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拜占庭帝国的兴起和灭亡 – 译学馆
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拜占庭帝国的兴起和灭亡

The rise and fall of the Byzantine Empire - Leonora Neville

“满布星月光芒的屋顶鄙视着人的一切 也就是
血脉之中的愤怒与泥沼所成的复杂之物”——叶芝
大多历史书都会告诉你
Most history books will tell you
罗马帝国灭亡于公元5世纪
the Roman Empire fell in the fifth century CE.
但这会让生活于中世纪的
But this would ’ve come as a great surprise to the millions of people
数百万罗马帝国的居民大吃一惊
who lived in the Roman Empire up through the Middle Ages.
这个存在于中世纪的罗马帝国
This medieval Roman Empire,
即今日通常所说的拜占庭帝国
which we usually refer to today as the Byzantine Empire,
建立于公元330年
began in 330 CE.
同年 第一任信奉基督教的皇帝康斯坦丁
That’s when Constantine, the first Christian emperor,
将罗马帝国首都迁都于
moved the capital of the Roman Empire
新城君士坦丁堡
to a new city called Constantinople,
新城是在古希腊城市拜占庭的基础上所建
which he founded on the site of the ancient Greek city Byzantion.
410年 西哥特人劫掠了罗马城
When the Visigoths sacked Rome in 410
帝国西部省份也被野蛮人所占
and the Empire’s western provinceswere conquered by barbarians,
东部君士坦丁首都就成了王位所在之处
Constantine’s Eastern capital remainedthe seat of the Roman emperors.
数代君主在这里继续统治了11个世纪
There, generations of emperors ruledfor the next 11 centuries.
由于拜占庭帝国与古罗马帝国一脉相承
Sharing continuity withthe classical Roman Empire
因此它在技术和艺术上
gave the Byzantine empire a technological
都优于周围各国
and artistic advantage over its neighbors,
拜占庭人将周边国家的居民视为野蛮人
whom Byzantines considered barbarians.
9世纪 外国参观者
In the ninth century,visitors from beyond the frontier
对君士坦丁堡皇宫里的
were astonishedat the graceful stone arches and domes
典雅的石拱梁和石顶叹为观止
of the imperial palace in Constantinople.
一对金狮分守皇座两侧
A pair of golden lions flankedthe imperial throne.
当来客在它面前跪下 隐藏机关就会让狮子发出咆哮
A hidden organ would make the lions roar as guests fell on their knees.
黄金鸟在附近的黄金树上唱着歌
Golden birdssung from a nearby golden tree.
中世纪罗马工程师甚至用上了液压引擎
Medieval Roman engineerseven used hydraulic engines
来将王座推上云霄
to raise the imperial thronehigh into the air.
另外 继承下来的古罗马文化
Other inherited aspectsof ancient Roman culture
还体现在皇帝的服装中
could be seen in emperors ’ clothing,
从传统的军装到宽外袍
from traditional military garb to togas,
以及法庭中对罗马法的延用
and in the courts, which continued to use Roman law.
拜占庭帝国的工人阶层可能和他们在
Working-class Byzantines would’ve alsohad similar lives
古罗马时的生活方式相一致
to their Ancient Roman counterparts;
多数人都在务农或是开个小买卖
many farmed or plied a specific trade,
比如制陶 加工皮革 打渔 纺织 或是制丝
such as ceramics, leatherworking, fishing, weaving, or manufacturing silk. But,
但当然
of course,
拜占庭帝国不是在古罗马的桂冠上尸位素餐
the Byzantine Empire didn ’ t just rest on the laurels of Ancient Rome.
他们的艺术家发明制造了大量马赛克和华丽的大理石雕刻
Their artists innovated, creating vastmosaics and ornate marble carvings.
他们的建筑师建造了大量的教堂
Their architects constructednumerous churches,
其中就有圣索菲亚大教堂
one of which, called Hagia Sophia,
它有高悬的穹顶 人们相信它是由
had a dome so high it was said to be hanging
来自天堂的链子吊着
on a chain from heaven.
帝国还是许多智者的家乡 比如安娜科穆宁娜
The Empire was also home to great intellectuals such as Anna Komnene.
安娜作为帝国公主在12世纪
As imperial princess in the 12th century,
