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柏林墙的兴衰

The rise and fall of the Berlin Wall - Konrad H. Jarausch

1961年8月13日凌晨
In the early hours of August 13, 1961,
被士兵和政策阻拦在一侧的东德建筑工人们
East German construction workers flanked by soldiers and police
开始在柏林市和周边地区
began tearing up streets and erecting barriers throughout the city of Berlin
挖地建墙
and its surroundings.
这个夜晚标志着历史上最声名狼藉的分界线的诞生柏林墙
This night marked the beginning of one of history’s most infamous dividing lines,
柏林墙
the Berlin Wall.
的建造持续了十几年
Construction on the wall continued for the next decade
它穿过社区
as it cut through neighborhoods,
拆散家庭
separated families,
它不仅分隔了德国 更分裂了世界
and divided not just Germany, but the world.
为了理解这点
To understand how we got to this point,
我们需要回顾一下第二次世界大战
we have to go back to World War II.
美国 英国
America, Britain, and France
法国联合苏维埃政府反抗轴心国(日本 意大利 德国)
joined forces with the Soviet Union against the Axis Powers.
在他们打败了德国纳粹后
After they defeated Nazi Germany,
每个战胜国都夺取了德国的部分地区
each of the victorious nations occupied part of the country.
地区瓜分一开始只是短暂的
The division was meant to be temporary,
但是(美英法)前联盟发现它们
but the former allies found themselves at odds
对二战后的欧洲有着不同的前景展望
over their visions for post-war Europe.
西方势力主张市场自由经济
While Western powers promoted liberal market economies,
但是苏联政府希望各邦国忠实地走社会主义道路
the Soviet Union sought to surround itself with obedient Communist nations,
包括被削弱势力的德国
including a weakened Germany.
随着原联盟国关系的恶化
As their relations deteriorated,
德意志联邦共和国在德国西边建立
the Federal Republic of Germany was formed in the West
苏联则在德国东侧建立了德意志民主共和国
while the Soviets established the German Democratic Republic in the East.
苏维埃政府限制西方贸易和人口迁徙
The Soviet satellite countries restricted Western trade and movement,
一道无形的不可逾越的墙因此形成
so a virtually impassable border formed.
铁幕也由此而生
It became known as the Iron Curtain.
前德国首都柏林的情况尤为复杂
In the former German capital of Berlin, things were particularly complicated.
虽然柏林完全位于德国东边的德意志民主共和国
Although the city lay fully within the East German territory of the GDR,
但是战后条约规定柏林由所有联盟国行政
the post-war agreement gave the allies joint administration.
因此 美英法在柏林西边地区
So America, Britain, and France created a Democratic enclave
建造了民主飞地
in Berlin’s western districts.
虽然东德人民被正式禁止离开东德地区
While East Germans were officially banned from leaving the country,
但是在柏林的人民 只需要走路
in Berlin, it was simply a matter of walking,
坐地铁 电车或者巴士
or riding a subway, streetcar or bus,
就能到达西德一侧
to the Western half,
然后进入西德甚至其他地区旅游
then traveling on to West Germany or beyond.
这个开放的边界给东德领导者带来了一个问题
This open border posed a problem for the East German leadership.
他们进一步强化了共产主义主张 强烈抵制希特勒
They had staked a claim to represent the Communist resistance against Hitler
把西德描述成纳粹主义的延续
and portrayed Western Germany as a continuation of the Nazi regime.
在美国和其联盟国大量投资西德重建的时候
While the U.S. and its allies poured money into West Germany’s reconstruction,
苏联政府则不断从东德获取资源作为战后补偿
the Soviet Union extracted resources from the East as war reparations,
这使得(苏联的)计划经济更缺乏竞争性
making its planned economy even less competitive.
东德人民无不生活在斯塔西的法眼下
Life in East Germany passed under the watchful eye of the Stasi,
这个秘密警察组织利用窃听器和线人监视人民
the secret police whose wiretaps and informants monitored citizens
以防任何一点的背叛
for any hint of disloyalty.
虽然东德有免费的医疗保健和教育
While there was free health care and education in the East,
西德却有更高的工资
the West boasted hire salaries,
更多消费品
more consumer goods,
和更大的人身自由
and greater personal freedom.
到1961年 大约有350万人 将近20%的东德人口
By 1961, about 3.5 million people, nearly 20% of the East German population,
逃离东德 包括年轻的专业人士
had left, including many young professionals.
为了防止进一步的流失
To prevent further losses,
东德政府决定封闭边境线 这就是柏林墙开始的地方
East Germany decided to close the border, and that’s where the Berlin Wall came in.
