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在危机中前行的政治

The risky politics of progress | Jonathan Tepperman

关于当今世界的传统观点认为:
The conventional wisdom about our world today
这是一个急剧衰退的时代
is that this is a time of terrible decline.
而这也并不令人奇怪,考虑到我们身边无处不在的坏消息
And that’s not surprising, given the bad news all around us,
从伊斯兰国到不平等
from ISIS to inequality,
政治机能失调、气候变化
political dysfunction, climate change,
英国脱欧等等等等
Brexit, and on and on.
但我是这么想的,而我的想法可能听起来有些奇怪
But here’s the thing, and this may sound a little weird.
我对那些沮丧的观点并不买帐
I actually don’t buy this gloomy narrative,
并且我希望你们也一样
and I don’t think you should either.
并不是说我没有看到那些问题
Look, it’s not that I don’t see the problems.
我也跟你们看一样的头条
I read the same headlines that you do.
我所质疑的是很多人从这些头条中得出的结论
What I dispute is the conclusion that so many people draw from them,
即我们把一切都搞砸了
namely that we’re all screwed
因为这些问题都无解
because the problems are unsolvable
而我们的政府又没有用
and our governments are useless.
那么我为什么要说些呢?
Now, why do I say this?
并不是说我生性特别的乐观
It’s not like I’m particularly optimistic by nature.
而是媒体的那种不断地执拗于问题
But something about the media’s constant doom-mongering
而不是解决之道的悲观论调
with its fixation on problems and not on answers
一直困扰着我
has always really bugged me.
因此几年前我决定
So a few years ago I decided,
嗯,既然我是一名记者
well, I’m a journalist,
那么我应该看看是否可以通过
I should see if I can do any better
周游世界并问问各地的人们
by going around the world and actually asking folks
他们是否并且是如何解决他们所面临的大的经济
if and how they’ve tackled
和政治挑战的来做得更好
their big economic and political challenges.
而我的发现震惊了我
And what I found astonished me.
原来已经有了很多显著的进步的迹象
It turns out that there are remarkable signs of progress out there,
并且经常是在那些出人意料的地方
often in the most unexpected places,
而这也使我确信我们面临的那些重大全球挑战
and they’ve convinced me that our great global challenges
也许并不是那么的完全无解
may not be so unsolvable after all.
这里不仅仅有理论上的修复
Not only are there theoretical fixes;
这些修复已经被投入试验
those fixes have been tried.
并且是起作用的
They’ve worked.
这也为我们其他人提供了希望
And they offer hope for the rest of us.
接下来我将会展示我所要表达的意思
I’m going to show you what I mean
通过讲述这三个我访问过的国家——
by telling you about how three of the countries I visited —
加拿大、印度尼西亚和墨西哥——
Canada, Indonesia and Mexico —
是如何战胜那些理应无法解决的问题的
overcame three supposedly impossible problems.
他们的故事很重要,因为中间包含着可以为我们所用的工具
Their stories matter because they contain tools the rest of us can use,
不仅仅是对于那些特定的问题
and not just for those particular problems,
而且对于多数的其它问题也一样
but for many others, too.
如今当大多数人想到我的祖国加拿大
When most people think about my homeland, Canada, today,
如果他们真的想到加拿大的话
if they think about Canada at all,
他们会想到寒冷、会想到无聊、会想到礼貌
they think cold, they think boring, they think polite.
他们还会想到我们用滑稽的口音不停的说“不好意思”
They think we say “sorry” too much in our funny accents.
而这些也都是真的
And that’s all true.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
不好意思
Sorry.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
但是加拿大也是很重要的
But Canada’s also important
因为它战胜了一个目前
because of its triumph over a problem
正在撕裂其它许多国家的问题:
currently tearing many other countries apart:
移民
immigration.
想想看,当今的加拿大是世界上最热情好客的国家之一
Consider, Canada today is among the world’s most welcoming nations,
即使跟其它的移民友好型国家相比也毫不逊色
even compared to other immigration-friendly countries.
