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NASA没有将人类送往火星的真正原因

The Real Reason NASA Hasn't Sent Humans To Mars

三十年前我们本应是可以到达火星的
– [Man] We could’ve beenon Mars 30 years ago.
在70年代阿波罗时代的巅峰时
At the peak of the Apolloera in the early-’70s,
NASA早已计划好迈入未知的下一步
NASA was already planning itsnext step into the unknown.
计划包括建立多个空间站
Its plans included buildingmultiple space stations,
继续飞向月球
continued trips to the Moon,
以及在80年代首次登上火星
and its first crude missionto Mars by the 1980s.
你能想象到当随身听面世时
Can you imagine watchingastronauts walk on Mars
宇航员在火星上漫步吗
the same time the Walkman came out?
当然 在80年代它未曾将人送往火星
But of course, NASA never senthumans to Mars in the’80s.
如今 30年已去
And here we are, 30 years later,
我们依旧在幻想着去往火星的可能
still dreaming of the possibility.
但主要原因却不是技术或者是创新
But the reason isn’t necessarily a matter of technology or innovation.
而实际上 是政治
It actually comes down to politics.
NASA未将人类送往火星的真正原因
作为政府机构 NASA的方向由行政部门指定
As a government agency, NASA’s goals are determined by the executive branch.
自创立以来 NASA服务过12任总统
Since its inception, NASA hasserved under 12 presidents.
一开始就知道
And it was clear near the start
并非每一任总统都会支持NASA
that not every president would support NASA equally.
在1974年尼克松总统任期届满前
By the end of the NixonAdministration in 1974,
NASA的预算从联邦预算的4%
NASA’s budget had plummetedfrom 4% of the federal budget
削减至不及1%
to less than 1%.
本预算到位的阿波罗18号和19号被取消
Fully funded Apollo missions18 and 19 were abandoned,
还有阿波罗20号
along with Apollo 20.
同期 尼克松将NASA的目标
At the same time, Nixonpulled NASA’s focus
从月球和火星转到了近地轨道上
away from the Moon and Mars and instead towards low-Earth orbit.
他的离职礼物就是签署
His parting gift was to sign into effect
最终NASA的航天飞机项目
what would eventually becomeNASA’s Space Shuttle Program,
而这仅仅只是开始
but this was just the beginning.
这段太空历史自始至终发生了什么
– So, what’s happenedthroughout all of space history
自阿波罗项目启动停止启动停止而取消后
after the Apollo program was over was we had thisstart-stop-start-stop-cancel. So,
一个总统出现 就像布什总统来了
a president comes in,like President Bush comes in
就说我们要登月 要去火星
and says we’re gonna goto the Moon, back to Mars,
而下任总统登台便取消
and then the next presidentcomes in and cancels that.
然后下下任又立项
And the next president sets their objective,
下下下任又登台取消
and the next president comes in and cancels that.
这个机构无法保持
The agency’s unable to sustain
始终如一地投入资金做任何一件事
consistent funding long enough to do anything.
直到航天飞机项目
– [Man] It wasn’t until the Space Shuttle Program
步入尾声时 去往火星的任务
was nearing its end that a crude mission to Mars
最终才被一位美国总统所考虑并予以资金
was finally considered andfunded by a US president.
乔治·布什总统 在2004年宣布道
George W. Bush, in 2004, announced–
对于探索未来 我们会赋予NASA新的目标和前景
– We will give NASA a new focus and vision for future exploration.
我们将建造新的飞船
We will build new ships
将人类送上太空
to carry man forward into the universe,
在月球上建立新的据点
to gain a new foothold on the Moon.
于是 NASA的重返月球计划诞生了
– [Man] As a result, NASA’sConstellation program was born.
没听过?
Never heard of it?
因为它几年后就被取消了
That’s because it wascanceled a few years later.
其目的是将原油
It aimed to send a crude
于2020年送向月球
mission to the Moon in 2020
并于本世纪30年代载人送往火星
and land the first humanson Mars by the 2030s.
而当奥巴马宣誓上任时
By the time Obama was sworn in,
计划现实落后于预期 并且超支
the Constellation program was behind schedule and over-budget.
一年后 奥巴马完全取消掉了
