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为什么减肥如此之难 – 译学馆
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为什么减肥如此之难

The Real Reason It's So Hard to Lose Weight

《科学秀》
Sience Show
减肥难 真的 真的 真的 很难
Losing weight is hard, Like really, really, really hard.
绝大多数尝试减肥的人
The overwhelming majority of people who try to do it
都以失败告终或是反弹回来 有时甚至更胖
don’t succeed or end up gaining back what they lose, sometimes more.
那不仅是因为披萨太好吃了
And that’s not just because pizza is amazing.
更有事实证明 你的身体会拖后腿
It turns out your body actually pushes back
当你尝试减肥时
when you attempt to slim down.
储存在脂肪组织里的脂肪
The fat stored in your adipose tissue
是一种富含能量的物质
is a super energy-rich substance
使身体能在必要时 为细胞提供能量
that your body can use in a pinch to fuel your cells.
如果你出于什么原因不能吃东西
If you can’t eat for whatever reason,
或者你只是需要一点额外的能量来生长或繁殖
or you just need a little extra energy to grow or reproduce,
你的身体就会分解脂肪
your body can turn to your fat,
那就是为什么从生存的角度来说
which is why from a survival perspective,
有些脂肪其实是件好事
having some fat is actually a good thing!
但是 你可能会认为减肥很简单
Still you’d think that losing weight wouldbe pretty straightforward
只需要吃得比身体需要的少
just eat less than you need,
强迫身体消耗一些脂肪
and force your body use up some of its fat,
达到理想的体型后 再回到正常的饮食量
then go back to eating a normal amount when you’re the size you want to be.
但是身体可不想失去能量储备
But the body doesn’t want to lose its energy buffer
无论多少
no matter how large or small it is,
所以当你减少卡路里摄入时
so when you cut calories,
身体会做出反应 反而使你更难减肥
it reacts in ways that ultimately make it harder to lose weight.
重新长胖很多时候是由激素导致的
A lot of the push back is driven by changes to hormones.
其中最重要的是瘦素
One of the most important is leptin,
一种由脂肪细胞分泌的激素
a hormone secreted by your fat cells.
脂肪细胞越大 产生的瘦素就越多
The larger your fat cells are, the more leptin they produce.
所以当你减肥的时候 瘦素水平就会下降
So when you lose weight, leptin levels drop.
大脑中的某些部分 比如下丘脑
Parts of your brain like your hypothalamus
会把瘦素减少解读为饥饿
interpret less leptin as starvation,
然后它会介入进来 告诉你的身体
and it jumps in and starts telling your body
要节约能量 多吃点东西 来重建能量储备
to conserve energy and to eat more to rebuild those reserves.
其他器官也会向你的大脑抱怨
Other organs also use hormones to complain to your brain
能量摄入的减少
about the decrease in fuel intake.
胃通过提高饥饿素的指标
Stomach tells your brain it’s not getting filled
告知大脑它尚未充满
by increasing levels of the hormone ghrelin.
同时 胰腺减少分泌可调节血糖的胰岛素
At the same time, your pancreas secretes less insulin,
和可提示饱腹的胰淀素
which regulates blood sugar and amylin, which signals fullness.
所以当你减少卡路里摄入时 胃释放的饥饿素水平上升
So when you cut calories, ghrelin levels rise
而胰岛素和胰淀素水平迅速下降
and insulin and amylin levels plummet,
这会让你的大脑增加食欲 让你感觉到饿了
signalling your brain to increase appetite, making you feel ravenous.
除了改变你的饥饿感之外
In addition to changing how hungry you feel,
一系列的研究表明
a suite of studies have suggested
大脑对于这些激素变化做出的反应是
your brain responds to these hormonal changes
让你更清楚地感觉到自己没有吃到食物
by making you more aware of all the food you’re not eating,
如果你就此放弃减肥 反而会更加愉悦
and upping the pleasure you feel if you do cave in.
同时 你身体的其他部分会变得更加节能
Meanwhile the rest of your body becomes moreenergy-efficient.
例如 肌肉会改变获得能量的方式
For example, your muscles change where theyget their fuel.
当肌肉需要能量的时候
When your muscles need energy,
它们通常会同时消耗储存的脂肪和循环的葡萄糖
they generally use a mix of stored fat and circulating glucose.
但是当你节食时 它们更依赖葡萄糖
But when you’re on a calorie-restricted diet, they rely more heavily on glucose,
所以它们最终会从摄入食物中获取更多能量
so they end up pulling more energy from the foods you eat,
而不是从那些你尝试消耗的脂肪中
instead of those fat stores you’re trying to lose.
它们还会做出其他节能调整
They also make other small changes to become more efficient,
其他身体组织也是如此
and so do other tissues in your body.
真正令人恼火的事情是
Here’s the really annoying thing:
当你停止节食时 激素释放的饥饿信号不会停止
this hormonal starvation signal doesn’t stop when you stop dieting.
那使得瘦素水平很有意义
