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全球武器贸易的真正弊端 – 译学馆
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全球武器贸易的真正弊端

The real harm of the global arms trade | Samantha Nutt

非常感谢 晚上好
Thank you very much. Good evening.
有些人可能发现 我的姓是Nutt
Some of you may have noticed that my last name is Nutt.
如果你这样想的话 那你会在知道
And if you did, you are forgiven for wondering
我是如何竭尽所能进到战区去 便会感叹人如其名
how a Nutt managed to end up in a war zone.
我在医学院毕业后 成为联合国儿童基金会的
I actually was offered, right out of medical school, and accepted
合约志愿者进入饱受战争折磨的索马里
a volunteer contract to work with UNICEF in war-torn Somalia,
这个工作的工资是一美元
that was worth one dollar.
我必须要接受这一美元的工资
And, you see, I had to be paid this dollar
这样当联合国有必要颁布疏散令时
in the event that the UN needed to issue an evacuation order,
我会在撤离名单上
so that I would be covered.
随后我义无反顾地进入了世界上最危险的地区
I was, after all, heading into one of the world’s most dangerous places.
此时此刻 有些人可能会在暗自猜测
And by now, some of you may be asking yourselves,
我向各位保证
and I just want to reassure you,
我确实提前拿到了一半的钱
that I did get half the money up front.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
揣着兜里的仅有的50美分
But you see, this is how, with 50 cents in my pocket,
我来到了索马里的拜多阿
I ended up in Baidoa, Somalia.
媒体记者们口中的“死亡之城”
Journalists called it the “city of death.”
之所以叫做死亡之城
And they called it the city of death
因为三十万人已经失去了他们的生命
because 300,000 people had lost their lives there —
整整三十万人
300,000 people,
大多数死于战争引发的饥荒和疾病
mostly as a result of war-related famine and disease.
我所属的团队致力于解决
I was part of a team that was tasked with trying to figure out
如何应对这种人道主义灾难最好
how best to respond to this humanitarian catastrophe.
这场灾难紧随着卢旺达大屠杀
It was right on the heels of the Rwandan genocide,
这时地区的救助资金已经捉襟见肘
and aid money to the region was drying up.
很不幸 很多救援机构
Many aid organizations, unfortunately,
被迫关上了救助的大门
had been forced to close their doors.
我被派来帮助回答的主要问题
And so the question that I was asked to specifically help answer,
也是全世界在战区的志愿者们问他们自己的:
which is one that aid workers ask themselves in war zones the world over,
该死的我们现在该怎么做
is: What the hell do we do now?
那时候索马里的治安环境
You know, the security environment in Somalia at that moment in time —
到目前为止也没有任何改观
and nothing has really changed too much —
那简直可以用《疯狂的麦克斯》与《发条橙》的结合体来形容
can best be described as “Mad Max” by way of “A Clockwork Orange.”
我清楚地记得在我到达后的数天里
And I remember very distinctly a couple of days after my arrival,
我去了一家喂养诊疗所
I went up to a feeding clinic.
几十个妇女在排队等待
There were dozens of women who were standing in line,
每一个人都紧紧地抱着自己的婴儿
and they were clutching their infants very close.
在和其中一位年轻的女性聊天的
About 20 minutes into this conversation I was having
20分钟时间里
with this one young woman,
我靠上前
I leaned forward
试图把我的手指放在孩子小小的手掌中
and tried to put my finger in the palm of her baby’s hand.
放上去的那一刻
And when I did this,
我发现婴儿已经僵硬了
I discovered that her baby was already in rigor.
她已经死了
She was stiff,
她毫无生气的小手自然地蜷缩在一起
and her little, lifeless hand was curled into itself.
因为营养不良和缺水她已经
She had died hours before
死去几个小时了
of malnutrition and dehydration.
后来我才知道 在她孩子正在步向死亡时
I later learned that as her baby was dying,
这位年轻的女人已经被一群拿着卡拉希尼科夫步枪的年轻人
this young woman had been held for two days
关押了两天
by some teenage boys who were armed with Kalashnikov rifles,
他们试图从她那儿搜刮到
and they were trying to shake her down for more money,
她莫须有的财产
money she very clearly did not have.
