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印加帝国的兴衰 – 译学馆
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印加帝国的兴衰

The rise and fall of the Inca empire - Gordon McEwan

这曾是西半球最庞大的帝国
It was the Western Hemisphere’slargest empire ever,
拥有约1000万的国民
with a populationof nearly 10 million subjects.
在90多万平方公里的疆域上
Over an area of morethan 900,000 square kilometers,
它的人民建造了大量的行政中心和寺庙
its people built massiveadministrative centers, temples,
以及广阔的道路和灌溉系统
and extensive roadand canal systems.
这些都是在荒凉 极端的地理环境中完成的
They did so in an inhospitable,extreme terrain,
没有依靠车轮 马匹 铁器
all without the use of wheels, horses, iron,
甚至文字的帮助
or even written language.
然而自它于15世纪快速崛起的100年后
Yet within 100 years of its risein the fifteenth century,
印加帝国就不复存在了
the Inca Empire would be no more.
根据传说
According to legend,
印加统治者的祖先由
the ancestors of the Inca rulers were created
太阳神因蒂创造
by the sun god Inti,
他们诞生于山洞Tambo Toco
and they emergedfrom a cave called Tambo Toco.
Ayar·Manco 领导着四个兄弟和四个姐妹
Leading four brothersand four sisters was Ayar Manco,
他手握附有神谕金色权杖
who carried a golden staffwith instructions
寻找拥有肥沃土壤的
to find the place whereit would sink into the ground,
低洼地
showing fertile soil.
历经无数的冒险和广泛的寻找
After many adventuresand extensive searching,
Ayar·Manco 和他的同胞找到了Cuzco山谷
Ayar Manco and his siblingsreached the Cuzco Valley,
一片权杖能够插入土地的地方
where the staff pierced the ground.
在战胜当地残暴的土著后
After fighting off the fiercelocal native population,
他们建立了自己的王城
they founded their capital,
Ayar·Manco 更名为Manco·Capac 成为第一位Sapa·Inca
and Ayar Manco became Manco Capac, the first Sapa Inca,
即印加人的君主
or king of the Incas.
考古学的证据表明
Archaeological evidence suggests
他们是于公元1200 年前后定居于此
that the Incas first settledin this valley around 1200 CE.
他们的王国维持着小型规模 直到1438年
They remained a small kingdom until 1438,
他们的邻居Chanka部落差点占领了这个国家
when they were nearly overrunby the neighboring Chanka tribe.
当时的印加国王Viracocha
The Inca king at this time, Viracocha,
和他的指定继承人在恐慌中逃亡
and his designated heir fled in fear,
但他的儿子们中有一个留了下来
but one of his other sons remained and
成功地组织了城市的防御
successfully rallied the city ’ s defenses.
依靠他的军事才能 他成为了印加的第九位统治者
For his military skill, he becamethe ninth Inca ruler,
采用了名字Pachacuti 意为“灾难”
assuming the name of Pachacuti,or”Cataclysm.”
Pachacuti将印加的统治扩大到整个安地斯山脉
Pachacuti expanded Inca rulethroughout the Andes mountains,
通过广泛的改革 将这个王国变为帝国
transforming the kingdom intoan empire through extensive reforms.
帝国的疆域被重新划分为Tahuantinsuyu 即“四个地区”
The empire’s territory was reorganizedas Tahuantinsuyu, or”four quarters,”
分别由向国王负责的四位长官统治
with four divisions ruledby governors reporting to the king.
尽管印加没有文字
Although the Inca had no writing,
他们用叫“quipu”的复杂结绳体系
they used a complex systemof knotted strings called quipu
来记录数字或可能有的其它信息
to record numbersand perhaps other information.
十进制计数使官僚机构能向帝国公民
A decimal-based bureaucracyenabled systematic
征收系统有效的税收
and efficient taxationof the empire’s subjects.
作为回报 帝国提供了国防 公共设施
In return, the empire provided security,infrastructure, and sustenance,
修建仓库以储存应急的必需品 保障民生
with great storehouses containingnecessities to be used when needed.
浩大的梯田和灌溉工程被修建起来
Great terraces and irrigation workswere built
各种各样的作物被种植在不同的海拔
and various crops were grown inat different altitudes
并被运往全国各地
to be transported all over the empire.
正是在Pachacuti的统治期间
And it was during Pachacuti’s reign
著名的马丘比丘遗址被建立起来
that the famous estateof Machu Picchu was constructed.
Pachacuti的儿子Topa·Inca 继续了帝国的军事扩张
Pachacuti’s son Topa Inca continuedthe empire’s military expansion,
他最终在公元1471年成为了皇帝
and he eventually became rulerin 1471 CE.
到其统治末期
By the end of his reign,
帝国覆盖了南美洲西部的大部分地区
the empire covered much of western South America.
Topa的儿子Huayna·Capac 在1493年继位
Topa’s son Huayna Capacsucceeded him in 1493.
但新国王的远征加重了社会负担
But the new ruler’s distant militarycampaigns strained the social fabric.
1524年 Huayna突然得了热病
And in 1524, Huayna Capacwas stricken by fever.
一段时间前 西班牙征服者到达了加勒比海
Spanish conquistadors had arrivedin the Caribbean some time before,
带来了当地人无法免疫的传染病
bringing diseases to whichthe native peoples had no resistance.
成百上千万的人死于这场瘟疫
Millions died in the outbreak,
其中包括Huayna·Capac和他的指定继承人
including Huayna Capacand his designated heir.
空闲的王位点燃了内战
The vacant throne ignited a civil war
幸存的两个兄弟
between two of the surviving brothers,
Atahualpa和Huascar相互争斗
Atahualpa and Huascar,
极大地削弱了帝国
greatly weakening the empire.
1532年 印加的内战结束
In 1532, after finally winningthe Inca civil war,
胜利者Atahualpa和他的军队遭遇了欧洲侵略者
Atahualpa and his armyencountered the European invaders.
尽管有着极大的人数劣势Francisco·Pizarro和他的一小队人
Although greatly outnumbered, Francisco Pizarroand his small group of conquistadors
用印加人从未见过的枪和马
stunned the king’s much larger forcewith guns and horses,
击溃了国王强大的军队
neither of which they had seen before.
Atahualpa被俘虏并在一年后被杀死
Atahualpa was taken captiveand killed about a year later.
西班牙征服者被王城Cuzco震惊了
The Spanish conquerorswere awed by the capital of Cuzco.
Pizarro 将它描述为如此美丽
Pizarro described it as so beautiful
以至于“即使在西班牙都显得卓越非凡”
that “ it would be remarkable even in Spain. ”
尽管王城已经坍塌
Though the capital had fallen
土著人口也由于战争和瘟疫
and the native population had been destroyed
濒临灭绝
by civil war and disease,
一些印加人移居至新的王城Vilcabamba
some Incas fell back toa new capital at Vilcabamba
并在后40年定居于此
and resisted for the next 40 years.
但到1572年 西班牙人消灭了所有的残余势力
But by 1572, the Spaniards had destroyedall remaining resistance
同时毁灭了印加的大量物质文化遗产
along with much of the Incas’ physicaland cultural legacy. Thus,
因此 伟大的印加帝国消亡比崛起还要快
the great Inca empire fell even faster than it had risen.

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视频概述

失落的印加帝国,伟大的崛起和可叹的衰亡

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UO5ktwPXsyM

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