它的人均移民率比法国要高四倍
Its per capita immigration rate is four times higher than France’s,
而它的外国出生居民的比例
and its percentage of foreign-born residents
是瑞典的两倍
is double that of Sweden.
同时,加拿大去年接收的
Meanwhile, Canada admitted
叙利亚难民
10 times more Syrian refugees in the last year
比美国要多十倍
than did the United States.
(掌声)
(Applause)
并且现在加拿大正在接收更多的难民
And now Canada is taking even more.
如果你问加拿大人
And yet, if you ask Canadians
他们的国家最让他们感到骄傲的是什么
what makes them proudest of their country,
他们会将“多元文化”这个
they rank “multiculturalism,”
在很多地方都带有贬义的词语
a dirty word in most places,
排在第二位
second,
领先于曲棍球
ahead of hockey.
曲棍球
Hockey.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
换句话说,当其它国家都在
In other words, at a time when other countries
疯狂地建造新的障碍阻挡外国人时
are now frantically building new barriers to keep foreigners out,
加拿大人却想要引进更多的外国人
Canadians want even more of them in.
然而真正有趣的是
Now, here’s the really interesting part.
加拿大也不是一开始就这样的
Canada wasn’t always like this.
直到1960年代中期,加拿大都奉行着一个明显带有种族歧视的移民政策
Until the mid-1960s, Canada followed an explicitly racist immigration policy.
他们叫称之为“白色加拿大”
They called it “White Canada,”
而如你所知,他们并不是在谈论冰雪
and as you can see, they were not just talking about the snow.
那么彼时的加拿大是如何变成今日的加拿大的呢?
So how did that Canada become today’s Canada?
嗯,不管我住在安大略省的妈妈会如何跟你说
Well, despite what my mom in Ontario will tell you,
但我想说的是这个答案跟美德没有半点关系
the answer had nothing to do with virtue.
加拿大人并不是天生的就比其他人心要好
Canadians are not inherently better than anyone else.
真正的答案涉及到那个在1968年成为加拿大领导人的男人
The real explanation involves the man who became Canada’s leader in 1968,
皮埃尔·特鲁多,他也是加拿大现任总理的父亲
Pierre Trudeau, who is also the father of the current prime minister.
(掌声)
(Applause)
关于老特鲁多我们需要了解的是
The thing to know about that first Trudeau
他跟加拿大之前的领导都不一样
is that he was very different from Canada’s previous leaders.
在一个长期被说英语的精英统治的国家,他却是说法语的
He was a French speaker in a country long-dominated by its English elite.
他是一个知识分子
He was an intellectual.
他也是那种时髦的人
He was even kind of groovy.
我是说真的,他还练瑜伽
I mean, seriously, the guy did yoga.
他跟披头士们一起玩
He hung out with the Beatles.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
跟所有的潮人一样,他有时候也会愤怒
And like all hipsters, he could be infuriating at times.
然而他却开启了
But he nevertheless pulled off
一个在任何国家都没见过的激进的转变
one of the most progressive transformations any country has ever seen.
他的公式,我了解到,包含两个方面
His formula, I’ve learned, involved two parts.
首先,加拿大抛弃原有的基于种族的移民法规
First, Canada threw out its old race-based immigration rules,
代之以新的无肤色歧视的法规
and it replaced them with new color-blind ones
转而强调教育、经验和语言技能
that emphasized education, experience and language skills instead.
而这就极大的提高了
And what that did was greatly increase the odds
新移民对经济做出贡献的可能性
that newcomers would contribute to the economy.
另一方面,特鲁多创造出了世界上
Then part two, Trudeau created the world’s first policy
第一个官方的多元文化主义政策以促进融合
of official multiculturalism to promote integration
并且多样性是加拿大形象的关键部分
and the idea that diversity was the key to Canada’s identity.