这种景象在世界各地陷入战争的地区
And this is a scene that I have confronted
随处可见
in war zones the world over;
有些孩子只有八岁 这么高
places where kids, some as young as eight — they are this big —
他们从没上过学
and those kids, they have never been to school.
但是他们已经加入战争 会被自动步枪杀死
But they have fought and they have killed with automatic rifles.
这是世界应有的样子么
Is this just the way the world is?
有人说人类之间的战争不可避免的
Some will you tell you that war is unavoidably human.
自古以来就是这样
After all, it is as old as existence itself.
我们说不再发生了 然而却不断重蹈覆辙
We say never again, and yet it happens again and again and again.
我会告诉你我见过
But I will tell you that I have seen the absolute worst
人类之间最惨绝人寰的屠杀
of what we as human beings are capable of doing to one another,
但我仍然相信 事情会有别样的结果
and yet I still believe a different outcome is possible.
知道为什么吗
Do you want to know why?
因为超过20年的工作
Because over 20 years of doing this work,
让我穿梭于世界上各大战区
going in and out of war zones around the world,
我逐渐明白
I have come to understand
这个问题的某些部分
that there are aspects of this problem
我们大家 作为一起生活的人民
that we, all of us, as people occupying this shared space,
是可以做出改变的
that we can change —
不是通过威胁或入侵的方式改变
not through force or coercion or invasion,
而是通过寻找所有合适的方法
but by simply looking at all of the options available to us
用崇尚和平 放弃战争的方式
and choosing the ones that favor peace at the expense of war,
取代以牺牲和平为代价的战争
instead of war at the expense of peace.
那我们怎么做呢
How so?
各位请看:
Well, I want you to consider this:
如今至少有8亿的轻武器
there are at least 800 million small arms and light weapons
在世界各地流通
in circulation in the world today.
绝大多数死于战区的平民
The vast majority of civilians, like that young baby,
比如刚才说的那个婴儿
who are dying in war zones around the world,
是死于这些武装力量之手
are dying at the hands of various armed groups
他们依靠唾手可得的便宜 简单易得 高效的武器
who rely on a near-infinite supply of cheap, easy and efficient weapons
动辄去强奸 威胁 恐吓 残酷无情
to rape, threaten, intimidate and brutalize those civilians
每一次都发生同样的事
at every turn.
武器有多便宜
How cheap?
世界上的某些地区
Well, in some parts of the world,
10美元就可以买下一把AK-47
you can buy an AK-47 for as little as 10 dollars.
在我工作过的很多地方
In many places in which I have worked,
得到一把自动步枪
it is easier to get access to an automatic rifle
比得到干净的直饮水要容易得多
than it is to get access to clean drinking water.
接下来是重点
And so now the important part:
我们可以改变这个现状么
Can anything be done about this?
为了回答这个问题
To answer that question,
我们看一下世界地图
let’s take a look at this map of the world.
我们先看一下所有正处于战火中的国家
And now, let’s add in all of the countries that are currently at war,
和在灾难中死亡
and the number of people who have either died
或者无家可归的人的数字
or have been displaced as a result of that violence.
这是一个让人震惊的数字
It is a staggering number —
超过四千万人
more than 40 million people.
在这张地图上还可以注意到一个事实
But you will also notice something else about this map.
你会发现绝大多数这些国家
You will notice that most of those countries
都在南半球
are in the Global South.
接下来请看
Now, let’s look at the countries
世界上前20轻武器输出国。
that are the world’s top 20 exporters of small arms in the world.
我们发现了什么?
And what do we notice?
他们被涂了绿色。
Well, you see them in green.
我们发现绝大多数的国家都在北半球
You will notice that those are mostly countries in the Global North,
主要是西方国家
primarily Western countries.
这说明了什么
What does this tell us?
这说明那些饱受战争折磨的人
This tells us that most of the people who are dying in war
都是贫困国家的人
are living in poor countries,
而那些在战争中获利的人
and yet most of the people who are profiting from war
都是发达国家的人 就像你我这样的人
are living in rich countries — people like you and me.
如果我们先把轻武器的话题放在一边
And then what if we go beyond small arms for a second.
我们看一下世界上所有武器的流通情况
What if we look at all weapons in circulation in the world?
