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两架波音737 MAX失事的真正原因 – 译学馆
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两架波音737 MAX失事的真正原因

The real reason Boeing's new plane crashed twice

这是一个飞机引擎
This is an airplane engine.
它位于埃塞俄比亚比绍夫图的一片田野中
It’s sitting in a field in Bishoftu, Ethiopia–
是2019年3月10日坠毁的
part of the wreckage of Ethiopian Airlines
埃塞俄比亚航空302航班残骸的一部分
Flight 302, which crashed on March 10, 2019.
157人遇难
157 people died.
仅仅几个月之前 另一个航班 狮航610号航班
This was just a few months after another flight, Lion Air 610,
在印度尼西亚坠毁 造成189人遇难
crashed in Indonesia and killed 189 people.
这两个航班都由同一个机型执飞:波音737 MAX 8
These two flights were operating the sameplane: The Boeing 737 MAX 8.
它的引擎是
And its engine is the key
理解这个机型为什么
to understanding why this particular plane
引起了如此多问题的关键
has caused so many problems.
但引擎本身其实并没有毛病
But there’s nothing actually wrong with thisengine.
实际上 是飞机制造商争相把它安装到新飞机上
In fact, airplane manufacturers raced to put them on their new planes.
问题就是从这里出现的
That’s where the problem started.
全球最大的两家飞机制造商是空客和波音
The two biggest airplane manufacturers in the world are Airbus and Boeing.
两家公司之间竞争激烈
And they have a fierce rivalry.
如果其中的一家能够生产出更好的飞机
If one of them can offer a better plane,
另一家就可能蒙受巨大损失
the other could lose a lot of money.
这恰好是2010年要发生的情况
That’s exactly what was about to happen in2010.
空客宣布要改进他们最受欢迎的机型
Airbus announced that they would update their most popular model,
A320 一种单通道飞机
the A320, a single-aisle
它执飞了大量的国内航线
airplane that services many domestic flights.
你可能也曾经坐过
You’ve probably been on one.
在这个新机型上 空客做了一个大改进
For this new plane, Airbus had a big update.
它将装载一种新的引擎
It would have a new kind of engine.
比之前的引擎大得多
It was much larger than the previous engine,
但却会使飞机的燃油效率提高15%
but it would make the plane 15 percentmore fuel efficient.
同样重要的是 这一升级并不会让飞机有什么大的变化
And just as importantly, this upgrade wouldn’t change the plane that much.
飞行员走进新的机型
A pilot could walk into the new model,
只要经过一点额外训练 就能操作飞机了
with little additional training, and be on their way.
这个机型叫做A320 NEO
It was called the A320 NEO,
它可以为航空公司节省一大笔开支
and it would save airlines a lot of money.
这给波音带来了麻烦
This was a problem for Boeing.
为了和空客竞争
To compete with Airbus,
显然波音的做法就是要给他们的单通道机型
Boeing’s obvious move was to upgrade the engine on their single-aisle plane,
波音737升级引擎
the 737.
但是存在一个问题
But there was one issue.
这是737放在空客A320旁边的草图
Here’s a sketch of the 737 next to the AirbusA320.
可以注意到737的离地高度比A320更小
Notice how the 737 is lower to the ground than the A320.
这意味着空客可以在A320的机翼下放入新引擎
This meant Airbus could slide a new engine under the wing of their A320.
但是波音737的机翼下空间则不够大
But there wasn’t enough room under the wing of the Boeing 737.
然而几个月之后 波音的产品研发主任发布了重大消息
But a few months later, Boeing’s product development head had big news.
他说 我们找到了一种
He said:” We figured out a
在机翼下方塞下足够大引擎的方法了
way to get a big enough engine under the wing.”
他们的解决措施就是将引擎在机翼上的位置上移
Their solution was to move up the engine on the wing,
使之略微升高
so that it would be slightly higher
以能够装上737客机
and it would fit on their 737s.
这是改进后的737飞行的宣传片
Here’s a promotional video of that updated737 in the air.
你可以看到引擎的顶端实际上高于机翼
You can actually see that the top of the engine is above the wing.
波音将这个机型称为737 MAX
Boeing called this model the 737 MAX.
而且 就如空客对A320的描述一样
And just like Airbus with the A320,
波音说他们的新飞机和它的前身十分接近
Boeing said their new plane was so similar to its
只需要飞行员进行最低限度的额外训练
