未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

为什么很多烘焙食谱都把温度设定为175℃

The Real Reason We Bake Everything At 350 Degrees

你可能已经注意到了
You’ve probably noticed that a lot of recipes
很多诸如饼干和蛋糕的食谱
for things like cookies and cakes all seem to
好像都要求制作时处于同一温度:350华氏度
call for the same temperature: 350 degreesFahrenheit.
你会觉得不可能每种食物都是这一个温度
You’d think there would be some variation there,
那为什么是350℉呢?
so why 350?
事实上这温度并非随意规定的
It’s not actually arbitrary,
它缘于科学知识和历史的有趣结合
and the reasons why are an interesting mixture of science and history.
人们很久很久以前就开始烘焙了
Mankind has been baking for a long, long time,
但是在二战结束后
but it was only at the end of World War II
烤箱才开始能够精准控制温度
that ovens started to come with exact temperature controls.
在那之前的几十年里
In the few decades before that,
只有三种烤箱温度可供选择:
ovens tended to come with only three options for temperature:
低温 中温和高温的
slow, moderate, and hot.
如果你偶然发现了你曾祖母的食谱
If you happened to dig out any of your great-grandmother’s recipes,
你可能会对“在中温烤箱中烤”
you might be baffled by the bit
这种老说法感到困惑
that calls for baking in a “moderate” oven.
如今这套说法似乎已经过时了
It seems archaic today,
但对维多利亚时代的烘焙师来说
but it was a huge step forward over how Victorian-era bakers
判断烤箱是否够热是很重要的一步
judged whether or not their ovens were hot enough.
他们在烤箱底洒面粉来估计烤箱的温度
They estimated oven temperature by sprinkling the bottom of the oven with flour.
如果面粉没起火而只是刚开始变黑 说明温度刚好
If it didn’t catch fire and only started to blacken, then it was perfect.
千万不要在家里尝试
Don’t try this at home!
多年来 随着我们烹调技术的进步
Over the years, recipes have changed along with
食谱也在随之改变
the technology we use to cook them.
同样术语也得到更替
Old terminology was updated to new technology,
以前食谱中“中温的烤箱”
and when recipes that called for a “moderate” oven were updated,
现在来说是温度约为350℉的烤箱
the temperature was just estimated to be 350.
这个温度
A temperature which, incidentally,
一般是恰好在大多数烤箱刻度盘的正中间
is usually in the middle of most oven dials.
二十世纪早期 随着温度校准器的发明
In the early 20th century, oven technology
烤箱技术取得了很大的进步
was given a massive update with the invention of the regulator.
这是一件大事
It was a huge deal,
《纽约论坛报》上有篇文章是这样描述的
and one piece in the New York Tribune from 1919 described it like this:
“温度校准器让大多非专业的妇女能做得很专业
“The regulator makes scientific cooking possible to the most unscientific woman,
而几乎没人意识到很多完美的食谱
and few realize how many perfect recipes are spoiled
都毁于烤箱温度的掌控不当”
by the wrong handling of oven heat.”
但把你的烤箱调到350℉不代表你就是用这个温度在烘焙
But setting your oven to 350 doesn’t mean you’re actually cooking at 350.
任何烤箱的温度都会有波动
The temperature of any oven will fluctuate,
即使是一些校准度高的烤箱
with some of the most well-calibrated,
当你调到350℉时 它实际是在330℉到370℉之间的
high-end ovens set to stay between 330 and 370 when you set it to 350.
如果你实在想精确一点
If you’re trying to be exact,
买一个烤箱温度计是个不错的主意
it’s not a bad idea to invest in an oven thermometer.
如果你看过很多的烹饪节目
Watch any cooking show for long enough,
你就肯定听说过美拉德反应
and you’re going to hear about the Maillard reaction.
这是一个让食物变美味的化学反应
It’s the chemical reaction that makes cookedfood delicious.
按照《严肃饮食》智慧团的说法
According to the brainiacs over at Serious Eats,
这个反应非常复杂
it’s so complicated that scientists only began unlocking
直到21世纪科学家才开始解开这个反应的谜团
the mysteries of the reaction in the 21st century.
但是别担心 你不用去理解所有科学事实
No worries though, you don’t have to understand all the sciencey facts.
基本概念就是这所有的反应都与温度有关
The basic idea is that it all has to do with temperature.
美拉德反应只会在温度远高于沸点的时候发生
The Maillard reaction only occurs at temperatures well above boiling,
这就是为什么煮牛排
which is why a boiled steak tastes and smells
闻起来和尝起来都和烤牛排有很大不同
so completely different than a grilled one.
美拉德反应要在温度接近240℉时才生效
The reaction kicks in at temperatures
在大概300℉的时候才能达最好效果
closer to 240 degrees and gets into full gear around 300.
这样的温度下 蛋白质和糖类进行分解
At these temps, proteins and sugars break down and come back together
重新组成了能让口味和香气更丰富的物质
in a way that makes flavors and aromas more complex.
但我们还是没看到有350℉的温度
But we’re still not at 350 degrees,
那么这个数据是从哪里来的?
