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棕榈油到底有什么问题?

The real problem with Palm Oil.

This video is sponsored by Dashlane.
本视频由Dashlane赞助播出
Oil palms,
油棕
known for the oil its fruits produce.
因果实能压榨出油而为人熟知
These trees are consuming the countryside and rainforests
这些树正以惊人的速度吞噬着
of Indonesia and Malaysia at a shocking pace.
马来西亚和印度尼西亚的乡村和热带雨林
And this massive terraforming endeavor is all heppanning
而这种大规模的土地改造活动是为了满足
to satisfy demand from western countries hooked
西方国家对棕榈油替代能力的需求
on palm oil ’s ability to replace more costly alternatives
从洗发水到披萨 各种产品中的昂贵油脂
in products spanning from shampoos to pizza doughs.
都可以用棕榈油替代
If you look closely, palm oil is everywhere.
仔细观察就会发现 棕榈油无处不在
Yet, it can often disguise itself with sneaky aliases on ingredient lists.
而通常在原料清单里 人们会悄悄使用别名来掩盖它
The ubiquity of palm oil has become such a hot-button issue
棕榈油的无处不在已经成为了一个敏感话题
that the European Union decided
因此欧盟决定
to ban subsidies of palm oil in biofuels by 2020.
到2020年将取消生物燃料中棕榈油的补贴
The oil is shrouded in controversy and skepticism.
棕榈油饱受着争议和怀疑
I want to know whether the environmental impact of
我想知道棕榈油消费带来的环境影响
palm oil consumption warrants these drastic measures,
是否能证明这些严厉措施是正当的
whether boycotting or banning palm oil is a reasonable solution.
抵制或禁止棕榈油是否是一个合理的解决办法
While palm oil often ends up in products
棕榈油大部分用在美国和
consumed mostly in the US and Europe.
和欧盟的产品中
The story of palm oil’s environmental devastation
而棕榈油破坏环境的事情却
lies rooted in Indonesia and Malaysia
发生在印度尼西亚和马来西亚
Combined these two countries satisfy
这两个国家加起来满足了全球
90% of the global demand for palm oil.
90%的棕榈油需求
Through a medley of small landholders and large corporations
经过小土地所有者以及大公司开发
rural land has been transformed
农村土地已经被改造为
into an oil palm monocropping factory
单一种植油棕的工厂
According to one analysis, from 1990 to 2010
根据1990到2010年的数据分析
9.6 million hectares of land were converted
印度尼西亚 马来西亚和巴布亚新几内亚
to industrial oil palm farms in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea
共有960万公顷的土地被改造成油棕农场
That being said, the makeup of the land
也就是说 改造前的土地组成
before conversion varied widely, and as a result,
是多种多样的 而改造后的结果是
the environmental impacts of this massive land transformation is contextual.
大规模的土地改造会直接影响环境
One study conducted by Forest Watch Indonesia claims
印度尼西亚森林监控的研究表示
that while some of this deforestation is government sanctioned,
尽管政府允许采伐一部分的森林
almost 50 % of natural forest loss is located
但大约50%的自然森林消失发生在
outside of lands zoned for logging or production.
砍伐区和生产区的土地之外
And it’s this act of rapidly terraforming forest land
也正是这种快速将森林土地
into neat rows of oil palms that
改造成整排油棕树的行为
has led to a backlash against palm oil products.
使棕榈油产品遭到了强烈的抵制
Not only is the loss of rainforest a problem
不仅热带雨林的消失是个问题
due to the subsequent loss of the ability
由于热带雨林以后吸收大量
to sequester large amounts of carbon,
二氧化碳的能力将会消失
but it also means the destruction of rich biodiverse habitats.
同时也意味着丰富多样的生物栖息地会遭到破坏
And often, the easiest and cheapest way
而通常 使大片森林转变为农产地
to ready large swaths of forest for production
的最简单和最廉价的方法
is through burning.
就是焚烧
In the case of trees,
在这样的情况下
this compounds the environmentally damaging act of clear-cutting by releasing
焚烧产生的浓烟释放出大量的二氧化碳到大气中
large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere via smoke.
加剧了环境的恶化
Another peer-reviewed study on oil palm deforestation found
其他关于油棕树毁坏森林的研究发现
that between 1990 and 2010,
在1990到2010年期间
net carbon dioxide emissions from land use change
由于油棕树种植业使土地用途改变
due to oil palm plantations increased from 92
印度尼西亚 马来西亚和巴布亚斯几内亚的
to 184 Teragrams of Carbon dioxide per year
二氧化碳净排放量从9.2亿吨/年
in Indonesia, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea.
增长到了18.4亿吨/年
That’s an increase of the equivalent of roughly
这个增长量相当于
36,800 Olympic sized swimming pools of Carbon dioxide more per year.
每年排放了大约36800个奥运游泳池大小的二氧化碳
