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蚊子嗡嗡叫的真实原因 | DIY神经科学系列

The real reason why mosquitoes buzz | DIY Neuroscience, a TED series

翻译:约瑟夫•杰妮校验:克里斯汀•阿帕嗒
Translator: Joseph GeniReviewer: Krystian Aparta
[蚊子嗡嗡声]
(Mosquito buzzing)
我们都听过蚊子讨厌的嗡嗡声
We’ve all heard the annoying sound of a mosquito,
而且会不惜一切代价将它赶走
and we will stop at nothing to make it go away.
虽然这声音会让我们抓狂
While this sound may be maddening to us,
也许对蚊子来说 那却是悦耳之音
perhaps it’s music to a mosquito’s ears.
蚊子的神经系统具有
The mosquito’s nervous system has almost
几乎和我们一样多的听觉细胞
as many sensory auditory cells as we do.
但为何如此小的体积 有那么多听觉细胞
But why would they have so many in such a small body,
它们又为何对声音如此敏感?
and why would they need to be so sensitive to sounds?
答案是 爱情
The answer is love.
[DIY神经系统科学]
[DIY Neuroscience]
[音乐播放中]
(Music playing)
人类会做很多事 吸引彼此
As humans, we do a lot to attract each other.
一些是有意识的 如化妆 让自己很好闻
Some are conscious, we put on makeup and make sure we smell nice.
而有些是下意识的
And some are unconscious,
你会下意识转向喜欢的人或甚至坐得更近
you may unconsciously point your body or even sit closer to someone you like.
这些就是求偶行为 许多动物都有
These are courtship behaviors,and a lot of animals have them.
蚊子也一样
And mosquitoes are no different.
哈利整个暑期都在勇敢地听蚊子嗡嗡声
So Haley’s been spending her summerbravely listening to mosquitoes,
她所观察到的 可能会使你很惊讶
and what she observed may surprise you.
我们想调查蚊子是如何发出声音的
So we want to investigatehow the mosquitoes make their song.
哈利那我们怎么录蚊子翅膀拍打声呢?
So Haley, how do we record their wing beats?
我们得把它们拴住 方法就是
We need to tether them, and the way to do that is
首先把蚊子放在电冰箱里或冰上麻醉它们
first, we anesthetize them in a fridge or a bed of ice.
然后把蚊子放到培养皿里
And then I transfer them to this petri dish of ice,
只是为了让它们深度麻醉
just to get them even more anesthetized.
下一步 我用一个昆虫针
Next, I take an insect pin,
我要做的是 在针上涂
and what I do is put a tiny little dab
一点强力胶
of superglue on this pin.
我要确保
I want to make sure
把它放在翅膀上方的胸腔上
that I get it on his thorax above his wings
这样它吊着的时候 翅膀仍然可自由拍动
so that when he is suspended, his wings are still free to move.
就这样 这只拿下了
So here’s one down.
在野外很难抓住雄蚊子
It’s really hard to catch male mosquitoes in the wild
因为只有雌蚊子才会被人类吸引
because females are the only mosquitoesthat are attracted to humans,
它们才食人血
they feed on human blood.
现在 我们可以试着给它们录音
And now, we can try to get some recordings from them.
这是我用来放它们的小台子
So this is the stand that I use to hold them.
我喜欢让它正对着话筒
I like to place it right over the microphone
这样我就能录下大家听到的嗡嗡声
so that I can get a recording of the buzzing that you hear.
那种声音是由它们拍打翅膀的频率产生的
That sound is generated by how fast they’re beating their wings.
这是一只雄蚊子
This is a male.
雄蚊子有很浓密的触须 看似羽毛状
The males have very bushy antennae, and they look kind of feathery.
而且 体形也小很多
And they are also much smaller.
—它以600赫兹左右的频率振翅—对!
– So he’s flying around 600 hertz.- Yeah!
我们能用一只雌性蚊子试试吗?
Can we try a female mosquito?
当然 我们开始吧
Sure, here we go.
[蚊子较低的嗡嗡声]
(Mosquito buzzing, lower pitch)
天啊
Wow.
这是一个比雄性低很多的频率
This is a much lower frequency than the male.
是的 听起来与另一个家伙完全不同
Yeah, it sounds completely different than the other guy.
[蚊子嗡嗡声]
(Mosquito buzzing)
[蚊子较低音的嗡嗡声]
(Mosquito buzzing, lower pitch)
这是因为它们是两只不同的蚊子
So is it because they’re two different mosquitoes,
