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亚述帝国的兴起和灭亡

The rise and fall of the Assyrian Empire - Marian H Feldman

“亚述很快发现一个痛苦的事实:就像庞氏骗局…… 为了不让帝国崩溃 他们必须继续扩张下去”—— Paul Kriwaczek 《巴比伦》
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在太阳还未照耀大英帝国之前
Before the sun never set on the British Empire,
在成吉思汗横扫大草原之前
before Genghis Khan swept the steppe,
在罗马扩大其影响力 包围地中海之前
before Rome extended its influence to encircle the Mediterranean sea,
有个古老的亚述王国
there was ancient Assyria.
被历史学家认为是第一个真正的帝国
Considered by historians to be the first true empire,
亚述的革新为所有
Assyria’s innovations laid the ground work
后继的超级大国奠定了基础
for every superpower that’s followed.
在公元前7世纪最鼎盛时
At its height, in the 7th century BCE,
亚述帝国延伸到现在的伊拉克
the Assyrian Empire stretched across modern Iraq,
叙利亚 黎巴嫩 以色列
Syria, Lebanon, Israel,
和土耳其 伊朗以及埃及的部分地区
and parts of the Turkey, Iran and Egypt.
它的奇迹包括一座巨大的图书馆
Its wonders included a vast library
大型植物园和动物园
and large botanical and zoological park.
但亚述崛起至统治地位的故事
But the story of Assyria’s rise to dominance
自几世纪前
began many centuries earlier,
青铜器时代晚期时 在阿舒尔城就开始了
in the Late Bronze Age,in a city called Ashur.
阿舒尔是锡和纺织品贸易中心
Ashur was a tin and textilestrading center
位于伊拉克北部 底格里斯河沿岸
located along the Tigris Riverin northern Iraq.
它与这个城市化身的神 后来又是整个
It shared its name with a god thought to be an embodiment of the city
帝国化身的神同名
and later of the entire empire.
对于有管理头脑的亚述人来说
For the administration-minded Assyrians,
政治与宗教密切相关
politics and religion were closely linked.
公元前1300年前后
Around 1300 BCE,
一位名叫阿舒尔•乌巴利特一世的大祭司
a high priest named Ashur-uballit I
夺得了王位
took the title of king.
并开始了军事活动的传统
and initiated a traditionof military campaigns,
有效地将亚述
effectively transforming Assyria
从城邦国家转变为领土国家
from a city-state to a territorial state.
这意味着一个单独的政体
This meant that a singleadministrative entity
管理许多地方 不同的文化和种族
oversaw many places, cultures,and peoples.
在接下来的150年里
For the next 150 years,
亚述扩张其领土 并蓬勃发展
Assyria extended its reach and thrived.
在公元前12世纪
In the 12th century BCE,
一场仍令考古学家困惑的不可思议的灾难
a mysterious catastrophethat still bewilders archaeologists
导致亚述人失去了大部分领土
caused the Assyriansto lose much of their territory.
然而几百年后
A few hundred years later, however,
亚述国王开始了新一轮的征服之战
Assyrian kings began a new round of conquests.
这一次 他们改善了行政系统
This time, they honedtheir administrative system
成就了一个可以持续几代人的帝国
into an empire that would last generations.
亚述人是军事创新者和残忍的征服者
Assyrians were military innovatorsand merciless conquerors.
在征战期间
During their conquests,
他们对那些反对他们的人
they used siege tactics and cruel punishments
使用围城战术和残酷的惩罚
for those who opposed them,
包括将人钉起和剥皮
including impalement and flaying.
帝国成长的部分原因是采取了
The growth of their empire was due, in part,
驱逐当地人口
to their strategy of deporting local populations,
然后转移到帝国其他地区的策略
then shifting them around theempire
这破坏了各个种族与其家乡之间的联系
This broke peoples’ bonds with their homelands
切断了当地团体之间的忠诚
and severed loyalties among local groups.
亚述人每征服一个地区
Once the Assyrians conquered an area,
就建起一座由维护良好的皇家道路连接起来的城市
they built cities connectedby well-maintained royal roads.
一般 新国王上台时
