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人为什么会长虎牙?

The Real Reason Humans Have Those Sharp Front Teeth

Narrator: Lions have them, hippos have them,
狮子有 河马有
and even you and I have them: canines,
甚至你和我都有 它们就是虎牙
those long, pointy front teeth.
这些又长又尖的前牙
They’re actually the longest teeth in the human mouth.
实际上是人类嘴里最长的牙齿
So what are these long, sharp teeth doing
那么 相比于嘴里粗短的牙齿
among our short, stubby ones?
这些长而尖的牙齿是用来做什么的呢?
Well, contrary to popular belief,
与人们普遍的看法相反
it’s not for tearing and ripping meat.
虎牙不是用来撕扯肉的
The real reason is actually much more romantic than that.
真正的原因其实要比这更加浪漫
为什么人类拥有这些锋利的前牙
Human men today have 10% longer canines than women,
现代男性的虎牙要比女性的长10%
and this difference isn’t unique to our species.
而且这种差别并不独属于人类
Our close relatives, gorillas,
我们的近亲大猩猩
have it as well to an even larger extent.
它们之间的差别要比人类大得多
Males’ canines are twice as long as females’.
雄性的虎牙是雌性的两倍长
That’s because in gorilla society,
因为在大猩猩的社会里
males compete for exclusive mating rights to the entire female troop,
雄性大猩猩要为整个雌性群体的专属交配权而竞争
and the male with the longest, most intimidating set of fangs usually wins.
拥有最长最吓人犬齿的雄性大猩猩通常会取得胜利
Over time, gorillas have evolved increasingly longer canines,
随着时间推移 大猩猩不断进化出更长的虎牙
but when it comes to humans,
但一说到人类
our teeth took a different evolutionary path.
我们的牙齿选择了一条不同的进化之路
Our canines have actually become shorter over time.
我们的虎牙随时间地推移变得越来越短
Just look at the canines on the first human, Ardipithecus ramidus,
只要看一看最早的人类——地猿 就可以知道
or Australopithecus anamensis versus modern humans.
或者将湖畔南方古猿和现代人类进行对比
In fact, our canines today are the shortest they’ve ever been,
事实上 如今人类的虎牙是有史以来最短的
and the difference between male and female canines got less pronounced as well.
男女之间的虎牙差异也变得不那么明显
That’s because unlike modern gorillas
那是因为 与现代大猩猩不同
who take after our shared ancient ancestors,
虽然它们与人类共同的远古祖先很像
human men eventually stopped fighting
但人类在牙齿的进化过程中
with their teeth somewhere along the way.
最终停止了使用牙齿来搏斗
Now, scientists aren’t entirely sure why this happened,
科学家至今尚未完全确定其原因
but one possibility is that our babies grew increasingly defenseless,
但一种可能性是人类的婴儿变得越来越弱小
so males had to spend more time on childcare
所以男性不得不花更多的时间照顾小孩
and less time on winning a mate.
花更少的时间去争夺交配权
As a result, all that’s left in our mouths today
结果是 如今我们嘴里所留下的
is the memory of a more slobbery method of one awing our peers.
更多只是个喷着口水吓唬同类的记忆而已
That’s right, those canines you carry around today aren’t particularly useful.
确实 如今你拥有的虎牙并不是特别有用
For one thing, they’re not long enough to grab
一方面 人类的虎牙不够长
and hold on to prey the way lions use them,
不能像狮子那样用来抓捕和控制猎物
and they’re not big enough to intimidate predators ‘ arrivals the way hippos use them.
也不够大 不能像河马一样用来吓退捕食者
Instead, they help us bite into food. That’s it.
但它们能帮助我们咬入食物 如此而已
Turns out, evolution isn’t always useful,
事实证明 进化不总是有用的
but while the truth about our canines might be disappointing,
尽管人类虎牙的真相会让人失望
those teeth are still pretty amazing
但这些牙齿依然让人感到十分震惊
because anthropologists use canine size and shape
因为人类学家利用虎牙的大小和形状
to help track when humanlike ancestors evolved.
来帮助追踪类人祖先进化的时间
So in a way, our tiny canines make us who we are.
所以在某种程度上 是小小的虎牙造就了今天的我们

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视频概述

人类虎牙的进化和作用。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

三十四

审核员

审核员GS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fu3AGteE210

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