One year later, Obama canceled 100%
该项目的资金
of the program’s funding.
全部都将改变
– All that has to change.
而且根据我今天所概括的战略 它定将改变
And with the strategy I’moutlining today, it will.
奥巴马将NASA的目标
– [Man] Obama shifted NASA’s focus
从载人去往月球和火星
from sending people to the Moon and Mars
改为仅仅只有火星
to ultimately just Mars.
同时 奥巴马向国会申请在接下来5年内
In the process, Obama asked Congress to increase NASA’s budget
提高NASA预算60亿美元
by $6 billion over the next five years.
于是 2010年NASA直接启动去往火星的行程
As a result, NASA launched its Journey to Mars initiative in 2010,
目标是在本世纪30年代早期
with a goal to send humans into orbit around Mars
将人类送往火星附近的轨道
by the early-2030s.
而到近期 它的主要部分已步入正轨
And until recently, NASA, for the most part, was on track.
然而 发生了这件事
But then, this happened.
特朗普总统重启国家航天委员会
– President Trump has relaunchedthe National Space Council
在十月委员会的揭幕会议上
and at the council’sinaugural meeting in October,
我们一致通过一份
we unanimously approved a recommendation
令NASA让美国航天员重返月球的建议
to instruct NASA to returnAmerican astronauts to the Moon,
而对于火星任务的资金将被搁置
and from there to lay a foundation for a mission to Mars.
真够奇怪 特朗普和
– [Man] Oddly enough, the space policy
奥巴马的航天政策看起来简直是一样的
under Trump and Obama look nearly identical,
却除了这63个词
except for 63 words.
这63个词中
In those 63 words,
特朗普政府主动将目标改为
Trump’s administration has shifted the focus once again
先是月球 而后火星
to a Moon-first, Mars-later initiative.
NASA也不觉得新鲜了
NASA isn’t new to this.
它学会将旧项目回收重做来适应新项目
It’s learned to recycle oldprojects to fit new missions.
就像猎户航天器最初是为了重返月球而做
For instance, the Orion capsule was first developed for Constellation
后来便为了火星征程而重新设计
and has since been redesignedfor a journey to Mars.
但这也无法阻止这无可避免的更改
But even that can’t preventthe unavoidable changes
NASA的项目现在面临着新的总统
NASA programs now faceunder the new president.
同样的 我们将重组组织的构架
– As such, we’re also gonna realign the organizational structure
以最好地适应此次新的探索重点
to best meet this new exploration focus.
我已请史蒂夫•尤尔奇克
I’ve asked Steve Jurczyk,
目前的空间技术任务理事会会长
the current head of Space Technology Mission Directorate,
领导致力于设计一个新的编制方式
to lead an effort to design a new organizational approach.
随着NASA的发展
– [Man] As NASA pushes on,
这片土地上衍生了另一种可能性
a new possibility hasgrown on the horizon.
私人太空公司 像SpaceX
Privately-owned spacecompanies like SpaceX
亦将目光投向了红色星球
have also set theirsights on the Red Planet.
NASA的科学家和工程师们令人惊叹
– The scientists andengineers at NASA are amazing
他们做了许多非凡的事
and they’ve done extraordinary things,
但仍有一些害怕风险的人使得我们无法
but there’s still a riskaversion that doesn’t allow us
做任何新颖的 科幻的 令人不安的事
to do things that are new and novel and on the edge.
但有这些企业家愿意承担风险
It’s these entrepreneurswilling to take risks
将一切回归正轨
and put everything on the line.
去往火星之间的追逐仍在继续
– [Man] The race for Mars is on.
虽然NASA近几年和SpaceX等
While NASA has closelypartnered with SpaceX
其他私人太空公司紧密合作
and other privately-owned spacecompanies in recent years,
或许并不是NASA最后来
ultimately it might not be NASA
书写人类太空探索的新篇章
who writes the next chapterin human space exploration.

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译制信息
视频概述

无法纯粹的探索宇宙,或许不是因为科技的禁锢,不是因为地球的束缚,而是因为政治的囚牢

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

zohar

审核员

审核员 EY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3iMlOH6hdOw

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