还是因为它们的性别不同?
or because they’re male and female?
因为性别不同
It’s because they’re male and female.
我们来找出答案 证明一下
Let’s find out, let’s verify that.
你能用另一只雌蚊子 看看它的声音
Can you bring in another female and see if she sounds
是像蚊子A还是蚊子B吗?
like mosquito A or mosquito B?
好的
Yeah.
[蚊子较低音的嗡嗡声]
(Mosquito buzzing, lower pitch)
它还是比雄性蚊子低很多
And again, she is much lowerthan the male.
是的 雌蚊子听起来不同
Yeah, she sounds different.
[蚊子较低的嗡嗡声]
(Mosquito buzzing, lower pitch) Yeah,
她恰好在400赫兹
she’s spot-on 400. HS:
女:的确如此GG:确实很奇特
She really is.GG: That’s really bizarre.
HS:雌性蚊子声音要低得多
HS:The females are at a much lower pitch.
—它们在400赫兹左右—我明白了
– They were around 400 hertz.- I get you.
所有雌性蚊子也都大概在那个频率
And all of the females were around that, too.
我注意到它们比雄性蚊子大很多
I noticed that they were much larger than the males,
所以不用为保持自由飞行而快速拍打翅膀
so they didn’t have to flap their wings as fast to stay in free flight.
—所以它们有较大的翅膀 拍打较慢—对!
– So they have larger wings,so they’re flapping slower.
– Yeah!
你注意到所有雌蚊子的频率大概都相同?
And you noticed that all the females have the same frequency, roughly?
雄性蚊子也是如此 真有趣
And the males do, too. That’s kind of interesting.
那这肯定意味着什么
So that must mean something.
让我们看看把雄性和雌性放一起会怎样
let’s see what happens when we put the male and the female together.
蚊子嗡嗡声 音高不同
[Mosquitoes buzzing; pitch varies]
当我把它们放在同一听力范围时
When I put them into the same hearing range,
我注意到它们在改变音调
I noticed that they were kind of changing their tones.
几乎像是更沉闷
It was kind of more dull, almost.
[蚊子嗡嗡声]
[Mosquitoes buzzing]
当我把声音
And when I put it back
放在声谱图里 观察它们的互动
in my spectrogram to see their interaction,
它们的声音在同一声调汇合
they were meeting at the same tone.
OK 暂停
OK, pause.
雄性和雌性在唱二重唱
The males and females are singing a duet,
意思是它们调整翅膀以产生一种共同声调
meaning that they adjust their wings to be able to produce a common tone.
这只雄蚊子高唱到G音
You have the male singing up here at G,
而这只雌蚊子在低唱D音
and you have the female singing down here at D,
当它们合在一起
and when they get together,
你是说它们改变翅膀拍打频率
you’re saying that they change the frequency of their wings
这样一起合唱的?
such that they come together?
—是啊 的确如此—它们像在唱二重唱
– Yeah, exactly.- And they sort of sing a duet.
(蚊子在逐渐调整到同一音高)
[Mosquitoes graduallyadjusting to identical pitch]
它们在交流 让彼此知道
They’re communicating to let each other know
它们基本上已经找到了潜在的伴侣
that they’ve basically found a potential mate.
那么 换句话说
So in other words,
雌性倾向选择与自己唱二重唱最好的雄性
the female tends to choose a male that best sings her duet.
研究发现 如果雌性蚊子怀了孕
And studies have found that if she’s pregnant,
她便根本不在乎了
she doesn’t even bother.
所以如果我们能理解蚊子交配行为
So if we can understand the mosquito mating behavior,
我们也许能在野外阻止它
we may be able to disrupt it in the wild
预防类似疟疾的疾病
and prevent diseases like malaria.
但就目前来讲 你下次听到蚊子嗡嗡声时
But for now, the next time you hear a mosquito buzzing,
就停下 记住 她可能正沉溺在爱情里
just pause and remember she may be in love
她可能在唱歌 找寻完美伴侣
and she may be singing her song, and she may be looking for her perfect match.
[啪]
[Smack]

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视频概述

雌性蚊子和雄性蚊子发出来的声音不同,而把它们放在一起时 它们会逐渐统一至相同音高来寻找伴侣

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

昵伊荙

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rcm3rPz_Q94

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