That makes sense for leptin,
因为它基于你所具有的脂肪量而产生
since it’s based on the amount of fat you have.
但其他激素受摄入食物影响
But other hormones which generally respond to food intake
会保持在一个较低的分泌状态
can stay on that slower production cycle.
即使当你已经恢复正常的饮食
Even when you return to normal eating,
这些激素仍会多年保持在一个较低的分泌状态
and these hormones can stay altered for years.
因此 即使你不再限制卡路里摄入
So even when you’ve stopped restricting calories,
你的身体会表现得如同它依然饥饿一样
your body continues to act as being starved.
这是减肥的人经常反弹的一个重要原因
which is a big part of why people who lose weight often gain it back.
更糟糕的是
To make matters worse,
即使重新胖回来 也不会让你的身体摆脱节能模式
even regaining the weight doesn’t shift your body out of energy-efficient mode.
一般来说 你的体重越小
In general, the smaller you are,
你需要提供的能量越少
the less energy you need to fuel everything.
但这并不是简单线性关系
But it’s not a simple, linear relationship.
每消耗一公斤体重所需的能量
How much energy you use per kilo at any given body weight
会根据你曾经更瘦还是更胖而变化
varies depending on whether you’ve ever been heavier or skinnier.
这个结果在2016年的一项研究中清晰可见
And this effect could be clearly seen in a 2016 study
这项研究持续六年跟踪记录一项电视减肥比赛的选手
which followed contestants from a televised weight loss competition for six years.
研究人员尤其关注选手的静息代谢率
particularly the researchers looked at the participants’ resting metabolic rates,
也就是他们在休息时身体会消耗多少卡路里
the calories their bodies burned at rest.
这基本上是人体维持细胞正常运转的最低能量代谢量
It’s basically a measure of the minimum amount of energy needed to keep a person’s cells running.
经过三十周的比拼后
After the 30 week contest,
这14位选手平均减掉了约58千克
the 14 participants lost an average of about 58 kilograms,
他们的静息代谢率每天下降610卡路里
and their resting metabolic rates dropped by about610 calories per day.
然而 在跟踪记录的之后一年里
In the years that followed, though,
他们体重平均回增41公斤
they gained back an average of 41 kilos,
不过静息代谢率却未能相应回调
and their metabolic rates didn’t go back up accordingly.
最终 他们每天消耗的热量比最终体重时应该消耗的热量少消耗500卡路里
They ended up burning 500 calories a day less than they should have at their final weights.
这意味着如果未来他们想减肥
Which means to lose weight in the future,
他们必须要比第一次减肥时 更严格约束自己
they’d have to restrict themselves even more than they did the first time around.
很多其他的研究也得出了类似的结论
Lots of other studies have come to similar conclusions.
人们减肥之后 即使又胖了回来
After people lose weight, even if they gain it back,
他们每公斤体重消耗的卡路里
their bodies simply use fewer calories per kilogram
比体重没有变化的相似身材的人少
than similarly sized people whoseweight hasn’t changed.
这意味着相比从没胖过的人他们必须吃更少
And that means they have to eat less
来保持现在的体重
to stay at that weight than people who were never heavier,
如果吃多了 他们会更容易增加体重
and they gain weight faster if theydo overeat.
现在还不清楚 这些抵抗减重的能量减耗 会持续多久
It’s not yet clear just how long all these anti-weight loss changes last
或者这个变化是否会完全消失
or if they ever completely go away.
但不同的人 身体会遇到不同程度的阻力
But not everyone experiences the same degree of resistance from their bodies.
科学家仍在尝试弄清人体基因
Scientists are still trying to figure out how our person’s genetics,
摄入食物及其他因素 如何影响人们对节食的反应
the foods they eat, and other factors affect how a person responds to dieting.
但是考虑到身体如此强烈地阻止减肥
But given how fiercely the body can fight slimming down,
也难怪这么多人要和减肥苦苦做斗争
it’s no wonder so many people struggle with it.
感谢观看本期《科学秀》
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow!
特别感谢Patreon上赞助我们的人们
And thanks especially to our patrons on Patreon.
是你们一直的支持 才能让我们制作这样的教育视频
Your continued support is what allows us to make educational videos like this one.
如果你喜欢我们做的事 请继续帮助我们
If you like what we do and want us to help us keep doing it,
你可以访问Patreon.com/SciShow了解更多关于加入我们赞助团体的信息
you can learn more about joining our patron community at Patreon.com/SciShow

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视频概述

详细介绍了人体内部产生哪些变化 来阻碍减肥的原理

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=orh1W0sxCQI

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