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有轨电车带来的经济效益

The real reason streetcars are making a comeback

这是华盛顿的有轨电车
This is Washington, DC’s Streetcar.
它贯穿美国首都2.2英里的混合交通网络
It runs through 2.2 miles of mixed traffic in the United States capital.
它曾经是这个城市炙手可热的37英里有轨电车网络的一部分
And it was once part of an ambitious 37 mile streetcar network for the city.
但这些计划已经彻底改变
But those plans have changed drastically.
这个项目比规定期限晚了7年才交付使用
The project was delivered 7 years past its deadline .
预算超支高达数千万美元
And tens of million dollars over budget.
项目原本是为了市民出行便利
The idea was to increase mobility for residents .
同时复兴城市里经济衰退的区域
While revitalizing an economically depressed area of the city.
但这条路并不好走……
But it’s had trouble along the way…..
相似的问题也出现在了亚特兰大和盐湖城
Similar problems sprung up in Atlanta and Salt Lake City too.
但仍有大量有轨电车重现
Still, there’s a massive resurgence of streetcars underway.
2001年至今 已有约12个有轨电车系统在全美出现
Since 2001, about a dozen streetcar systems have cropped up across the country.
但是为什么有这么多城市要修建有轨电车呢
But why do so many cities want streetcars?
最寻常的目的是基于“如果我们在附近修建更密集的
The general goal is based on the idea that if we build more densely around our transit
车站 就能说服更多人多走动 多骑自行车
stations, then we’ll convince more people to walk around, bike around, and take transit
利用它去上班 去学校或者去其他目的地”的想法
to get work to get to school and other destinations.
商家为了招揽顾客也吹捧有轨电车的能力…… 在这一带很难说出来
Streetcars are also touted for their ability to add a certain… je ne sais quoi to a neighborhood.
你知道吗 美国甚至世界上的每个城市都希望有某种
You know, every city in the country even around the world wants to have some type of train
列车能穿过他们的城市 因为他们认为那看起来是个积极 时髦
going through their city because they see it as a positive, modern looking and modern
有现代化感的公共交通系统
feeling public transportation system.
修建有轨电车的案例有历史先例
The case for building streetcars has historical precedent.
19世纪出现第一辆马车
They’ve been around since the 19th century, when they were first horse-driven.
之后 二十世纪 它的电力版本在城市里普遍流行起来
Later, in the 20th century, the electrical versions became really popular in cities.
它们直到城市把重心转向
Their popularity started to fade when cities turned their focus to building infrastructure
公共汽车与小汽车的建设才开始衰退
for buses and cars.
但在最近的十年左右 有轨电车迎来了复兴
But in the last decade or so, streetcars have made a comeback.
伴随着公共交通的兴起
There’s been a lot of excitement and enthusiasm about urban living and some of that comes
有了大量城市定居的兴趣和热情
with excitement about mass transportation.
但是大型的 传统的重轨和地铁工程非常昂贵
But big, sort of traditional heavy rail subway projects are very, very expensive.
城市需要某些它们负担的起的便宜项目
So cities look for something cheaper that they can do and a lot of them have come up
许多城市想到了有轨电车
with streetcars.
波兰的有轨电车就是其中一个 这成为其他城市的
The Portland Streetcar was one of the first in the new wave and has led the way for other
先锋
cities.
它的成功经常被作为例证引用来说明有关现代社会交通好处
Its success is often cited in proposals to exemplify the benefits of a modern transit
的案例提议
system.
然而并非所有关于有轨电车的提议都能成功
But all streetcar proposals are not created equal.
有的则是巨大成功……
Some have seen roaring success…
而其他的 比如亚特兰大和哥伦比亚区就受到了大量批评
While others, like in Atlanta and D.C see a ton of criticism
问题在于便宜的公共交通系统
The problem is that having gone for mass transit on the cheap you get transit that isn’t very
可能并不实用
useful for transportation.
看起来好看——你有了这辆奇特闪亮的新列车——但是一旦用于
It looks nice — you have this cool shiny new train — but if you’re running in mixed
混合交通系统中 你的前进非常缓慢 比传统公共汽车慢了几倍
traffic you’re gonna go as slow, or often times slower than a traditional bus.
除了步伐缓慢之外 有限的连通性也使每日往返上班者放弃了哥伦比亚特区
Aside from the slow pace, limited connectivity has kept commuters away in DC.
我在这里住了有37年 我喜欢有轨电车
I’ve been living here for 37 years and I like the streetcar.
有轨电车非常方便 只有一件事 就是
It’s convenient, the only thing I don’t like about the streetcar is that it doesn’t
