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连锁模式的真正起源 – 译学馆
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连锁模式的真正起源

The Real Origin of the Franchise

(音乐)
(Music)
快看!它们之间的共同点是?
Quick! What’s common between
牛肉汉堡,棒球训练
beef burgers, baseball training
和汽车消声器?
and auto mufflers?
很难的问题。让我们以另外一种方式提问吧。
Tough question. Let’s ask it another way.
有哪些共同点在麦当劳
What’s the common factor between McDonald’s,
D-Bat(棒球品牌)和Meineke (车辆保养品牌)?
D-Bat and Meineke?
如果加上一个巨无霸,你也许就会猜到问题的答案
You may know the answer if, along with a Big Mac,
雷·克洛克(麦当劳之父)浪漫故事里的经典桥段也许你们早已熟知
you’ve absorbed a fragment of the romantic story of Ray Kroc.
他是一位销售员,并创造了
He’s the salesman that created what became
世界上最大的快餐连锁店。
the world’s biggest fast food chain.
他和两个男人签订了协议
He did it by making a deal
从此创造出了世界品牌“麦当劳”
with a couple of men called the McDonalds.
那两位男人是兄弟俩,曾是一个小连锁餐厅的店主。
Brothers they were, owners of a small restaurant chain,
他们之间的协议是,他使用麦当劳兄弟的商标名称和他们的经营模式。
and the deal was, he could use their brand name and their methods.
然后他邀请一些小企业家
Then he invited small entrepreneurs
去经营麦当劳,即它们作为运营商运营,
to open McDonald’s, that they’d run as operators,
并且以拥有所有权状态。
with an ownership state.
这是与Mom and Pop商店非常不同的商业模式
Very different than the business model where Mom and Pop stores
都拥有完整的所有权,但它们没有类似的支持。
have full ownership, but no similar support.
在一开始我举出的
All the examples
所有的例子,都是特许经营。
in my opening question are a franchise operation.
克劳克(麦当劳之父)有时被认为
Kroc is sometimes credited
是特许经营的发明人。
with inventing franchising,
有时艾萨克·辛格也被认为是,那位缝纫机大亨。
and so is Isaac Singer, the sewing machine magnate.
但其实都并非如此。特许经营的真正起源
Not so. The real genesis of franchising
不是做裁缝的,也不是搞牛肉的
was not in stitches or beef,
而是在美容行业
it was in beauty.
Martha Matilda Harper
Martha Matilda Harper
她曾是一个在加拿大出生的女佣
was a Canadian-born maid.
曾负责整理床铺,打扫房子,采购。
She made the beds, cleaned house, did the shopping.
被一个在安大略湖附近的医生家庭所雇佣
In the employment of a doctor’s family in Ontario,
她得到了一个制洗发水的配方
she acquired a secret formula for shampoo,
一种更加科学的配方基础
one more scientifically based
比报纸上每天刊登的那种庸俗骗术要靠谱的多
than the quackeries advertized every day in the newspapers.
这位好心的医生也教会了这位成熟的年轻女子
The kindly doctor also taught the maturing young woman
生理学的元素。
the elements of physiology.
玛莎有一个秘密的野心
Martha had a secret ambition
去继续她的秘密配方的研制:
to go along with the secret formula:
那就是要下决心运作自己的商业计划。
a determination to run her own business.
到1888年,她在纽约罗切斯特做女佣时
By 1888, serving as a maid in Rochester, New York,
她终于攒够了钱—
she saved enough money —
360 美元─她想去
360 dollars — to think of opening
开一个公共的美发沙龙
a public hairdressing salon.
但在她能够实现自己的理想之前
But before she could realize her dream,
不幸发生,她染上了疾病
two blows fell. She became sick,
终于在精疲力竭中倒下
and collapsed from exhaustion.
海伦史密斯小姐,一名基督教科学教会的治愈师
Mrs. Helen Smith, a healing practitioner
来到了她的床畔
of the Christian Science faith, was summoned to her bedside.
她们不断祈祷,Martha终于康复。
The two women prayed, and Martha recovered.
没多久她身体变得更好起来,然后她被告知
No sooner was she better then she was told,
「哦不,在你租的地方你自己不能露面。」
"Oh no, you can’t rent the place you’ve eyed."
你看,她的投资是要完成第一个公共场合的美发沙龙
You see, her venture was to be the first public hairdressing salon.
但当时商业中出现女性已经是件足够轰动的事了
A woman in business was shocking enough then.
1890年代只有百分之十七的劳动力是女性
Only 17 percent of the workforce in 1890 was female,
但一个女子却打算在大庭广众下
but a woman carrying out hairdressing
