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波音737 Max 8坠毁的真正原因

The Real Reason Planes Crash | Boeing 737 Max 8

Two recent flights, using the Boeing 737 max 8 aircraft
最近的两次飞行中 波音737max8
crashed due to similar altitude fluctuations
都因高空剧烈起伏而坠毁
killing everyone on board.
机上人员全部遇难
We tend to hear that flying is extremely safe
我们往往听说飞行是极其安全的方式
But why do some planes crash
但为什么有飞机会坠毁呢?
and is there a safest seat that you can choose
有没有最安全的座位可以选择呢?
or a safest time of day to fly?
或者一天中什么时候飞行最安全?
Commercial flights are incredibly safe.
商用航班非常安全
In 2017, there was one fatal accident for every 16 million flights.
2017年每1600万次飞行仅发生1次致命事故
But small private planes crash at rates similar to cars.
但小型私人飞机的事故率则与汽车相似
The majority of the accidents are due to the pilot losing control
大多数事故的原因 是驾驶失控
or controlled flight into terrain,
或飞行中飞行员没能
meaning the pilot didn’t see the ground
及时发现地形的变化
a mountain or another obstacle until it was too late.
等到发现山脉或障碍物时已经来不及躲避
In general amateur pilots have significantly less training
一般来说 业余飞行员比商用飞行员
and looser rules than commercial pilots.
训练少得多 规则也要松得多
For commercial flights, according to the Bureau of Aircraft Accidents archives,
据美国航空管理局所说 商用航班
there were 1,182 accidents between the years 2010 to 2018.
在2010年至2018年间共计发生了1182次事故
The reason for these accidents can be broken down into four main categories:
造成事故的原因主要有四种
human error, weather, mechanical error, and sabotage.
人为错误 天气 机械故障与蓄意破坏
Human error is the cause of the majority of crashes.
大多数坠机事故是人为错误造成的
Using data from 1,020 commercial flight accidents
根据1020次民航事故数据可知
these errors were predominantly skill based errors and decision errors.
人为错误主要是技术错误及决策失误
Skill based errors include not conducting proper visual scans,
技术错误包括 视觉扫描操作不当
accidentally turning on or off switches, and not complying with checklists.
意外误操作开关 违反起飞检查清单
A pre-flight checklist is a list of tasks to be performed
起飞检查清单是飞行员及机组人员
by the pilot and crew before takeoff
飞行前需要执行的任务清单
and this can significantly reduce risk.
其能显著降低飞行风险
A 2014 crash that killed seven people could have been prevented
2014年 如果机组人员完成起飞检查清单
if they had completed the pre-flight checklist
在起飞前打开阵风锁装置
and released a piece of equipment, the gust lock, before takeoff.
那么 这场7人遇难的坠机事故是能够避免的
Decision errors are conscious choices that result in poor outcomes.
决策失误是指 会造成不好后果的有意识的抉择
For example, once the pilots of that same flight realized the problem with the gust locks,
例如 那架坠机的班机驾驶员意识到阵风锁有问题后
they unsuccessfully tried to disengage the equipment,
并没有选择取消飞行
instead of stopping the flight.
而是去尝试打开装置 但是没能成功
Human error can be minimized with adequate sleep.
充足的睡眠能够尽量避免人为错误
For example, a study of 435 pilots found that
例如 一项对435名飞行员的研究发现
90% experienced fatigue
90%飞行员处于疲劳状态
and another study found an increased probability of accidents
另一项研究发现工作时间越长
as the duty time increased.
发生事故的可能性越大
A separate study of American plane accidents from 1982 to 2013
另一项对美国1982年至2013年飞机事故的研究发现
found that a quarter were related to weather.
四分之一的事故与天气有关
The most fatal weather conditions are precipitation, low cloud cover, and fog
最致命的天气是冰雹 低云 大雾
all of which impact visibility.
这些都会影响能见度
The most lethal months to travel are December and January.
飞行最危险的月份是十二月与一月
One of the deadliest crashes occurred in 1977,
最惨烈的一次事故发生在1977年
when two Boeing 747s collided into one another
当时大雾弥漫 两架波音747客机
on the runway during a period of thick fog,
在飞机跑道上相撞
583 people died.
造成583人死亡
Other studies have found that these weather conditions often involve pilots pushing the aircraft
其他一些些项研究发现 恶劣的天气经常导致
and themselves beyond their limit;