柏林市内长达43公里
Extending for 43 kilometers through Berlin,
加上贯穿其他东德地区长达112公里的柏林墙
and a further 112 through East Germany,
一开始是由带刺铁丝网和带有网孔的栅栏组成
the initial barrier consisted of barbed wire and mesh fencing.
仍有一些柏林人要么跳过铁丝网
Some Berliners escaped by jumping over the wire
要么跳窗逃离东德
or leaving from windows,
但是随着城墙的建立 这种逃离方式变的更加困难
but as the wall expanded, this became more difficult.
到1965年 106公里长 3.6米高的混凝土城墙建成
By 1965, 106 kilometers of 3.6-meter-high concrete barricades had been added
城墙上方覆有顺滑的管道来防止攀爬
topped with a smooth pipe to prevent climbing.
在接下来的几年里 钉刺带
Over the coming years, the barrier was strengthened with spike strips,
警卫犬甚至地雷都被用来
guard dogs,
加强城墙的防御力
and even landmines,
此外还有302个瞭望台和20个地堡昼夜巡视
along with 302 watchtowers and 20 bunkers.
在城墙后面还有一个由平行的栅栏围成的宽100米的死亡带在那里
A parallel fence in the rear set off a 100-meter area called the death strip.
所有的建筑都被拆除 地标被沙子覆盖
There, all buildings were demolished and the ground covered with sand
为成百上千的警卫提供清晰的视线
to provide a clear line of sight for the hundreds of guards
这些警卫被命令枪杀任何一个想逃跑的人
ordered to shoot anyone attempting to cross.
尽管如此 1961到1989年间 还有大约5000人
Nevertheless, nearly 5,000 people in total managed to flee East Germany
成功逃离了东德
between 1961 and 1989.
其中一些人是外交官或者运动员 他们在出国的时候叛逃
Some were diplomats or athletes who defected while abroad,
但是剩下的都是普通百姓
but others were ordinary citizens who dug tunnels,
他们挖地道游泳横穿运河
swam across canals,
乘坐热气球
flew hot air balloons,
甚至开着偷来的坦克冲破界限
or even crashed a stolen tank through the wall.
但是风险依然很高
Yet the risk was great.
超过138人在试图逃离时丧命
Over 138 people died while attempting escape.
西德人民眼睁睁地望着那么被枪杀的逃跑者 却爱莫能助
Some shot in full view of West Germans powerless to help them.
柏林墙防止了劳动力流失 以此巩固了东德的经济
The wall stabilized East Germany’s economy by preventing its work force from leaving,
但是损毁了它的名誉
but tarnished its reputation,
因此成为了共产主义剥削的全球性象征
becoming a global symbol of Communist repression.
作为和东德和解的一部分
As part of reconciliation with the East,
1972年的《基础条约》在实际上承认了东德的存在
the Basic Treaty of 1972 recognized East Germany pragmatically
但是西德仍抱有最终统一的希望
while West Germany retained its hope for eventual reunification.
虽然东边的政权逐渐允许亲属探望
Although the Eastern regime gradually allowed family visits,
但它用复杂的申请过程和高昂的费用
it tried to discourage people from exercising these rights
试图阻拦人们行使这个权利
with an arduous bureaucratic process and high fees.
尽管如此 还是吸引了大批申请者
Nonetheless, it was still overwhelmed by applications.
在80年代末
By the end of the 1980’s,
其他的东边区域政权的自由化
the liberalization of other Eastern Bloc regimes
导致了大规模的游行示威 旨在寻求自由探视和民主
caused mass demonstrations for free travel and demands for democracy.
1989年11月9日晚上
On the evening of November 9, 1989,
东德试图通过简化旅游通证来缓和紧张关系
East Germany tried to defuse tension by making travel permits easier to obtain.
但是通告却使成千上万的东柏林人民
But the announcement brought thousands of East Berliners
穿过重重障碍来到柏林墙
to the border crossing points in the wall,
强迫被惊吓到的警卫立即打开大门
forcing the surprised guards to open the gates immediately.
伴随着两边人民在城墙上欢呼
Rejoicing crowds poured into West Berlin
激动万分的人群纷纷涌入西柏林
as people from both sides danced atop the wall.
还有一些人开始使用他们能找到的任何工具来拆除城墙
And others began to demolish it with whatever tools they could find.
虽然一开始警卫还试图维持秩序
Although the border guards initially tried to maintain order,
但是很快他们明白多年的东西隔离已经结束
it was soon clear that the years of division were at an end.
四十年后 在1990年的10月 德国正式统一
After four decades, Germany was officially reunified in October 1990.
苏维埃政权随后很快没落
And the Soviet Union fell soon after.
今天 部分城墙依旧挺立在那儿 成为了一种警示
Today, parts of the wall still stand as a reminder
任何人为对自由设置的障碍
that any barriers we put up to impede freedom,
我们都能将其拆除
we can also break down.

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