Besides the deforestation of primary forests and rainforest,
除了原始森林和热带雨林被毁坏之外
the draining and burning of peatlands in Southeast Asia has caused
东南亚地区泥炭地的水分被排干和焚烧
huge problems for the environment and atmosphere.
也引发了严重的环境气候问题
Peatlands act like sponges for carbon dioxide:
泥炭地对二氧化碳的作用就像海绵
soaking up and storing large quantities of
在充满水和低氧的环境下
CO2 in their waterlogged, low oxygen environments.
会吸收并储存大量的二氧化碳
But when oil palm producers drain these swamps
但当油棕种植者把水分排干并
and burn the remaining foliage to establish their crops
焚烧残留泥炭地的植物来种他们的作物时
this carbon sequestration reverses
原来泥炭地碳储存的过程就会逆转
and releases all the Carbon back into the atmosphere .
二氧化碳又会被释放到大气中
This destructive process has led to a sharp decline
这种破坏性的工序导致印度尼西亚
of peatlands in Indonesia and Malaysia,
和马来西亚泥炭地急剧减少
and according to a study published in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment Southeast Asian
根据《东南亚生态环境前沿》的一份研究报告
peatlands could disappear by 2030 if the rate of oil palm farming continues
按照当前种植油棕的速度 泥炭地到2030年就会消失
Ironically one of the main drivers of this rampant proliferation of oil plantations
讽刺的是使东南亚油棕大肆增殖的
in Southeast Asia is the desire for sustainable biofuels in Europe.
主要原因是欧盟对可持续生物燃料的渴求
Or rather it was until very recently.
更准确的说这种渴求一直持续至今
Europe has long sought to replace its emissions-heavy diesel fuel
欧盟长期以来都在寻找清洁能源
with something a little more clean-burning.
来替代碳排放量更大的柴油
Their solution was biofuels, chief of which was palm oil.
解决方法就是用生物燃料 主要是棕榈油
Although the EU’s cars appeared to
尽管欧盟的汽车使用了
be less emissions-heavy with biofuels in use
生物燃料后似乎减小了排放量
the true consequences of their supposed environmentalism
但这种所谓的环保主义带来的真正结果
lay halfway across the world in razed forests
是半个地球的森林被夷为平地
and burned peatlands.
以及泥炭地被焚烧
So their sustainable fuel initiative was not really sustainable at all.
所以他们最初提出的可持续能源并不是可持续的
As a result, the European Commission banned
因此 欧盟委员会在2019年3月
palm oil biofuel subsidies in March of 2019.
取消了生物燃料中棕榈油的补贴
While this is a step forward in slowing the boom
尽管这对于减少东南亚种植油棕造成的
of slash and burn oil palm plantations in Southeast Asia,
砍伐焚烧是一步重要的措施
it also means a strong blow to smallholder farmers reliant on the
但也意味着会给依赖于棕榈油产业
expanding palm oil industry.
的小农一个沉重的打击
The Guardian interviewed 66-year-old oil palm farmer
《卫报》采访了66岁的油棕种植户
Hussain Mohamed, who decried the EU’s choice
侯赛因•穆罕默德 他对欧盟减少
to drawdown their consumption of palm oil biofuels
棕榈油生物燃料消费的决策表示谴责
He says, “I have spent all my money on the palm oil farm
他说 我把所有的钱都花在了油棕农场上
I have recently planted new trees that will last for the next 25 years,
最近刚种了可以持续生长25年的新树
and my whole family relies on this
我整个家庭都依靠它们生活
It’s how my kids afford to study.”
我的孩子才能付得起学费去上学
So while independent small farmers represent
尽管小型的独立农户只占了
only a portion of oil palm production
棕榈油产业的一小部分
with the rest owned by much larger corporations
剩余部分被大型公司占有
this decision could upend their livelihoods
但欧盟的这个决策会严重影响他们的生计
In a sense, the EU’s flip-flopping on palm oil
某种意义上来说 欧盟对棕榈油政策
has manufactured a boom and bust process
的突然改变也给那些将自己的未来
for smaller farmers who’ve invested their
投资在油棕种植上的小农
future in palm oil plantations
形成了一个由盛转衰的局面
The point here is this
本视频的观点是
palm oil production is indeed tied to environmentally harmful practices
棕榈油的生产确实与破坏环境的行为有关系
like clear-cutting rainforests
比如热带雨林被砍伐
and draining and burning peatlands,
和泥炭地积水被排干 焚烧
and for that reason,our global consumption
因此 我们要减少全球的
of palm oil needs to be minimized or at least
棕榈油消耗或者至少要把它
driven into a slower more sustainable model that
转变为一种缓慢 可持续发展的模式
considers the environmental impacts of land use
一种在森林被破坏前就能考虑到
before tearing apart beneficial forests
使用土地带来的环境影响的发展模式
However, extracting ourselves from this process
然而 把我们从这个过程脱身出来
is a complicated matter that can exact negative
是一个复杂的问题
consequences on independent growers and wage
这样会给依靠于东南亚棕榈油产业的
