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Juul电子烟的兴衰

The Rise And Fall Of Juul | Rise And Fall

Juul was designed to help adult smokers quit,
Juul是为帮助成人戒烟而诞生的
but it got young people hooked instead.
但却让年轻人上瘾了
The device was so popular it became a verb: juuling.
这玩意如此受欢迎 以至于其成了一个动词:Juuling(吸电子烟)
Juuling, named after this brand of vape pen.
Juuling 以这个电子烟的牌子命名
At its peak, the company dominated over 70% of the US e-cigarette market.
在其最火的时候 该公司在美国电子烟的市场占有率超过70%
Juul has said a number of times that
Juul说过许多次
there’s never their intention to addict a new generation of users.
其意图不是为了让新一代年轻人上瘾
But the truth of the matter is they did.
而事实是 他们确实让新一代年轻人上瘾了
But in just three years,
但仅仅在三年内
its value plunged from 38 billion dollars to under 5 billion dollars.
Juul的市值从380亿美元暴跌到50亿美元以下
Now the company is awaiting FDA authorization
现在这个公司一边等着食品及药物监管局的授权
while facing multimillion-dollar lawsuits
一边因为助长年轻人吸食电子烟风气盛行
for its role in fuelling the youth vaping epidemic.
而面临数百万美元的诉讼
So what does the future of e-cigarettes hold?
所以 电子烟的前途如何
And will Juul have a place in it?
以及Juul是否会有一席之地
E-cigarettes had been around since the mid-2000s.
电子烟自2000年代中期以来就已经存在了
but none had ever taken off like Juul
但没有一个牌子能像Juul那样成功
The company launched out of PAX Labs in 2015,
该公司于2015年在PAX实验室的基础上成立
and revolutionized the tobacco industry with its cutting-edge design.
并以其尖端的设计彻底改变了烟草行业
I think it was the perfect storm you know,
我认为这是一场完美的风暴
the product was a high-tech device.
这个产品是一种高科技装置
It looked like a flash drive that kids were charging under their parents’ nose.
它看起来像孩子们在父母眼皮底下充电的闪存盘
Co-founders Adam Bowen and James Monsees
联合创始人亚当·鲍恩和詹姆斯·蒙西斯
were hoping to create a satisfying alternative to cigarettes
希望能为想戒烟的成年人创造出
for adult smokers who wanted to quit.
一个令人满意的香烟替代品
The ads painted in different picture,
尽管Juul公司一再否认他们对青少年的营销
although Juul has repeatedly denied their marketing to teens.
但这些广告却描绘了不同的画面
Juul’s flavors were fun, too.
Juul的口味也很有意思
Pods came in mango, fruit medley, cucumber, mint and creme brulee.
烟弹里有芒果味 混合水果味 黄瓜味 薄荷味和焦糖布丁味
At the time, the U.S. was seeing a historic decline
当时 美国的青少年吸烟率
in cigarette smoking rates among youth,
出现了历史性的下降
which had hit a new low of 10.8%.
降至10.8%的新低
The kids were tricked. They didn’t understand that it was incredibly addictive nicotine,
孩子们被骗了 他们不知道这是一种非常容易上瘾的尼古丁
it wasn’t the nicotine of the cigarettes of the past.
它并不是以往香烟中的尼古丁
Marketers organized events and hired social media influencers to post themselves Julling.
营销者们组织活动 并聘请媒体大V晒出自己吸Juul的照片
Soon, users began to share their own content on Instagram, Snapchat and Twitter,
很快 用户开始在Ins Snapchat和Twitter上父母看不到的地方
where parents weren’t looking.
分享自己的内容
Within two years on the market, Juul’s popularity skyrocketed.
Juul上市不到两年 人气直线飙升
In 2016, the company made up less than 5% of the e-cig market.
在2016年 该公司的电子烟市场占有率少于5%
But by the end of 2017, Juul controlled nearly a third of it,
但到了2017年底 Juul控制了近三分之一的市场
and generated 224 million dollars in revenue.
并创造了2.24亿美元的营收
I think there’s something like a 600 percent spike in sales,
我认为销售量有大约600%的飙升
which is crazy. It’s an astronomical rise.