从那以后到现在,渥太华一直在传递这个信息
Now, in the years that followed, Ottawa kept pushing this message,
与此同时,普通的加拿大人
but at the same time, ordinary Canadians
很快开始见到多元文化主义带来的经济上和
soon started to see the economic, the material benefits of multiculturalism
物质上的利益无处不在
all around them.
而这两方面的影响很快结合在一起
And these two influences soon combined
创造出了今天这个非常开明的加拿大
to create the passionately open-minded Canada of today.
现在我们转向另一个国家和一个更困难的问题
Let’s now turn to another country and an even tougher problem,
伊斯兰极端主义
Islamic extremism.
1998年,印度尼西亚人民走上街头
In 1998, the people of Indonesia took to the streets
推翻了长期的独裁者苏哈托
and overthrew their longtime dictator, Suharto.
那是一个令人激动的时刻
It was an amazing moment,
但也是一个可怕的时刻
but it was also a scary one.
拥有2.5亿人口的印尼
With 250 million people,
是地球上最大的以穆斯林为主的国家
Indonesia is the largest Muslim-majority country on Earth.
它还很热、很大并且难以管理
It’s also hot, huge and unruly,
由17000个岛屿组成
made up of 17,000 islands,
全国人民说着将近1000种不同的语言
where people speak close to a thousand languages.
苏哈托是一个独裁者
Now, Suharto had been a dictator,
并且是一个很令人厌恶的独裁者
and a nasty one.
但他也是一个很实在的暴君
But he’d also been a pretty effective tyrant,
他一直小心的不让宗教渗入到政治中来
and he’d always been careful to keep religion out of politics.
因此专家还担心如果没有他控制局面
So experts feared that without him keeping a lid on things,
这个国家有可能分崩离析
the country would explode,
或者宗教极端主义者可能掌管这个国家
or religious extremists would take over
并将印尼变成热带地区的伊朗
and turn Indonesia into a tropical version of Iran.
一开始事情似乎是朝着那个方向发展的
And that’s just what seemed to happen at first.
1999年,在这个国家举行的第一次自由选举中
In the country’s first free elections, in 1999,
伊斯兰政党得到了36%的选票
Islamist parties scored 36 percent of the vote,
这些岛屿开始战火不断
and the islands burned
骚乱和恐怖袭击导致数以千计的民众死亡
as riots and terror attacks killed thousands.
然而,从那以后,印尼却发生了出人意料的转变
Since then, however, Indonesia has taken a surprising turn.
从个人层面上来说普通民众变得更加虔诚了——
While ordinary folks have grown more pious on a personal level —
我最近一次访问见到的戴头巾的民众
I saw a lot more headscarves on a recent visit
要比十年前更多了——
than I would have a decade ago —
这个国家的政治却走向了一个相反的方向
the country’s politics have moved in the opposite direction.
印尼现在是一个相当民主的国家
Indonesia is now a pretty decent democracy.
而它的伊斯兰政党正在持续地失去支持
And yet, its Islamist parties have steadily lost support,
从2004年高达38%的支持率
from a high of about 38 percent in 2004
降至2014年的25%
down to 25 percent in 2014.
而恐怖主义现在也非常之少了
As for terrorism, it’s now extremely rare.
虽然最近还是有些印尼人加入伊斯兰国
And while a few Indonesians have recently joined ISIS,
但他们的数量是非常少的
their number is tiny,
按人均来计算
far fewer in per capita terms
比比利时要少得多
than the number of Belgians.
想想看还有哪个以穆斯林为主的国家
Try to think of one other Muslim-majority country
能够做到这些
that can say all those same things.
2014年,我到印尼去采访了现任总统
In 2014, I went to Indonesia to ask its current president,
一个说话温柔的专家型官员,叫做佐科·维多多
a soft-spoken technocrat named Joko Widodo,
“为什么在其它众多穆斯林国家走向衰退时印尼却能保持繁荣?”
“Why is Indonesia thriving when so many other Muslim states are dying?”