它不能走得足够远
go far enough.
我宁愿乘公共汽车也不用有轨电车 因为公共汽车能直接把我带到上班地点
I wouldn’t use the streetcar over the bus because the bus takes me straight to my job.
直接带到我的上班地点
Right in front of my job.
有轨电车不能去山上 虽然这没什么意义 但是……
The streetcar doesn’t go over the hill, which I didn’t think made sense, but…
所以说 既然有轨电车不能促进通勤 为什么还需要更多的呢?
So if they’re not improving the commute, why is there a push for more streetcars?
从我的角度下 其几乎完全是设计用于推动经济发展
From my perspective they are almost entirely designed to support economic development and
而不是增加机动性
not increase mobility.
例如在波兰 策划者积极寻求有轨电车的协调发展
In Portland, for instance, planners actively sought development adjacent to the streetcar.
我们刚才讲的内容集中于发展 为了证明人们所说的
Our narrative was pretty development focused early on, to the point where people were saying
修建有轨电车的唯一的理由就是为了发展
the only the only reason you built the streetcar was for development purposes.
如今我们每天带着超过16000名乘客 很庞大的数量
Now that we’re carrying upwards of 16,000 passengers a day it’s very much a mix.
这个系统成功运行 因为波兰的有轨电车与规划者的计划相符合
The system succeeded because Portland Streetcar worked with developers to support their plan.
你真的应该看到事情发展的一面
You have to really look at the development side of things.
地面上跑着铁路 对他们至关重要
Having the rail on the ground is significantly important for them.
就他们对城市的义务而言 吸引那些刺激经济增长的投资是十分必要的
To see the commitment from the city for them to make catalytic investments is is important.
是吧?
Right?
我们要求规划者构建一些他们不太可能建造的东西 要不是
We’re asking these developers to build something that they may not build anyway, but for the
投资铁路
rail investment.
有一点让步条件
There’s a little bit of quid pro quo there.
这种以经济发展为中心的策略 也是其他项目的核心
That kind of focus on economic development is at the heart of other projects too.
布鲁克林-皇后区轻轨 亦称为BQX 这是一种达到最高水准的从阿斯托里亚到日落公园的
The Brooklyn-Queens Connector, or BQX, a state-of-the-art streetcar that will run from Astoria to Sunset
艺术街车 有潜力为我们的城市在30余年里创造超过
Park, and has the potential to generate over $25 billion of economic activity for our city
250亿美元的利润
over 30 years.
撇开预测不谈 布鲁克林——皇后区轻轨已经成为一项有争议的话题
Projections aside, the Brooklyn Queens connector has already proven to be a contentious issue.
我认为这个项目为何提前有一个很清楚的原因 就是与有轨电车项目引起举国讨论相似
I think one clear reason why the project has been advanced is, is similar to the streetcar
主要投资者对布鲁克林以及皇后区滨海部分
projects being discussed around the country which is that there is an economic development
有着基本的经济发展的需求
goal in the brooklyn and queens waterfront by some major investors who want to improve
他们希望促进正在滨海修建的新塔的交通
transportation for basically the new towers that are being constructed along the waterfront.
发展背后的动机及其影响引发了一场混乱的辩论
The motivation behind development, and its effects make for a messy debate.
建成后一年 哥伦比亚便看到了交通带来的
A year after its launch, D.C. is starting to see the development that tends to follow
发展
transit.
在H街的一系列豪华公寓 餐厅和商店催生了一场
A string of luxury apartments, restaurants and stores has fueled a real estate boom along
房地产热潮
H-street.
有证据表明 政府对于任何有助于公共利益
There is evidence that suggests that government expenditures of any sort that provide a public
的投资都将刺激发展
benefit will provide a sort of a stimulus for development
不管他们是否修建公园 不管他们是否投资于社区零售改进
You know whether their parks, whether they’re investments in neighborhood retail improvement,
不管是否修更好的人行道
whether they’re better sidewalks —
但其不必是有轨电车
but it doesn’t have to be a streetcar.
有很多吸引投资的方式 有轨电车可能不是
There are many ways to attract new investment and the streetcar may not be the ideal one
一个理想的方式 甚至正确的方式
or even the right one.

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视频概述

有轨电车并不是最好的交通方式,却有它的独到之处。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Cassic

审核员

审核员W

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RftqoygXXHk

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