的分明界限
there are also clear divisions for pedestrians and cyclists.
也不是所有人都在意的很明显
Not that anyone cares. Obviously,
画这条斑马线的人早就发现了
these road painters have figured out
有一个专门
that there’s no point
的自行车道并没有意义
in having a dedicated bicycle lane and drew over it.
遵守自行车骑行规则并不是日本
While following rules around bicycle riding is not a strong suit
人的强项
of the Japanese people,
但是他们喜欢遵守停车规则
they do like to follow parking rules.
看到了吗
See.
禁止停车标志 没有自行车停在这
No parking sign, no bikes parked.
垃圾…我不知道是怎么回事…
The garbage… I don’t know about that.
另一个标志
Another sign, yet again, no bikes.
没有车耶除了这里
Except for over here.
还有这里
And here.
还有这呢 好吧 基本到处都是这样
And here. Fine, basically everywhere.
我得赶紧去加入自行车拖车行业了
I have to get myself into the bike towing business.
看来生意会不错
Clearly lots to be had.
这就到了卑微的交通锥发挥作用的时候了
And that’s where the humble traffic conecomes into play.
日本人喜欢用这种交通锥
Japanese love their cones. See,
看到了吗 这个骑车的人知道
this cyclist clearly knows
不管他怎么打破规则
that no matter what rules he breaks,
你也不应该直接冲过交通锥
there’s no crossing the cone barrierwhen you’re not supposed to.
为了利用日本人对锥体的尊重
To take advantage of the Japanese person’sdeference to the cone,
你还能看见上面贴了标志
you’ll even see signs attached to them.
这些交通锥也不仅仅用于管理自行车
But cones aren’t only used to manage bikes.
天呐
Oh no!
它们可以到处执行规则
They’re there to enforce rules everywhere.
这里它们在提示你要小心
They’re there as a message of caution.
它们也用于告诉人们不要站在哪里
They’re used to tell people not to stand somewhere.
甚至可以把使用自动售货机的人和行人隔离开对了
They can demark the lines between vending machine users and non-vending machine users.
你也总能看到它们
And yeah, you also see them used in construction,
在施工中的使用
which there’s always a lot of.
在晚上的时候 它们甚至还能亮起来
At night they can even light up!
太漂亮了
So pretty.
所以交通锥是日本很明显的规则了
So cones are clearly what rules it all in Japan.
这个嘛…
I mean…
这些交通锥孤零零地立
these cones are in the middle of the park
在公园的两树之间
between two trees and nothing else,
但你可以打赌
but you can bet your bottom dollar
我没去那附近
that I didn’t go near there,
我也从来没有看到日本人会离得很近
nor did I see any Japanese people comewithin spitting distance.
还有个很简单的规则
Here’s another easy rule to follow.
如果你看到了排队队伍
If you see a line, get in it.
就排进去吧尤其是在有吃的地方
Especially if it appears nearsomewhere that has food.
因为这肯定会很好吃
Because it has to be good, right?
对吧除了我之外 我自己的规矩是离
Except for me, my rule is to avoid food lines
这些队伍远远的
with a ten foot pole…
除非孩子们要排队
except when my kids don’t.
不过在等列车时排好队是不错的
But standing in line is a good idea when waiting for a train.
让乘客先下后上总是如此高效
It all works nicely when you let passengers get off before you get on.
有关于在列车上使用手机的区域规定
There are rules about using cell phones on trains,
不要在这些区域使用
don’t use them in this area.
不过列车上的潜规则是
But the unwritten rule of the train,
如果你在非限制区域
is that if you’re in any other area,
你应该用手机来避免自己看其他乘客
you should use one and avoid looking at all the other humans. Interestingly,
有趣的是
a part
日本的某一些方面并没有太多规矩
of Japan that doesn’t have a lot of rules
就是关于建筑分区法
is the zoning laws for buildings.
这就导致了高楼大厦和小屋子
This can result in getting huge buildings
在一块的情况
next to small little ones,
就像这个小佛寺
like this Buddhist temple.
或者是被大型建筑工地包围的这里
Or this huge construction sitesurrounding this one.
作为比较 这里有个神社
And for good measure, here’s a Shinto shrine,
就在三层楼的建筑前 边上则是商业办公楼
in front of a 3-storey house, next to a commercial office building.
默认情况下 很多区域都允许混用
By default, many zones allow mixed use,
因此不管是神社 小店铺
so whether it’s a shrine, small home based business, school,
学校办公楼
office building, manufacturer,
工厂或者高楼大厦 它们都可以开心地并存
or high-rise tower,then can all happily co-exist.
因为法律是以国家为基础的 所以没有太多的邻避主义
Because laws are nationally based,there’s not a lot of nimbyism,
就是“远离我的后院”
not in my backyard, that can go on.
我们继续吧你也几乎可以在任意大小的土地上建房
You can also build virtually on any size lot,
所以就可以看见这样高瘦的建筑
so you’ll end up with tall,skinny buildings like this.
还有一个可爱的地方
And a lovely aspect of this,
就是你会发现到处都是小巷子
is that you’ll find little alleyways all over the place.
一个城市探险家的梦想
An urban explorer’s dream.
而且由于没有
And since there are not really
外观上的设计标准
any cosmetic design standards to adhere to,
你常常能看到像这样富有创造力的建筑
you can get some quite creativebuildings like these.
因为建筑物之间几乎没有空间
Because there is little space between buildings,
而且许多人住在一起
and many people live on top of each other,
追求一些比较吵的爱好就变得挺难了幸好
it’s often difficult to pursue noisy hobbies. Thankfully,
你还可以在公园做想做的事好吧
you can do what you like in parks. Well,
你还是要遵循一些规矩
you DO have to follow some rules.