这太疯狂了 这是一个天文数字的上升
The number of devices sold jumped from 2.2 million
一年以内 这个电子烟的销量
to 16.2 million within a year.
从220万跃升到1620万
But Juul’s early packaging failed to highlight
但是Juul早期的包装并没有强调
that pods contain high amounts of nicotine,
其烟弹里含有大量的尼古丁
and extremely addictive substance.
这是一种极其容易上瘾的物质
There wasn’t a warning label on the box like there is now.
盒子上没有像现在这样的警告标签
It had a 5% and a 3%.
有含量为3%和5%的
My own son said, “5% of what?”
我儿子说:“5%的什么?”
You know, no one knew what 5% nicotine meant.
没人知道5%的尼古丁意味着什么
Just one 5% Juul pod has as much nicotine
仅一盒5%的Juul烟弹就含有相当于
as a pack of standard cig arettes.
一包标准香烟的尼古丁含量
Because of the formulation,
由于配方的原因
it can be used pretty much all the time.
它几乎可以一直使用
And not only all the time,
而且不仅一直如此
but you like it better.
而且你会更喜欢它
I just was going in on it
我只是想 我意思是
like, I mean there is not much nicotine in it,
它里面没有太多的尼古丁
so what’s it gonna do to me?
所以它会对我有什么影响呢
Elizabeth Burgess was 15
在2016年 Elizabeth Burgess
when she started vaping in 2016.
15岁时开始吸电子烟
And would go through one juul pod in roughly two days.
而且大约两天就会用完一个Juul烟弹
All we knew is that cigarettes could kill you
我们只知道香烟会致死
and that this is supposed to be safer than them.
而且这个应该比香烟更安全
By 2017,
到2017年
an estimated 1.73 million high schoolers were vaping,
估计有173万高中生在吸电子烟
compared to just over a million who were smoking cigarettes.
而吸烟的高中生人数才刚刚超过100万
With its new found success,
随着新获得的成功
Juul decided to part ways with PAX Labs
Juul决定与PAX实验室分道扬镳
and became an independent company.
成为一家独立的公司
In some high schools,
在一些高中里
Julling in the bathroom was such a phenomenon
在洗手间里吸Juul的现象如此普遍
that administrators emailed parents to warn them about the dangers of vaping.
以至于校方给家长们发邮件 警告他们吸电子烟的危险
I mean it was just all every day, all the time,
我意思是 每天都这样 每时每刻都这样
like you just meet people in the bathroom to get a hit.
就像你只是在厕所里和人见面就是为了抽电子烟
For years, Juul and other e-cigarettes
多年来 Juul和其他电子烟
were marketed and sold without intervention by the FDA.
在没有FDA干预的情况下销售
But the company eventually became impossible to ignore.
但这家公司最终变得不可忽视
In 2018, medical and public health groups like the American Academy of Pediatrics
2018年 医疗和公共卫生组织如美国儿科学会
sued the FDA over its lack of action against e-cigarettes.
就FDA对电子烟行动不力提出起诉
A federal judge later ruled
后来 联邦法官裁定
that the agency did act illegally by allowing those products
FDA允许这些产品在2022年之前不受限制地在市场上销售
to remain on the market unchecked until 2022.
的做法确实是违法的
Meanwhile, Juul was telling a different story.
与此同时 Juul讲述了一个不同的故事
A Juul’s representative came into our son’s school
一位Juul的代表来到我儿子的学校
and told the kids that Juul was totally safe
告诉孩子们Juul是完全安全的
and about to get FDA approval,
并即将获得FDA的批准
neither of which were true.
这两样都不是真的
When asked to respond to this,
当被要求对此作出回应时
Juul declined to comment.
Juul拒绝置评
As concerns around teen use grew,
随着对青少年使用烟草的担忧加剧
in 2018, San Francisco passed a ban
2018年 旧金山通过了一项
on flavored tobacco products.
风味烟草制品禁令
The number of high schoolers vaping
高中生吸电子烟的人数
rose to more than 3 million.
上升到了300多万
And Juul’s market share increased by 160% within a year.
Juul的市场份额在一年内增长了160%
The vaping giant was at an all-time high