谁是最大的贸易国
Who does the biggest business?
大约80%的武器市场
Well, roughly 80 percent of those weapons
不是由别人控制
come from none other than the five permanent members
正是联合国安理会的五个国家
of the United Nations Security Council,
加上德国所控制
plus Germany.
惊呆了 是吧
It’s shocking, isn’t it?
也许有些人这时候会说
Now, some of you might be saying at this moment in time,
“是的 不过等一下…纳特”
“Oh yeah, but OK, hang on a second there … Nutt.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
小学的那段时光很神奇
Grade school was spectacular for me.
真的是一段美妙的经历
It was, really, a wonderful experience.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
也许你们会这样说
But you might be saying to yourselves,
这些战区的武器泛滥并不是战争的起因
You know, all of these weapons in war zones — they’re not a cause,
而是暴力像瘟疫一样四处传播
but an effect of the violence that plagues them
导致的
each and every single day.
像伊拉克和阿富汗这样的地区
You know, places like Iraq and Afghanistan,
他们需要武器去维持法律和秩序
where they need these weapons to be able to maintain law and order,
去维护和平和治安 去打击恐怖组织
promote peace and security, to combat terror groups —
这起点是好的
surely this is a good thing.
我们来仔细思考一下这个说法
Let’s take a look at that assumption for just one moment,
因为自从反恐战争开始之后 你可以看到轻武器的交易
because you see there has been a boom in the small-arms trade
呈井喷上升的趋势
since the start of the War on Terror.
实际上在过去的15年里总交易量
In fact, it is a business that has grown threefold
已经翻了三倍
over the past 15 years.
现在我们比对一下同样时间内
And now let’s compare that to the number of people
世界各地直接死于武装袭击的
who have directly died in armed conflict around the world
人口数量
in that same period.
各位发现了什么?
What do you notice?
我们可以看到人口数也
Well, you notice that, in fact, that also goes up
翻了三到四番
roughly three- to fourfold.
两个曲线走势基本相同
They basically go up and end at the same point.
据此我们可以对死亡上升
Now, we can have a circular argument here
是轻武器造成的结果还是另有原因
about whether this increase in fatalities is a response
进行一个循环论证
to the increase of small arms, or the other way around.
但是有一件事我们要仔细考虑
But here’s what we should really take away from this.
武器贩卖与地区安全的关系
What we should take away from this
值得深究
is that this is a relationship worth scrutinizing,
当我们在想这些运输到伊拉克
especially when you consider that small arms that were shipped to Iraq
给伊拉克政府军装备的轻武器
for use by the Iraqi Army,
和运输到叙利亚用于镇压反对派的轻武器
or to Syria for so-called moderate opposition fighters,
却都落入了ISIS手中
that those arms, many of them, are now in the hands of ISIS;
当我们在想 这些运输到利比亚的轻武器
or when you consider that arms that were shipped to Libya
最后却通过撒哈拉沙漠
are now actively drifting across the Sahel,
辗转到了博科圣地和基地组织
and ending up with groups like Boko Haram and al Qaeda
等其他武装组织的手里
and other militant groups.
这就是问题所在
And therein lies the problem.
可以看到
Because, you see,
轻武器的泛滥导致了遍地的灾难
small arms anywhere are a menace everywhere,
武器泛滥 覆水难收
because their first stop is rarely their last.
现在每年每人在战争上的开支
Spending on war per person per year
大概是249美元
now amounts to about 249 dollars —
每人249美元
249 dollars per person,
这是每年用在南半球的儿童教育
which is roughly 12 times what we spend on foreign aid,
疫苗免疫和对抗营养不良
money that is used to educate and vaccinate children
的海外援助的十二倍
and combat malnutrition in the Global South.
但是我们可以改变这个平衡
But we can shift that balance.
怎么去做呢
How do we do this?
这本质上是一个供求关系问题
Well, it is essentially a problem of both supply and demand,
所以我们可以从两方面解决
so we can tackle it from both sides.
在供应方面
On the supply side,
我们可以敦促我们政府
we can push our governments
去采取国际武器透明机制
to adopt international arms transparency mechanisms
比如接受武器贸易公约
like the Arms Trade Treaty,
这样可以让发达国家对于
which makes it so that rich countries have to be more accountable
武器的去向和用途
for where their arms are going
承担更多的责任
and what their arms might be used for.