“嗯,我们意识到,”他告诉我
“Well, what we realized,” he told me,
“要想打击恐怖主义,我们首先需要消除不平等。”
“is that to deal with extremism, we needed to deal with inequality first.”
瞧,印尼的宗教政党像其它类似的政党一样
See, Indonesia’s religious parties, like similar parties elsewhere,
趋向于聚焦在减少贫困和腐败的问题上
had tended to focus on things like reducing poverty and cutting corruption.
佐科和他的前任们做的另一件事
So that’s what Joko and his predecessors did too,
就是降低伊斯兰主义的影响
thereby stealing the Islamists’ thunder.
他们还强力打击了恐怖主义
They also cracked down hard on terrorism,
但是印尼的民主人士从独裁统治的
but Indonesia’s democrats have learned a key lesson
黑暗岁月里也学到了一个很重要的教训
from the dark years of dictatorship,
即压制只会造就更多的恐怖主义
namely that repression only creates more extremism.
因此他们非常精密地发动了他们的战争
So they waged their war with extraordinary delicacy.
他们使用警察而不是军队
They used the police instead of the army.
他们只在有足够证据的情况下才拘留嫌犯
They only detained suspects if they had enough evidence.
他们实行公开审判
They held public trials.
他们甚至还派开明的阿訇去监狱
They even sent liberal imams into the jails
劝说圣战主义者,告诉他们恐怖活动是反伊斯兰的
to persuade the jihadists that terror is un-Islamic.
所有的这些获得了巨大的回报
And all of this paid off in spectacular fashion,
创造了一个20年前无法想象得到的国家
creating the kind of country that was unimaginable 20 years ago.
因此在这一点上,我的乐观应该,我希望
So at this point, my optimism should, I hope,
开始变得更加有意义了
be starting to make a bit more sense.
移民问题和伊斯兰恐怖主义都不是不可能解决的
Neither immigration nor Islamic extremism are impossible to deal with.
现在跟我来看看最后的这个例子
Join me now on one last trip,
这一次我们转向墨西哥
this time to Mexico.
在所有三个故事中,这一个可能是最令我惊讶的
Now, of our three stories, this one probably surprised me the most,
正如你们所知
since as you all know,
这个国家仍然在跟很多问题做斗争
the country is still struggling with so many problems.
然而,几年前墨西哥做了一件
And yet, a few years ago, Mexico did something
很多其它国家,从法国、印度到美国
that many other countries from France to India to the United States
现在仍然只能梦想的事情
can still only dream of.
那是它打破了困扰了好多年的政治僵局
It shattered the political paralysis that had gripped it for years.
要想理解的它是怎样做到的,我们需要倒回到2000年
To understand how, we need to rewind to the year 2000,
那时墨西哥终于成为了一个民主国家
when Mexico finally became a democracy.
墨西哥的政客们不是利用新获得的自由去推动改革
Rather than use their new freedoms to fight for reform,
而是利用它们去互相攻击
Mexico’s politicians used them to fight one another.
国会陷入僵持,而这个国家面临的问题——
Congress deadlocked, and the country’s problems —
毒品、贫困、犯罪、腐败——
drugs, poverty, crime, corruption —
都失去了控制
spun out of control.
到了2008年,情况已经变得非常糟糕了
Things got so bad that in 2008,
五角大楼警告说墨西哥有崩溃的风险
the Pentagon warned that Mexico risked collapse.
然后到了2012的年,这个叫做恩里克·培尼亚·涅托的家伙
Then in 2012, this guy named Enrique Peña Nieto
不知怎么的选上了总统
somehow got himself elected president.
这个培尼亚一开始就艰难地激发了人们的自信心
Now, this Peña hardly inspired much confidence at first.
当然,他很帅
Sure, he was handsome,
他来自墨西哥腐败的旧执政党,革命制度党
but he came from Mexico’s corrupt old ruling party, the PRI,
并且是一个臭名昭著的花花公子
and he was a notorious womanizer.