这个电子烟巨头正处于历史高点
and seemed untouchable.
似乎是无法触及的
Untill the FDA declared youth vaping an epidemic.
直到FDA宣布青少年吸电子烟是一种流行病
They let this industry be unregulated for years
他们让这个行业多年来不受监管
so everybody blames Juul.
所以所有人都怪Juul
But they were taking advantage of a market structure
但他们利用了国会和FDA
that was put in place by congress, by the FDA.
制定的市场结构
In September, the agency launched the largest coordinated enforcement effort in its history,
9月 FDA发起了其历史上规模最大的协同执法行动
issuing warnings and fines to retailers that illegally sold e-cigarettes to minors.
对非法向未成年人销售电子烟的零售商发出警告和罚款
Then the FDA seized thousands of pages of documents
随后 FDA查获了数千页
related to Juul’s sales and marketing practices.
与Juul销售和营销活动相关的文件
In response, Juul got rid of every flavor
作为回应 Juul下架了商店里
except tobacco, mint, and menthol from stores
除了烟草 薄荷和薄荷醇以外的所有味道
and promised to enhance its online age verification system.
并承诺将提升在线年龄验证系统
It also phased out all social media accounts
它还逐步关闭了所有被指控
which had been accused of targeting teens for years.
多年来针对青少年营销的社交媒体账户
Amid the controversy,
在争议中
sales continued to soar as Juul was having its best year yet.
Juul的销量继续飙升 这是Juul有史以来销量最好的一年
Co-founders Bowen and Monsees had always portrayed their company
联合创始人鲍恩和蒙西斯一直把他们的公司描绘成
as the one that could take big tobacco down.
能够扳倒大型烟草公司的公司
But at the end of 2018,
但在2018年底
Altria – one of the world’s largest tobacco brands,
奥驰亚——世界上最大的烟草品牌之一
invested 12.8 billion dollars in Juul,
向Juul投资128亿美元
taking a 35% stake.
持股35%
That was a moment for Juul
对Juul来说
that the glass shattered inside the company.
那是公司内部玻璃破碎的时刻
And some of the employees point blank
一些员工直截了当地
said to founders “have you been lying to us this entire time?”
对创始人说:“你们一直都在骗我们吗?”
The deal boosted Juul’s value to 38 billion dollars
这笔交易将Juul的价值提升到380亿美元
and made its co-founders billionaires.
并使其联合创始人成为亿万富翁
But not for long.
但好景不长
2019 is where the wheels kind of start to fall off.
2019年 一直顺风顺水的Juul开始受挫
A lot of lawmakers get interested.
很多立法者对此很感兴趣
Like representative Raja Krishnamurthi
比如代表Raja Krishnamurthi
who opened an investigation into whether or not
他对Juul是否积极地向
Juul had actively marketed its product to American children.
美国儿童推销其产品展开了调查
We’ve seen this movie before with combustible cigarettes
在很多儿童和青少年吸烟的时候
when so many children and teenagers were smoking.
我们已经看到过这种可燃香烟的电影
We don’t want to see the sequel.
我们不想看到续集
So in July 2019,
所以在2019年7月
congress held a two-day hearing with co-founder James Moncy’s testifying.
国会举行了为期两天的听证会 联合创始人詹姆斯·莫西出席作证
Do you happen to know off the top of your head
你知道需要多少岁
how old you need to be to create an instagram account?
才能创建一个Instagram账号吗
I, I don’t.
我 我不知道
13, you have to be 13 years old.
13岁 要到13岁才可以
The real tragedy is
真正的悲剧是
what they didn’t communicate to young people
他们没有告诉年轻人
was that the real lifestyle they were selling
他们所推销的真正的生活方式
was a lifestyle of nicotine addiction.
是一种尼古丁上瘾的生活方式
Students like Meredith’s son
像Meredith的儿子这样的学生
also gave testimony about Juul’s in person marketing tactics.
也对Juul的个人营销策略提供了证词
Did the presenter call Juul quote-unquote totally safe more than once?
推荐的人是否不止一次说Juul“绝对安全”?
Yes.
是的