predecessor that pilots would only need minimaladditional training.
737 MAX成为了市面上最为热销的机型
The 737 MAX became the hottest selling planeon the market.
它帮助波音得以和空客齐头并进
And it helped Boeing keep up with AirBus. Except,
但是 将737的引擎移高有一个副作用
moving the engine up on the 737 had a side effect.
当737 MAX以全推力前进时
When the 737 MAX was in full thrust,
比如起飞过程中 机鼻会有过度上扬的倾向
like during takeoff, the nose tended to point too
这可能会导致失速
far upward, which could lead to a stall.
这是个问题
This was a problem,
因为新机型的飞行表现理应和原来的机型一模一样
because these planes were supposed to behave exactly like the old ones.
所以波音想出了一个变通的措施
So Boeing came up with a workaround.
他们没有重新设计飞机 而是安装了一个
Instead of re-engineering the plane, theyinstalled software that automatically pushed
在飞行员操作使机鼻仰角过大时
the nose downward if the pilot flew the plane
自动压低机鼻的软件
at too high of an angle.
他们把软件叫做机动特性增强系统 简称MCAS
They called it the Maneuvering CharacteristicsAugmentation System, or MCAS.
但因为波音是把737 MAX
But because Boeing was selling the 737 MAX
作为和737大致相同的飞机来销售
as pretty much the same plane as the 737,
他们并没有强调新的MCAS系统的存在
they didn’t highlight the new MCAS system.
很多飞行员在首次进入驾驶舱前
Many pilots only got a two-hour iPad course
只在iPad上进行过两小时的教程学习
before entering the cockpit for the first time.
而且 训练材料也没有提到MCAS软件
And the training material did not mention the MCAS software.
2018年 一些美国飞行员
In 2018, several American pilots
向联邦政府抱怨说737 MAX
complained to the federal government that the 737 MAX
出现“机鼻突然向下”的情况
was”suddenly nosing down.”
2018年10月29日 狮航610号航班从雅加达起飞
On October 29, 2018, Lion Air Flight 610 took off from Jakarta.
在飞行报告中
In the flight report,
显示了飞机高度随时间的变化 可以看到飞机
which shows the plane’s altitude over time, you can see that the plane
在起飞时是全推力的
was in full thrust during takeoff.
但在某一点处 飞机的机鼻突然开始不断向下
But at a certain point, the nose of the plane kept lurching downward.
飞行员不明白为什么会发生这种情况
The pilots couldn’t figure out why this washappening.
机长要求副驾驶查阅快速检查单
The captain”asked the first officer to checkthe quick reference handbook.”
但他们找不出解决的办法
They couldn’t find the solution.
飞行员继续和MCAS搏斗
The pilots continued to fight with the MCAS.
飞机无法爬升
The plane struggled to gain altitude.
报告显示 可能是
Reports show it was likely
电脑从传感器得到了错误数据
because the computer was getting incorrect sensor data, pushing
所以才压低机头使飞机向地面俯冲
the plane toward the earth below.
起飞12分钟后 飞机坠入爪哇海
12 minutes after takeoff, the plane crashedinto the Java Sea.
在埃航空难中
In the Ethiopia crash,
报告显示飞行员实际上成功关闭了MCAS
the report shows that the pilots were actually able to disable the MCAS,
但是为时已晚 没能挽回故障的MCAS传感器造成的影响
but it was too late to overcome the malfunctioning MCAS sensors.
现在 几乎所有服役中的737 MAX 8都已停飞
For now, nearly every 737 MAX 8 in service has been grounded.
联邦航空管理局要接受对他们
And the Federal Aviation Administration is facing scrutiny
如何草率地给这个机型
over how they rushed this
颁发了适航许可证的审查
plane through certification.
波音的回应是会对软件进行更新 使MCAS更不具侵略性
Boeing’s response has been to apply a softwareupdate and make the MCAS”less aggressive,”
他们也表示 将会确保飞行员学会如何关闭系统
while also saying they’ll increase pilot training on how to turn it off.
这一问题源于一家公司与其对手的竞争
This problem started with a company’s race to compete with its rival.
这让他们假称新的机型和旧机型
It pushed them to pretend like their new plane behaved exactly
表现一致
like their old one.
即使实际上两者并不一致
Even when it didn’t.

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视频来源

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