Often, when a new king came to power,
会建立一个新首都
he would build a new capital.
每次搬迁
With each move,
都会有新的宫殿和寺庙拔地而起并配以华丽的装饰
new palaces and temples were erected and lavishly decorated.
虽然国王宣称绝对的权力
Although kings claimed absolute power,
但我们都知道 一个拥有朝臣
we know that an extensive systemof courtiers,
省级官员和学者的庞大体系影响着各种事务
provincial officials, and scholars influenced affairs.
至少有一个女人 萨穆-拉玛特统治过这个王国
At least one woman, Sammuramat,ruled the kingdom.
亚述统治者通过展示
Assyrian rulers celebratedtheir military excursions
刻在新宫殿墙上的丰功伟绩
by having representationsof their exploits
来歌颂他们的军事远征
carved into the wallsof their newly built palaces.
但尽管这些记录反映的是
But despite the picture
残酷战争状态的画面
of a ruthless war state projected by these records,
但也反映出亚述国王对该地区的
the Assyrian kings were also interested
文化传统也感兴趣
in the cultural traditions of the region,
尤其是巴比伦的文化传统
especially those of Babylonia,
一个南方的独立国家
a separate state to the south.
巴比伦尼亚几千年来一直是文化领域的领先者
Babylonia had beena cultural leader for millennia,
文字的开始可追溯到
stretching backto the beginning of writing
公元前4千年末期
at the end of the 4th millennium BCE.
亚述将自己视为这一传统的继承者和保护者
Assyria saw itself as the inheritorand protector of this tradition.
亚述统治者支持各方面从医学到魔术
Assyrian rulers supported scholars
有专长的学者
in specialties rangingfrom medicine to magic,
而且首都城市 如尼尼微
and the capital cities, like Ninevah,
有精致的公园和花园
were home to elaborate parks and gardens
那里有来自帝国各地的植物和动物
that housed plantsand animals from around the empire.
亚述的最后统治者之一 亚述巴尼拔
One of Assyria’s final rulers,Ashurbanipal,
派遣整个巴比伦尼亚的学者
sent scholars throughout Babylonia
收集和复制古代文学作品
to gather up and copy ancient literary works.
亚述巴尼拔的图书收藏都是
Ashurbanipal’s library took the formof clay tablets
刻有阿卡德语和苏美尔语的楔形文字的陶板
inscribed with cuneiform in the languagesof Akkadian and Sumerian.
他的图书收藏在公元前612年尼尼微经历最后一次洗劫后全部丢失了
The library was lost during the final sack of Ninevah in 612 BCE.
但多亏了19世纪的一次考古挖掘
But thanks to a 19th centuryarchaeological excavation,
许多古代文学巨作
many masterpieces of ancient literature,
包括吉尔伽美什史诗和巴比伦创世史诗
including the Epic of Gilgameshand the Babylonian Creation Epic,
如今都幸存了下来
survive today.
经过几个世纪的统治
After centuries of rule,
亚述帝国在公元前612年至609年之间
the Assyrian Empire fell tothe Babylonians and Medes
被巴比伦人和米底人攻陷
between 612 and 609 BCE.
但亚述人开启的那些创新依然存在
Yet the innovations that the Assyrians pioneered live on.
他们强调不断创新
Their emphasis on constant innovation,
高效管理和卓越的基础建设
efficient administration, and excellent infrastructure
为该地区 乃至全世界的范围内
set the standard for every empire
相继出现的帝国
that’s followed them in the region
树立了标准
and across the globe.
所有帝国都有某些共同点吗?
Are there certain things that all empires have in common?
跨越文化与各大洲
Across cultures and continents,
什么主题总是再次出现?
what themes keep resurfacing?
观看此播放列表中的视频 得出自己的结论
Watch this playlist to draw your own conclusions.
或者在评论中发表您的理论
Or post your theories in the Comments.

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视频概述

历史上第一个真正的帝国—— 亚述

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

昵伊荙

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7pa54hWROpQ

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