不要燃放烟花 清理你宠物的排泄物
No fireworks, clean up after your dog,
不要饲喂鸽子 因为它们会把你洗完
no feeding pigeons, because they’ll pooh all
的衣服拉的一团糟 你也不应该刺激它们
over your laundry and you shouldn’t encourage them.
不过如果它们自食其力
But if they feed themselves, that’s alright.
那就没问题把你自己的垃圾带走是不错的
Take home your own rubbish is a good one.
幸好大部分人都遵循这个规则禁止狗
Luckily this one’s followedthe majority of the time.
又一个禁止狗 就是为了清洁什么
No dogs.No dogs again, just to make it clear. What,
不允许商业照相
no commercial photo shoots!
拍油管也算吗好吧
Does YouTubing count?
我好像刚刚又打破了一个规则不过
Uh oh… I may have just broke another rule.
公园真是个放松的好地方
But really, parks serve as a release valve.
给了那些被拘束在狭小屋子里
It’s a chance for those pent up
的人们追求自己爱好的机会
in small residences to pursue their hobbies.
虽然一些公园有很多限制 但你也可以找比如河岸公园
While some parks do have restrictions,you can find riverbanks,
或者像代代木公园这样的大公园 还是比较宽容的
or big parks like Yoyogi,which are more permissive….
仅限正确的事情
for the right things.
不准踢球 天呐
No soccer! Come on! Seriously!
认真的吗代代木公园那么大
Yoyogi is a huge place, what’s up with that!
怎么就不能不过你还可以做很多其他的事情
But you can do lots of stuff, like play your guitar.
比如弹吉他你可以练舞
You can practice your dancing.
你也可以做即兴表演
You can have a go at acting.
如果你想的话 你也可以像汤姆·克鲁斯一样表演
If you want, you can even act like Tom Cruise.
我最喜欢的规则是这条包罗万象的
My favourite rule is the catch-all one,
“确保你不会打扰到其他人”
make sure you don’t do anything to disturb others,
这真是日本的黄金法则
which is really the golden rule of Japan.
虽然一些公园不允许明火幸好
While some parks don’t allow for open fires, thankfully,
在小巷道里安全用火是允许的
controlled fires are allowedin little alleyways like this.
就像分区法 食品安全法比起现在美国
Like zoning laws, food safety laws are less onerous
和加拿大的标准也要简单
than those found in the U.S. and Canada.
允许只有几个
What this allows for is small little businesses
座位
that only have a few seats
并且专于一种食物的小店
and specialize in a single type of food.
日本手工艺者的法则则是匠心
One rule shokunin, Japanese artisans have,
就是你总是追求将事物做到完美
is that you’re always trying to get things perfect,
虽然他们明白不可能达到完美
although they know it cannot be achieved.
另一个法则就是当食物摆盘好看时
Another rule is that food tastes betterwhen presented nicely.
那就更好吃我对此没有任何非议
Can’t argue with that.
为了把这些好吃食物的卡路里燃烧掉
And to burn off those tasty food calories,
跑步是日本非常流行的运动
running is an immensely popular sport in Japan.
我们现在在东京的古皇宫
We’re at the Imperial Palace
很明显规矩就是逆时针跑步
in Tokyo and apparently the rule is to run counterclockwise.
不过我也发现了不少不遵守规矩的人
But I have plenty of evidence of rule breakers.
关于不要露出腿
There must also be an unwritten rule
肯定也有一些潜规则
about not showing your legs because… well,
你自己看看吧
just look for yourself.
所以很明显这里的一些人
So it seems clear these people
有些faux pas(失礼)
here are committing some type of faux pas,
就是法语里过失的意思
which is French for misstep,
因为他们没有全力以赴
because they’re just not putting their best foot forward.
我确实在一些规则和规则
I do poke lots of fun at some
破坏者中开了很多玩笑
of the rules and rule breakers, but really,
但说真的这些规则是我喜爱日本生活的一个方面
the rules are one of the aspects of Japanese life I enjoy the most.
这让国家变得便利 整洁并且安全
It makes for a convenient, clean, and safe country.
当然
But then of course,
作为一个外国人
it’s easy for me to say this, because as a gaijin,
我发现如果外国人
I also fall under the rule
没能遵守规矩
that if a gaijin does it wrong,
这是没问题的 因为外国人不知道嘛然而
it’s okay, because the gaijin doesn’t know. However,
随着我不经意间打破规矩的次数增多
as much as I unintentionally fail at following the rules,
我在日本遇到的最糟糕
the worst rule violators I encountered
的违规者
in all my time in Japan
是那些晚上在窗户前使用闪光灯摄影的人
are the people using flash photography in front of windows at night.
感谢你们把我的镜头给毁了
Thanks for ruining my shot!
真是些坏人呢有时
The gall of these people.
日本人可以很微妙地表达他们的情感
Sometimes Japanese can be subtlewith how they express their feelings.
在字里行间经常有很多的内容
There can often be a lot of reading between the lines
所以表达集体思想
So expressing one’s collective thoughts
往往留给艺术家
are often left up to the artists,
在这种情况下 就有了涂鸦艺术家
in this case graffiti artists.
当你不遵守规则时会发生什么
What happens when you fail to follow the rules?
最后一个
Last lesson, I apologize.
我道歉这听起来可能是编造的 但我发誓这是事实
This one may sound made up, but I swear it’s the truth.
让我们看看这个镜头
Study this scene for a moment.
你说的出哪些人是在正确的时间过斑马线的吗
Can you tell which people arecrossing at the right time?
这和红绿灯还有关系吗在日本
Did it matter when the traffic light said it was safe to cross?
还有另一个最终法则
In Japan, one of the ultimate rules,
就是如果别人都这么做了
is if everyone is doing it,
你这么做也没问题
you’re probably just fine.

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