事实上,他看起来完全像是一个无足轻重的小人物
In fact, he seemed like such a pretty boy lightweight
在竞选集会上
that women called him “bombón,” sweetie,
妇女们叫他夹心巧克力,亲爱的
at campaign rallies.
而就是这个夹心巧克力很快就
And yet this same bombón soon surprised everyone
通过让这个国家三个互相争斗的政党
by hammering out a truce
达成休战协议而令人刮目相看
between the country’s three warring political parties.
接下来的18个月,他们一起通过了
And over the next 18 months, they together passed
一系列令人难以置信的全面的改革方案
an incredibly comprehensive set of reforms.
他们破除了墨西哥令人窒息的垄断
They busted open Mexico’s smothering monopolies.
他们放宽了对已经生锈的能源领域的限制
They liberalized its rusting energy sector.
他们重整了那些不合格的学校等等
They restructured its failing schools, and much more.
要想领会这些成就的份量
To appreciate the scale of this accomplishment,
那么试着去想像一下美国国会通过移民改革方案
try to imagine the US Congress passing immigration reform,
竞选经费改革以及银行改革方案
campaign finance reform and banking reform.
现在,再想像一下国会同时讨论并通过这三个方案
Now, try to imagine Congress doing it all at the same time.
这就是墨西哥所做到的
That’s what Mexico did.
不久前,我见到了培尼亚并问他是如何做到的
Not long ago, I met with Peña and asked how he managed it all.
这位总统用他那有名的微笑回应了我
The President flashed me his famous twinkly smile —
(笑声)
(Laughter)
并且跟我说简单地回答呢,是妥协
and told me that the short answer was “compromiso,” compromise.
当然,我追问了细节
Of course, I pushed him for details,
然后长一点的答案基本上就是
and the long answer that came out was essentially
妥协、妥协、更多的妥协
“compromise, compromise and more compromise.”
培尼亚知道他需要尽早建立起信任
See, Peña knew that he needed to build trust early,
所以当选几天后他就开始与反对派对话
so he started talking to the opposition just days after his election.
为了避免来自特殊利益集团的压力
To ward off pressure from special interests,
他们举行小型和秘密的会谈
he kept their meetings small and secret,
许多参会者后来告诉我这些会谈显得很亲密
and many of the participants later told me that it was this intimacy,
再加上大家共享了很多龙舌兰酒
plus a lot of shared tequila,
使得大家都建立起了信心
that helped build confidence.
事实上所有的决定都要达成一致意见
So did the fact that all decisions had to be unanimous,
培亚尼甚至同意让一些其它政党想要优先
and that Peña even agreed to pass some of the other party’s priorities
达成的议案先于自己的议案通过
before his own.
正如反对派议会圣地亚哥·克里尔所说
As Santiago Creel, an opposition senator, put it to me,
“我不是说我很特别或者其他作何人很特别,
“Look, I’m not saying that I’m special or that anyone is special,
而是这个团队很特别。”
but that group, that was special.”
证据呢?
The proof?
当培尼亚宣誓就职时,协议也签订了
When Peña was sworn in, the pact held,
而墨西哥也在这么多年来第一次朝前发展
and Mexico moved forward for the first time in years.
非常好
Bueno.
现在我们看过了这三个国家
So now we’ve seen how these three countries
是如何克服他们面临的三个巨大挑战的
overcame three of their great challenges.
很为他们感到高兴,是吗?
And that’s very nice for them, right?
那么这对我们来说又有什么好处呢?
But what good does it do the rest of us?
在研究这些故事以及其它成功的故事的过程中
Well, in the course of studying these and a bunch of other success stories,
比如说卢旺达如何在内战后重新团结起来
like the way Rwanda pulled itself back together after civil war
或者巴西是怎样减少不平等的
or Brazil has reduced inequality,
又或者韩国如何保持经济长期高速地增长
or South Korea has kept its economy growing faster and for longer
还有其它一些国家的故事
than any other country on Earth,
我注意到了一些共同点
I’ve noticed a few common threads.