What impact did those quote-unquote totally safe comments
这些“绝对安全”的评论对你那些
have on your classmates,
可能已经开始吸电子烟同学
some of whom may have already started vaping?
有什么影响呢?
Um, for my classmates who are already vaping
嗯 对于我那些已经吸了电子烟的同学来说
it was a sigh of relief.
这才松了一口气
Because now they were able to vape without any concern.
因为现在他们可以毫无顾虑地吸电子烟了
But research shows teen vaping does come with negative health effects.
但研究表明 青少年吸电子烟确实会对健康产生负面影响
For children, it’s clearly dangerous.
对孩子来说 这显然很危险
They have developing neurological systems,
他们有发育中的神经系统
pulmonary and lung systems,
肺和肺系统
brain function.
大脑功能
It creates pathways for further addiction
它创造了进一步上瘾的途径
increases anxiety and increases depression.
增加焦虑和抑郁
Then came a suspicion of links to a mysterious lung illness.
随后 人们怀疑这与一种神秘的肺病有关
Things really went bad for Juul
当Evali爆发时
when the Evali outbreak hits.
Juul的情况变得很糟糕
Evali stands for e-cigarette
Evali代表电子烟
or vaping use-associated lung injury.
或电子烟使用相关的肺损伤
And cases were popping up everywhere.
这些病例到处都是
The CDC trying to extinguish the health emergency linked to e-cigarettes.
疾控中心试图消除与电子烟有关的健康危机
In an interview with CBS,
在接受哥伦比亚广播公司采访时
Juul’s CEO shared grim advice for those who didn’t already use nicotine.
Juul的首席执行官向那些尚未吸过尼古丁的人提出了严峻的建议
Don’t vape, don’t use juul.
不要吸电子烟 不要抽Juul
Elizabeth wishes she had heard those words before being diagnosed with Evali.
伊丽莎白真希望自己在被诊断出患有Evali之前听到这些话
They took a picture of my lungs.
他们给我的肺拍了张照片
And like regular lungs and it was just mine would just
就像普通的肺一样 但我的肺看起来
looked like they had fog all over them.
就像被雾覆盖了
Later, the outbreak was linked to bootlegged vaping products
后来 该疾病的爆发与含有维生素E醋酸酯的
that contained vitamin E acetate.
盗卖的电子烟产品有关
An additive that can interfere with normal lung functioning when inhaled.
维生素E醋酸酯 一种吸入后会影响肺功能正常的添加剂
Juul said its products did not have vitamin E acetate.
Juul表示 其产品不含维生素E醋酸酯
But juuling had become synonymous with vaping.
但juuling已经成为vaping的同义词
So the damage was already done.
所以伤害已经产生
And Juul’s once promising global expansion halted.
Juul一度充满希望的全球扩张也停止了
Soon states began filing lawsuits against the company.
不久 各州开始对该公司提起诉讼
Then in september 2019,
然后在2019年9月
CEO Kevin Burns resigned,
首席执行官凯文·伯恩斯辞职
and all advertising in the US was suspended.
所有在美国的广告都被暂停
School districts across the country started to sue Juul, too.
全国各地的学区也开始起诉Juul
Under pressure, Juul’s new CEO removed mint pods from the market.
迫于压力 Juul的新任CEO将薄荷味电子烟从市场上撤下
The Trump administration had also just announced a federal ban
特朗普政府刚刚宣布了一项联邦禁令
on almost all flavored pods
禁止几乎所有口味的电子烟
and raised the legal tobacco age to 21.
并将合法吸烟年龄提高到21岁
These strategies seemed to pay off
随着2019年至2020年青少年吸电子烟率下降
as teen vaping rates dropped from 2019 to 2020.
这些策略似乎取得了成效
But the following year, Juul’s legal battles came back to haunt them.
但第二年 Juul的法律纠纷再次困扰着他们
They settled with the state of North Carolina for 40 million dollars.
他们与北卡罗来纳州达成和解 赔偿4000万美元
They settled with the state of Arizona for 14 million dollars.
他们与亚利桑那州达成和解 赔偿1400万美元
And just as the FDA was set to rule on Juul’s authorization,
就在FDA准备对Juul的授权做出裁决时
it decided to postpone the review.
它决定推迟审查