laborers now dependent on the Southeast Asian
独立种植者和雇佣工人
palm oil production industry
产生确切的负面影响
As the primary consumers of this oil,
作为棕榈油的主要消费者
Europe and the United States have driven the demand for
欧盟和美国推动了棕榈油的需求
and ultimately the reckless pace of
并且最终导致了
palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia.
印度尼西亚和马来西亚棕榈油产业的盲目发展
As a result, simply banning palm oils is not enough
因此 仅仅禁止棕榈油是不够的
In an official statement,
在一份官方声明中
The World Wildlife Fund argues that rather than boycotting
世界野生动物基金认为与其抵制棕榈油
working from within to establish environmental best-practices
不如从内部为油棕种植者制定
for oil palm growers is the best way forward.
对环境友好的生产方式是当前最好的方法
There’s definitely some truth to this statement
这份声明非常正确
because when done right, oil palms can yield
因为如果做得好的话 油棕可以
the highest amount of oil per acre of land,
在单位面积达到最高的出油量
and if western countries drastically decrease
如果西方国家对棕榈油的需求
their demand for palm oil that could bring
急剧减少就会给许多
harsh disaster for many now reliant on a western
依赖于西方对棕榈油需求生存的人
thirst for the oil.
带来严重的灾难
Ultimately, the palm oil industry is now
说到底 棕榈油产业目前是
at the whims of economically and politically
经济政治实力强国一时兴起
powerful countries and is just one
所产生的行业 并且只是
of many industries that sacrifice environmental health
众多牺牲生态环境 牺牲穷苦人民及
and the well-being of poor and marginalized communities in pursuit of profits.
弱势群体的幸福而一味追求利润的行业之一
When it comes down to it
归根到底
the problems of the palm oil industry are symptoms of a much larger problem:
棕榈油产业的问题其实是另一个更大问题的表征
that there are countries who get to dictate global economies.
那就是有一些国家在支配着全球经济
And those countries don’t operate on an ethic
这些国家在环境问题和社会保障问题上
of environmental or social care
没有任何行动
but rather one of domination and exploitation.
更多是对能源的控制和剥削
Maybe I’ve been watching a little too much Black mirror,
也许是看多了黑镜的缘故
but recently I’ve been getting paranoid about sinister entities
最近我偏执地认为有邪恶组织在网络上
watching my every move on the internet.
监视着我的一举一动
I’ve been searching for a way to protect
我一直在找一个能同时
both my passwords and internet activity
保护密码和网络活动的方法
and I found Dashlane.
然后我就发现了密码管理器
It’s the perfect blend of the two.
它是保护密码和网络活动的完美选择
But really, Dashlane does three things all in one package:
真的 密码管理器集成了三种功能
it stores and secures your passwords,
它能保存保护你的密码
it lets you privately and safely browse the internet with a VPN,
能让你私下安全地使用VPN上网
and it’s a Dark web monitoring service
如果有信息泄露
that alerts you if your information has been leaked.
暗网监控器会及时提醒你
Dashlane has been a great way for me
密码管理器对我非常好用
to make my logins secure with ridiculously long passwords
我不用记住长得出奇的密码
that I never have to remember.
就可以放心登录我的账号
All I have to do is click a few buttons.
我只要点几个按钮
It’s that easy and it works across all devices and platforms
操作简单并且对所有设备和平台都适用
So if you want to be like me and scroll through the web
那么如果你也想像我一样安心地
with peace of mind, go to dashlane.com/occ
浏览网站 就点击dashlane.com/occ
to get a free 30-day trial of Dashlane premium.
获取密码管理器30天免费试用的福利
And if you love it at the end of the trial,
试用结束后如果你喜欢这个产品
make sure to use the offer code OCC
使用优惠代码OCC
to get 10% off premium.
就可以获得九折的优惠
Hey everyone, thanks for watching the video.
非常感谢大家观看这个视频
If you’re interested in some bonus content
如果你对其他内容感兴趣
or joining a community chat with eco-minded people,
或是想加入社团与环保人士交流
consider supporting this channel on Patreon.
请在众筹网站上支持这个频道
It helps me out a ton,
对我非常有帮助
and you get some fun gifts in return
作为回报 你也能获得一些有意思的礼物
Again, thanks for watching and I’ll see you in two weeks.
再次感谢您观看这个视频 我们两周后再见

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视频概述

为满足西方国家对棕榈油巨大需求,东南亚国家将森林改造为棕榈树种植园,引起了严重的环境问题。为了保护环境,西方国家突然禁止补贴棕榈油在生物燃料中的应用,却严重影响了那些种植棕榈树的农民的生计。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

爱睡觉的芝麻糊233

审核员

审核员GS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TNbZMJoMn6Q

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