在我讲述它们之前,我想先说明一下
Now, before describing them, I need to add a caveat.
我注意到,当然,每个国家都是独一无二的
I realize, of course, that all countries are unique.
所以你不能简单地把对某个国家有用的东西
So you can’t simply take what worked in one,
放到另一个国家然后期待它也能产生效果
port it to another and expect it to work there too.
没有哪个特定的方案是一直有效的
Nor do specific solutions work forever.
你得根据环境去调配它们
You’ve got to adapt them as circumstances change.
也就是说,只要剥开故事的表象看到本质
That said, by stripping these stories to their essence,
你就能从中提取一些解决问题的通用工具
you absolutely can distill a few common tools for problem-solving
并且可以使用在其它的国家
that will work in other countries
使用在会议当中
and in boardrooms
以及其它的方方面面
and in all sorts of other contexts, too.
首先,接受极端
Number one, embrace the extreme.
在所有我们刚刚看到的故事中
In all the stories we’ve just looked at,
拯救都发生在危机中的某一时刻
salvation came at a moment of existential peril.
这绝非巧合
And that was no coincidence.
就加拿大而言,当特鲁多就任时,面临两大潜在的危险
Take Canada: when Trudeau took office, he faced two looming dangers.
首先,尽管他这个地广人稀的国家
First, though his vast, underpopulated country
非常需要更多的劳动力
badly needed more bodies,
但它首选的白人劳动力来源地欧洲
its preferred source for white workers, Europe,
却随着自身从二战中恢复过来而停止了劳动力的出口
had just stopped exporting them as it finally recovered from World War II.
另一个问题是加拿大国内的法语群体
The other problem was that Canada’s long cold war
和英语群体之间的长期冷战
between its French and its English communities
也变成了热战
had just become a hot one.
魁北克威胁着要独立
Quebec was threatening to secede,
并且加拿大人在政治上互相伤害
and Canadians were actually killing other Canadians over politics.
国家总是面临危机,对吧?
Now, countries face crises all the time. Right?
这没什么特别的
That’s nothing special.
但是特鲁多的天才之处是意识到加拿大的危机
But Trudeau’s genius was to realize that Canada’s crisis
正好扫清了阻碍改革的所有障碍
had swept away all the hurdles that usually block reform.
加拿大需要开放,对此它别无选择
Canada had to open up. It had no choice.
并且它需要重新思考自己的国家形象
And it had to rethink its identity.
而这也是别无选择的
Again, it had no choice.
这就给了特鲁多一个千载难逢的机会
And that gave Trudeau a once-in-a-generation opportunity
去打破旧规则并书写新规则
to break the old rules and write new ones.
像所有其他的英雄一样,他聪明地抓住了机会
And like all our other heroes, he was smart enough to seize it.
第二,胡思乱想的力量
Number two, there’s power in promiscuous thinking.
另一个好的问题解决者的显著相似点
Another striking similarity among good problem-solvers
是他们都是实用主义者
is that they’re all pragmatists.
他们会窃取最好的答案,不管这答案来自哪里
They’ll steal the best answers from wherever they find them,
并且他们不会让诸如政党
and they don’t let details
意识形态或情感之类的细节来挡道
like party or ideology or sentimentality get in their way.
正如我之前提到的,印尼的民主主义者非常聪明地
As I mentioned earlier, Indonesia’s democrats were clever enough
窃取了很多伊斯兰主义的竞选承诺来为已所用
to steal many of the Islamists’ best campaign promises for themselves.
他们甚至邀请了一些激进派进入到执政联盟
They even invited some of the radicals into their governing coalition.
这一举动吓坏了很多世俗的印尼人
Now, that horrified a lot of secular Indonesians.
但是通过迫使这些激进派去真正的帮助治理国家
But by forcing the radicals to actually help govern,
迅速地暴露出他们根本不能胜任这些工作的事实
it quickly exposed the fact that they weren’t any good at the job,
并且他们与那些肮脏的妥协混淆不清
and it got them mixed up in all of the grubby compromises
而卑微是日常政治生活的一部分
and petty humiliations that are part of everyday politics.