开始潜心研究哲学和历史
Anna dedicated her lifeto philosophy and history.
她在父亲统治时记的账本是历史学家们研究
Her account of her father’s reignis historians’ foremost source
拜占庭在第一次东征时的政治史的最重要的文献
for Byzantine political historyat the time of the first crusade.
另一位学者数学家里奥
Another scholar, Leo the Mathematician,
创造出了一种
invented a system
横跨全国的信标系统
of beacons that ran the width of the empire—
也就是在现在的希腊和土耳其
what’s now Greece and Turkey.
这种系统全长约700千米
Stretching more than 700 kilometers,
它使得帝国边境可以
this system allowed the edge
警告皇帝有军队入侵 从在边境上
of the Empire to warn the emperor of invading armies
看到入侵者起 不超一小时皇帝就会收到消息
within one hourof sighting them at the border.
但这种先进的方式并不能永远保护皇帝
But their advances couldn’tprotect the Empire forever.
在1203年 法国和威尼斯组成的东征军
In 1203, an army of Frenchand Venetian Crusaders
同阿莱克修斯·安耶洛斯达成了一个协定
made a deal with a mannamed Alexios Angelos.
阿莱克修斯的父亲是一位被罢黜了的皇帝
Alexios was the son of a deposed emperor,
他向十字军许诺只要帮他夺回
and promised the crusaders vast riches
在他叔叔手上的皇位就会给他们巨额的财富
and support to help him retakethe throne from his uncle.
阿莱克修斯成功了 但仅仅一年后
Alexios succeeded, but after a year,
人民就起义罢黜并杀掉了他
the population rebelled and Alexioshimself was deposed and killed.
所以那些没收到钱的军队攻入了君士坦丁堡
So Alexios’s unpaid army turnedtheir aggression on Constantinople.
他们燃起了熊熊烈火
They lit massive fires,
无数古代和中世纪的工艺品和文学作品都付之一炬
which destroyed countless works of ancient and medieval art and literature,
让三分之一的人无家可归
leaving about one-thirdof the population homeless.
在五十年后 罗马皇帝米海尔八世
The city was reclaimed 50 years later
重新夺回了这座城市
by the Roman Emperor Michael Palaiologos,
但他恢复的帝国从未能夺回所有
but his restored Empire never regainedall the territory
被十字军占领的土地
the Crusaders had conquered. Finally,
最终在1453年 土耳其帝国皇帝 征服者默罕默德占领了君士坦丁堡
in 1453, Ottoman Emperor Mehmedthe Conqueror captured Constantinople,
彻底终结了罗马帝国
bringing a conclusive endto the Roman Empire.
尽管被土耳其征服了 地中海西岸许多说希腊语的居民
Despite the Ottoman conquest, many Greek-speaking inhabitantsof the Eastern Mediterranean
还是将自己称为罗马人 直到21世纪初
continued to call themselves Romansuntil the early 21st century.
事实上 直到文艺复兴
In fact, it wasn’t until the Renaissance
人们才第一次开始用拜占庭帝国这个名字
that the term “Byzantine Empire”was first used.
对于西欧人来说 文艺复兴就是要继承古代的智慧
For Western Europeans, the Renaissance was about reconnecting with the wisdom of antiquity.
但因为中世纪罗马帝国的存在暗示着
And since the existence of amedieval Roman Empire
有一群欧洲人从来没有断掉古代的传承
suggested there were Europeanswho’d never lost touch with antiquity,
所以西欧人想要划清两个时代的界限
Western Europeans wanted to drawclear lines between the ages.
为了更好地区分古典异教说着拉丁语的罗马帝国
To better distinguish the classical,Latin-speaking, pagan Roman Empire
和中世纪信仰天主教说希腊语的罗马帝国
from the medieval,Greek-speaking, Christian Roman Empire,
学者们便将后来的这群人改名为拜占庭人了
scholars renamedthe latter group Byzantines.
正是因此 在其灭亡百年之后
And thus, 100 years after it had fallen,
拜占庭帝国这个名字就出现了
the Byzantine Empire was born.

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视频概述

拜占庭名字的由来以及与罗马的关系

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Okph9wt8I0A

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