The agency did however move forward with another vaping company.
然而 FDA确实与另一家电子烟公司合作
Vuse Solo and its tobacco flavor pods
Vuse Solo和它的烟草味烟弹
are the first of their kind to be legalized by the FDA.
是第一个被FDA合法化的烟草味烟弹
So why delay the ruling on Juul?
那么为什么要推迟对Juul的裁决呢?
I hate to say, but I think big tobacco has sway with the FDA.
我不想这么说 但我觉得烟草巨头对FDA很有影响力
The acting commissioner came before my committee
代理专员来到我的委员会面前
and told us that she believed in our conclusions
告诉我们 她相信我们关于
with regard to flavored e-cigarettes as well as
风味电子烟和
the nicotine content of e-cigarettes.
电子烟尼古丁含量的结论
And yet we’re still in this situation where they haven’t acted.
然而 我们仍然处在他们没有采取行动的情况下
The FDA told us that no one has swayed over its decision
FDA告诉我们 没有人会动摇他们的决定
and that it evaluates tobacco products
他们评估烟草产品
based on the risks and benefits on the population as a whole.
是基于整个人口的风险和利益
If they ban, you know like vapes and stuff
如果他们禁止电子烟之类的东西
people are not going to be like
人们就不会想
hey what’s the next best thing that has nicotine in it.
嘿 下一个有尼古丁的好东西是什么
In a statement to Insider,
FDA在给Insider的一份声明中表示
the FDA said it’s still evaluating applications for Juul’s products
它仍在评估Juul产品的申请
and is committed to acting on them as soon as possible.
并致力于尽快采取行动
For parents like Dorian and Meredith,
对于像Dorian和Meredith这样的父母来说
their fight will continue as long as menthol pods are being sold.
只要薄荷烟弹还在销售 他们的斗争就会继续下去
When we know millions of kids are using menthol flavored products,
当我们知道数以百万计的孩子在使用薄荷味的产品时
how can it be that they have still allowed
他们究竟怎么还允许这些产品
these products to remain on the market?
继续在市场上销售?
But in 2021,
但在2021年
Puff Bar overtook Juul as the number one e-cigarette choice among high schoolers.
Puff Bar取代Juul成为高中生首选的电子烟
The disposable device is not subject to FDA regulation
这种一次性装置不受FDA的监管
because it uses synthetic nicotine.
因为它使用合成尼古丁
Today Juul only ranks fourth in popularity
如今 Juul的受欢迎程度仅排在第四位
and vaping among high schoolers is still in the decline
而电子烟在高中生中的受欢迎程度仍在下降
dropping by 42% from 2020 to 2021.
从2020年到2021年下降了42%
But the CDC notes
但美国疾病控制与预防中心指出
these survey estimates may be under-reported due to COVID and remote learning.
由于新冠肺炎和远程学习 这些调查可能被低估
At the same time, cigarette sales are on the rise for the first time in 20 years.
与此同时 香烟销量20年来首次出现增长
The FDA is in a strange position.
FDA处于一个奇怪的位置
Because on the one hand they want to be able to promote,
因为 一方面他们希望能够促进
having this alternative for adult smokers.
能够为成年吸烟者提供这种选择
But on the other hand,
但另一方面
they’re faced with this
他们所面对的是
company that helped create a new generation of nicotine addicts.
一家帮助产生新一代尼古丁成瘾者的公司
Juul told Insider,
Juul告诉Insider
it was committed to a reset of the vapor category
它致力于对烟雾类产品进行重新设定
to combat underage use.
以限制未成年人使用
But even if Juul survives with its now limited range of pods,
但是 即使Juul依靠目前有限的烟弹生存下来
it will likely be under even greater scrutiny than ever before.
它也可能面临比以往任何时候都更严格的审查

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Juul兴衰史:曾经的电子烟界“苹果”是如何陨落的?

听录译者

eadahhow

翻译译者

一只鸡腿子

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wkQ4WCAG38I

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