经营美发和护肤品?
and skincare in a public place?
为什么呢,这一定会招致流言蜚语。
Why, it was sure to invite a scandal.
玛莎花掉了一些攒下的积蓄来雇佣律师。最终赢得了官司
Martha spent some of her savings on a lawyer, and won her case.
她自豪的在她的新美容师门口
She proudly displayed on the door
展示了一张照片
of her new salon a photograph
照片上,仅仅五英尺的玛莎像长发公主一样
of the barely five-foot Martha as Rapunzel,
头发垂到她的脚,但闪烁着健康的光辉。
with hair down to her feet, but glowing with good health.
她的疾病也被证明是一种恩赐
Her sickness, too, had proved a boon.
她的野心现在
Her ambition was now propelled
基督科学教会的教义所驱动。
by Christian Science values.
这就是哈珀模式,她给自己的服务起的名字
The Harper Method, as she came to call her services,
不仅仅是剪个头发,而更多的是
was as much about servicing the soul
服务于心灵
as it was about cutting hair.
她的沙龙里充满着富有治愈感的宁静
In the therapeutic serenity of her salon,
她教会每一个人都可以展现出
she taught that every person could glow
像她一样的美丽
with the kind of beauty she had,
如果能全身心的投入到
if spiritually whole and physically obedient to what she called
她所谓的:洁净,滋养
the laws of cleanliness, nourishment,
运动,呼吸中
exercise and breathing.
她身体力行
She was very practical about it.
她甚至设计了第一把倾斜的洗发椅
She even designed the first reclining shampoo chair,
尽管她忽略了为这个发明申请专利
though she neglected to patent the invention.
玛莎的沙龙是一个巨大的成功
Martha’s salon was a huge success.
名流们都开始从
Celebrities came from out of town
外地赶来体验哈珀模式
to experience the Harper Method.
他们如此享受这里的服务
They enjoyed the service so much
以至于他们希望玛莎可以在他们的城市开设一家沙龙
that they urged her to set up a salon in their cities.
这正是玛莎的本意
And this is where Martha’s ethical sense
不断激励着她创新奋进
inspired her crowning innovation.
但她不像其它革新者一样委任代理人
Instead of commissioning agents, as other innovators had done,
从1891年开始,她开始
from 1891, she installed
找寻和自己一样的工薪阶层的女性
working-class women just like herself
到她的沙龙里工作
in salons exactly like hers,
这些人需要完全投入到她的哲学,已经热衷于她的产品
dedicated to her philosophy and her products.
但这些新的雇员
But these new employees
并不由玛莎给予酬劳
were not provided a salary by Martha.
这些女人在美国建立了500家卫星网络沙龙
The women in what became a satellite network of 500 salons
然后在欧洲和
in America, and then Europe and Central
中美洲和亚洲,都有哈珀沙龙。
American and Asia, actually owned the Harper’s Salons.
在十九世纪那些足够美好的事物
What was good enough in the nineteenth century
就像Susan B. Anthony组织的女权主义运动
for suffragette campaigners like Susan B. Anthony
还有在二十世纪的
and was good enough in the twentieth century
Woodrow Wilson(28届美国总统),Calvin和Grace Coolidge(30届美国总统夫妇),还有Jacqueline Kennedy(35届美国总统夫人)
for Woodrow Wilson, Calvin and Grace Coolidge, Jacqueline Kennedy,
Helen Hayes(美国女演员)和Ladybird Johnson(36届美国总统夫人)
Helen Hayes and Ladybird Johnson
同样地也为世界其它地方带来美好
must be good enough for the rest of the world.
今天,哈珀方法创始店
Today, only the Harper Method Founder’s Shop
保存在纽约的罗契斯特,但玛莎的影响已无所不在
remains in Rochester, New York, but Martha’s legacy is manifold.
她的健康美容治疗法已被大量仿效
Her health and beauty treatments have been copied,
她的商业模式也成了主流
and her business model is dominant.
事实上,美国一半的零售销售额
In fact, half of retail sales in America
都来自玛莎的特许经营理念。
are through Martha Harper’s franchising idea.
因此当你下一次享受着麦当劳的汉堡
So the next time you enjoy a McDonald’s hamburger
或者在戴斯酒店得到一晚休息的时候
or a good night’s rest at a Days Inn,
想一想玛莎。
think of Martha.
因为如果没有她在一个世纪之前发明的模式,
Because these franchises might not be the same
这些特许经营的模式就会千差万别。
without her inventing the model, over a century ago.

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