飞行员不得不挑战自己和飞机的极限
for example, Scud running, where a pilot lowers altitude to avoid flying in the clouds,
比如 飞行员为躲避云层 采取低空极速飞行
or get-home-itis, where the pilot desires to get home quickly
或者 飞行员归心似箭 渴望快点回家
and overrides their sound decision-making.
而否决了正确的决策
Mechanical errors are involved in 23% of fatal accidents.
23%的空难事故 都和机械故障有关
The main problem being engine failure.
而引擎故障是主要的问题
However, this is far less likely to occur
不过 与更小的螺旋桨飞机相比
in large jet aircrafts than in smaller propeller planes.
大型喷气式飞机发生机械故障的可能性要小很多
For example, an Air France Airbus crashed
曾经法航一架空客因空速管结冰而坠毁
killing all 228 passengers and crew due to a frozen pitot tube.
机上228名乘客及机组人员无一生还
Pitot tubes are sensors on the side of the plane, used to measure airspeed
空速管是安装在飞机一侧的传感器 用于测量空速
but when they froze over, they gave inconsistent readings.
空速管一旦被封冻 测速功能将失准
Not knowing the speed of your plane can result in deadly outcomes
无法获知准确的飞行速度非常致命
where you might under-speed, which can lead to stalling,
低速飞行容易导致飞机失速熄火
or over-speed, where the aircraft will start to break apart
而超速飞行则容易造成飞机因无法
as the structure isn’t meant for such high speeds.
承受超高的速度而断裂
Finally, the most unlikely cause of a crash is sabotage,
最后 蓄意破坏的空难事故发生率最低
accounting for 7% of airplane fatalities.
造成的死亡 占空难死亡总数的7%
These do include the September 11th terrorist attacks.
其中当然包括了 911恐怖袭击事件
Is there anything you can do to increase your chance of survival
如果不巧遇上空难 为增加生存几率
if you were in a crash?
我们能做些什么呢?
A 2007 article by Popular Mechanics
《大众机械师》2007年的一篇文章
analyzed every commercial plane crash
分析了美国自1971年以来
in the United States since 1971
发生的每一起民航事故
and found that those in the back of the plane had a 69% chance of survival
结果发现坐飞机后排的生存率达到69%
compared to a 49% chance when you’re sitting at the front.
而坐飞机前排的生存率仅为49%
In 2012, an uncrewed Boeing 727
2012年一架满载模拟测试假人的波音
filled with crash test dummies found similar results.
727无人驾驶飞机测试证实了这一点
The front wasn’t the best place to sit.
前排并不是最好的座位
This is why we have the black box, a highly protected box resistant to fire and explosion
因此飞机黑匣子会安装在飞机后面
that records data and cockpit audio, and it’s located at the back of the plane.
黑匣子防火防爆 专门用于记录飞机数据及驾驶舱音频信息
This data has been very helpful in linking the tragic
这些数据非常有用
Ethiopian Airlines flight 302 to the Indonesian Lion Air flight 610,
曾证明了埃塞航空302航班失事与印尼狮航610航班失事有相似之处
where in both cases altitudes fluctuated sharply.
这两个航班飞行高度都曾经剧烈起伏过
Learning from these black boxes helps minimize these horrifying events,
分析黑匣子有助于我们尽量避免事故发生
and though devastating, it is important to remember that
虽灾难具有毁灭性 但要知道
air travel remains our safest means of transportation.
航空旅行仍然是最安全的交通方式
Thank you so much for watching.
感谢您的观看
You can click over there to watch our video
您还可以点击观看视频
what would happen if your plane door burst open mid-flight? It’s horrifying.
飞行中舱门如果突然打开 会发生什么恐怖的事情
Also, if you want to keep up to date on the latest science news
同样如果你想了解最新的科学要闻
and scientific takes on controversial topics,
以及 关于争议性话题的科学看法
make sure to check out our podcast sidenote.
请留意我们的博客旁注
We put links over there and in the description as well.
旁注和描述中都有我们的视频链接
Our latest episode was about vaccines.
我们最新一期的视频 说的是疫苗
Make sure you subscribe for more science videos every Thursday
想观看更多每周四更新的科学视频 一定要记得订阅哟
and we’ll see you next week.
我们下周再见

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视频概述

了解商用航班的安全性以及发生坠机事故的原因

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Anne.C

审核员

审核员SR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1g08KdecSDY

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