so where does that number come from?
高糖分低蛋白的食物
Well, foods that are high in sugars and low in proteins,
比如妈妈做的美味饼干 虽然会有一点不同
like Mom’s tried-and-true cookies, work a little differently.
但是烘焙时仍会有美拉德反应
The Maillard reaction still happens as they bake,
但是由于糖分含量高
but thanks to the high sugar content,
在高温过程中会有另一种反应发生
there’s another reaction that occurs at evenhigher temperatures.
想象一下焦糖的口感
Imagine the taste of caramel:
甜中夹杂着苦味 让人有点着迷
a mix of sweet and bitter, with just a dash of nuttiness thrown in.
味道一般和好吃的饼干有很大不同
It’s the difference between an acceptable cookie and a delicious one,
归功于能产生焦糖的反应
and you can thank the reaction called caramelization for that.
焦糖只有在温度达356℉时才会生成
Caramelization only happens when the temperature hits 356 degrees.
比350℉的烤箱温度还要高一点
That’s a little higher than your 350 degree oven,
但由于烤炉不精确的设定和温度的波动
but thanks to the inexact settings and fluctuations in temperature,
很可能让你的烤箱达比350℉还高的356℉
there’s a good chance your 350 degree oven is going to
甚至可能更高
hit 356 and probably a little above.
一旦你的饼干烤制温度达350℉及以上
Once your cookies start rising to 350 and above,
其糖类物质进行反应
that’s where the sugars react
开始形成饼干的甜味
and start forming all that sweet cookie taste.
如果焦糖反应要在最高温时才能发生
If caramelization is the reaction that happens at the highest temperatures,
那当食谱要求温度为350℉时
would raising the temp of the oven to 400
我们用400℉烤 焦糖反应效果会不会更好?
when preparing a recipe that calls for 350 make for better caramelization?
简单来说 并不是这样
The answer, simply put, is no.
如果你把温度设为400℉及以上
If you set the temperature at 400 and higher,
所有这些化学反应会发生得更快
all those chemical reactions that happen will happen faster
让你烘焙的食物烤得更不均匀
and less evenly throughout your baked goods.
这会导致食物有了奇怪的口感
That will lead to treats with odd textures,
可能会内部黏腻 表皮坚硬 还会有一股焦味
a potentially gummy inside, hard crusts, and a burnt flavor.
把烤箱温度设的比350℉低
Go with an oven that’s lower than 350,
你可以做出一个不含焦糖 漂亮松软的蛋糕
and you’ll have a light and fluffy cake with none of the caramelization.
让蛋糕色泽明亮又松软喷香的最佳温度是
The sweet spot for light-and-fluffy as well as flavor-filled is,
没错 就是350℉
you guessed it, 350.
理论上 你可以用350℉烘焙所有的食物
You can, in theory, bake everything at 350 and call it a day.
但要记得 毕竟
Less to remember, after all, but,
350℉不是你以为的烘焙所有东西的最佳温度
350 isn’t as optimal a temperature for everything as you might think.
举一个例子 千层酥饼
Take puff pastries, for one.
如果你在400℉下烤制
If you bake these at 400 degrees,
由于其层间产生的蒸汽 它会蓬得更高
they’ll rise even higher because of the steam that builds up between the layers.
面包也是 较高温度能使它更美味
Breads, too, can benefit from higher temperatures.
因为它可以在面包表层没变硬之前
That’s because it’ll make the loaf rise faster,
加快面包蓬起的速度
while the crust is still malleable.
小松饼会在较高温度下变大
Muffins baked at slightly higher temperatures will
表面隆得越来越高 那曲奇也是吗?
rise more and have a higher muffin top, and cookies?
嗯……看你的喜好了
Well, that’s all down to how you like them.
“我们要怎么烤?温度多少?”
“Okay, so what do these bake at? What temperature?”
“要在375℉下烘焙”
“They bake at 375.”
如果你喜欢的是口感外脆内软的饼干
If you like your cookies with a little more crunch on the outside and soft on the inside,
就把温度调高到375℉
raise the temperature to 375.
调高烤制温度会使你烘焙出的食物
Changing up the baking temperature will change how pretty much
产生很大的不同
any of your baked goods turn out,
所以如果你的饼干 面包 或小松饼
so if your cookies, bread or muffins seem like
看起来还不够完美 就用这些基本原理弄清楚
they’re just a little less than perfect, use those same general principles to figure out
怎样调整温度才能达到你想要的效果
how you can adjust the temperature to get what you want.
看看我们最新的视频
Check out one of our newest videos right here!
还有更多你喜欢的视频将会发布
Plus, even more Mashed videos about your favorite treats are coming soon.
订阅我们的YouTube频道
Subscribe to our YouTube channel,
设置消息提醒 这样你就不会错过我们的视频
and hit the bell so you don’t miss a single one.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

此视频介绍了从前烤箱的温度设置以及解释为什么大多食谱都要求烤箱温度在175摄氏度的原因

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

未央

审核员

审核员_BZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ehnKpEEXmE4

相关推荐