这些使得他们的形象遭受重创,直到现在都没翻过身来
And that hurt their image so badly that they’ve never recovered.
第三
Number three,
有时候需要取悦所有的人
please all of the people some of the time.
我知道我刚刚提到过危机能够给领导人提供非凡的自由
I know I just mentioned how crises can grant leaders extraordinary freedoms.
那是事实,但是解决问题通常不仅仅需要勇敢
And that’s true, but problem-solving often requires more than just boldness.
当碰到你不愿意去做的事时
It takes showing restraint, too,
还要表现出克制
just when that’s the last thing you want to do.
以特鲁多为例:当他就任时
Take Trudeau: when he took office,
他可以轻易地把自己的核心支持者
he could easily have put his core constituency,
也就是加拿大的法语群体放在优先的位置
that is Canada’s French community, first.
他可以一直取悦这一部分人
He could have pleased some of the people all of the time.
而培尼亚也可以用他的权力去继续攻击反对派
And Peña could have used his power to keep attacking the opposition,
就像之前的墨西哥传统政坛一样
as was traditional in Mexico.
但是他选择了拥抱自己的敌人
Yet he chose to embrace his enemies instead,
同进迫使他所在的政党去妥协
while forcing his own party to compromise.
特鲁多促使大家都不再去想部落
And Trudeau pushed everyone to stop thinking in tribal terms
并且去考虑用多元文化主义,而不是语言和肤色
and to see multiculturalism, not language and not skin color,
去作为典型加拿大人的标志
as what made them quintessentially Canadian.
没有人得到了自己想要的一切
Nobody got everything they wanted,
但每一个人通过讨价还价都得到了满足
but everyone got just enough that the bargains held.
所以此时此刻你可能在想
So at this point you may be thinking,
“好吧,特普曼
“OK, Tepperman,
如果这些修复像你所坚持的那样真的存在
if the fixes really are out there like you keep insisting,
那么为什么没有更多的国家使用它们?”
then why aren’t more countries already using them?”
不是说它们需要什么特别的力量去实现
It’s not like they require special powers to pull off.
我是说,我们刚才所说的几位领导人没有一个是超级英雄
I mean, none of the leaders we’ve just looked at were superheroes.
他们个人并没有达成什么成就
They didn’t accomplish anything on their own,
他们都有一大堆的缺点
and they all had plenty of flaws.
就说印尼的第一位民选总统
Take Indonesia’s first democratic president,
阿卜杜勒拉赫曼·瓦希德
Abdurrahman Wahid.
这么一个魅力强大的人
This man was so powerfully uncharismatic
有一次竟然
that he once fell asleep
在自己的演讲中睡着了
in the middle of his own speech.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
这是真事
True story.
这个故事告诉我们真正的障碍不是能力
So what this tells us is that the real obstacle is not ability,
不是环境
and it’s not circumstances.
而是一些更简单的东西
It’s something much simpler.
要做大的改变就要承担大的风险
Making big changes involves taking big risks,
而承担大的风险是很可怕的
and taking big risks is scary.
克服那种恐惧需要勇气
Overcoming that fear requires guts,
而正如你所知
and as you all know,
勇敢的政治家少之又少
gutsy politicians are painfully rare.
但那并不意味着我们这些选民
But that doesn’t mean we voters
不能要求我们的政治领导人拿出勇气来
can’t demand courage from our political leaders.
我的意思是,那正是当初我们选他们的原因
I mean, that’s why we put them in office in the first place.
考虑到当今世界的现状,我们真的没有其它的选择
And given the state of the world today, there’s really no other option.
答案就在那
The answers are out there,
现在就靠我们
but now it’s up to us
去选出更多有足够勇气的
to elect more women and men
女人和男人去找到它们
brave enough to find them,
窃取它们
to steal them
并使它们为我所用
and to make them work.
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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