比如美国
Here in the United States,
这个世界最大的武器出口国
the largest arms-exporting country in the world by far,
奥巴马总统已经签署了武器贸易公约
President Obama has rightly signed the Arms Trade Treaty,
但是它只有得到
but none of it takes effect, it isn’t binding,
美国的参议院批准才具有法律约束力
until it is approved and ratified by the Senate.
这正需要我们的奋力疾呼
This is where we need to make our voices heard.
组织轻武器泛滥
You know, the curbing of small arms —
不会使战争停止
it’s not going to solve the problem of war.
加强武器的管制也无济于事
Increased control mechanisms won’t solve that problem.
但是这是朝正确方向上的重要一步
But it’s an important step in the right direction.
而且这正是身处发达国家的我们
And it’s up to all of us who live in those rich countries
需要做出的改变
to make change here.
那么需求方面呢
What about on the demand side?
世界上有大量的人
You know, there are generations around the world
被战争剥削
who are being lost to war.
我们可以通过教育投资 加强法治
It is possible to disrupt that cycle of violence
促进经济发展和保护妇女权益
with investments in education, in strengthening the rule of law
来打破恶性循环
and in economic development, especially for women.
我已经亲眼所见
I have personally seen
这些努力会对世界
just how incredibly powerful those kinds of efforts can be
造成多么不可思议的影响
around the world.
但是有一点:
But here’s the thing:
这需要时间
they take time,
这意味着作为个人 如果你想要给予
which means for you as individuals, if you want to give,
请务必慷慨解囊
please, by all means do it.
但请注意给予的方式和
But know that how you give is just as important
给予的数量一样重要
as how much you give.
固定捐款 比如每月的捐款
Regular contributions like monthly contributions
是更加有效的捐助方式
are a far more effective way of giving,
因为人权组织可以
because they allow humanitarian organizations
从长远角度合理规划这笔资金
to properly plan and be invested over the long term,
这笔资金会用在饱受战争影响的家庭
and to be present in the lives of families who have been affected by war,
虽然可能这些战争已经被我们遗忘
wars that many of us, frankly, all too quickly forget.
当我第一次 作为一位年轻医生 坐上去往索马里的飞机时
When I first got on that plane for Somalia as a young doctor,
我不知道战火中生存意味着什么
I had no idea what it meant to live with war.
但是我现在可以和各位分享
But I can tell you that I know what it means now.
在战火中生存就是
And I know what it means
在漆黑的夜里躺在床上
to lie in bed in the pitch-black night
听着萦绕耳边的 “蹦蹦蹦蹦蹦”的
and listen to that haunting “pop-pop-pop-pop-pop!”
机枪声
of automatic gunfire,
不知道死亡
and wonder with absolute dread
什么时候会降临到我的头上
how many minutes I have left until it will be right on top of me.
这种可怕而痛苦的恐惧感
I can tell you that it is a terrifying and agonizing fear,
是世界上成千上万的人
one that millions of people around the world are forced to confront
尤其是儿童
each and every single day,
每天都必须面对的
especially children.
做这份工作多年以来
Over the years of doing this work,
很不幸 战争带走了我太多朋友的生命
unfortunately, war has killed far too many people close to me.
有很多次
And on at least a couple of occasions,
我也差点死了
war has very nearly killed me as well.
但我仍然坚信
But I firmly believe,
我们可以做出改变
which is why I get up and do what I do every single day,
这也是我日复一日 起床 做我该做的事的原因
that we can make different choices here.
如你所见
Because you see, war is ours,
战争是人类的产物
as human beings.
我们发动战争 传播战争 我们通过战争购买和售卖
We buy it, sell it, spread it and wage it.
因此要解决它 我们责无旁贷
We are therefore not powerless to solve it.
并且
On the contrary,
也只有我们可以解决它
we are the only ones who can.
非常感谢 祝各位成功
Thank you very much, and I want to wish you the greatest success.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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视频概述

人类为自己的利益发起战争伤害的是无辜的人,结束战争,也只能从我们自己做起

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6LmPq7D-ds0

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