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The Rape of Belgium And The Battle of Tannenberg I THE GREAT WAR - Week 5

1914年8月28日 纵览1914年8月 当战争在比利时 法国
August 28th 1914. Throughout August, 1914, as the war progressed in Belgium, France,
和塞尔维亚不断扩大时 奥德联军在攻占的镇上大肆烧杀抢掠 无恶不作
and Serbia, the Austrian and German high command either sanctioned or ignored the widespread
奥德联军最高指挥部对此不是批准 就是视而不见
execution and rape of civilians and the sacking and burning of occupied towns. A shocked and
整个世界都为之震惊 为之侧目
revolted world looked on.
我叫Indy Neidell 欢迎收看《第一次世界大战》
My name is Indy Neidell. Welcome to the Great War.
这周开始时 欧洲战况如下:
Here’s where we stood on the battlefields of Europe at the beginning of the week:
西边有三支德国军队——75万人 左翼在洛林
In the west, there were three German armies- 750,000 men. The left flank was in Lorraine,
其余的正以每天30公里的速度穿过比利时 这速度十分惊人
and the rest were marching through Belgium at 30 km per day, an amazing speed, and pretty
而且大举歼灭了途中相遇的法军 同时约翰·弗伦奇麾下的英国远征军
much slaughtering the French armies they encountered, and the British Expeditionary Force under
正从西边靠近 在东边 德军正从东普鲁士撤退
John French was approaching from the west. Okay? In the East, the Germans were on the
retreat out of East Prussia and the Russians were advancing.
现在 在西边 尽管德军在过去几周里取得了不少胜利 局势看起来对德军有利
Now, in the west, after all the victories of the past few weeks, things were looking
good for the Germans but their reputation was doing anything but that, and the atrocities
在西边 德军对平民的暴行有增无减
the German troops committed against civilians in the west grew and grew.
在迪南 几个比利时平民对正在修桥的德军士兵开了火
In Dinant, German soldiers repairing a bridge were fired on by a few Belgian civilians,
为了报复 德军射杀了超过600个比利时男人 妇女和儿童 8月20号
and as a reprisal over 600 Belgian men, women, and children were shot. On August 20th, it
昂代讷 德军司令官冯比洛发布了一项纸质声明
happened in Andenne. There was even a printed announcement from German General von Bulow,
张贴在列日 内容如下:“昂代讷的人民先是表现出想与我军和睦相处的意愿
posted in Liege that read the following “The population on Andenne, after manifesting peaceful
然后就背信弃义 攻击了他们 在我的授权下
intentions towards our troops, attacked them in the most treacherous manner. With my authorization
率领这支部队的将军已经将这个小镇夷为平地 并杀死了110人”
the general who commanded these troops has reduced the town to ashes and shot 110 persons.”
在塔明 384个人在教堂附近被围捕射杀
In Tamines, 384 men were rounded up near the church and shot.
在罗西尼奥尔 122个人被以支持法军之名处死
In Rossignol 122 people were executed for supposedly supporting the French army, who
had just themselves been crushed there in battle.
还有很多这种事件 总称为“比利时暴行”
There were dozens more such incidents, known collectively as “the Rape of Belgium”,
但在勒芬 情况却完全失控 德军在8月19号就攻占了勒芬
but in Leuven, though, it was completely out of control. The Germans had occupied Leuven
25号 来自安特卫普的比利时军多次攻击了德军
on August 19th, right? On the 25th, the Belgian army, coming from Antwerp, harassed the Germans,
但攻击一结束 德军指挥官就立马都把账算到了勒芬人民头上
but once this was over, the German command decided the people of Leuven were to blame,
所以在接下来的五天内 德军处决了上百名公民 男女都有
so for the next five days the German troops executed hundreds of citizens of both sexes,
还包括很多神职人员 德军放火烧了城市 包括其中很多著名的中世纪建筑
including many clergy, and burned the city and many of its famous medieval buildings.
国际报道中 目击者的描述骇人听闻 《纽约论坛报》关于该事件的新闻标题甚至是
In the international press there were horrible eyewitness accounts and even a headline in
“德军洗劫勒芬 杀害女人和牧师”
the New York Tribune “Germans sack Louvain, women and clergy shot.”10,000 civilians
有1万平民被迫离开勒芬 开战后几周内 比利时和法国
were driven from the city. In total over 6,000 civilians are known to have been killed in
cold blood in Belgium and France by Germans in the first weeks of the war.
在这里我必须指出 如今有人认为 人们对德国
Now, I have to point out that some people today believe that the charges of war crimes
在比利时和法国沦陷地所犯下的战争罪行的指控被严重夸大 甚至被捏造
against Germany in occupied Belgium and France are greatly exaggerated or even fabricated,
但这完全和当代罪证相反 值得注意的是
but this is completely at odds with contemporary evidence. And it’s important to note that
these crimes were not only tolerated by military command, but in many cases even sanctioned
by them.
甚至有一些德国报纸 非但不否认或者掩饰这些事实
Even some of the German newspapers, instead of denying or downplaying what happened, tried
to explain and justify civilian executions and town burnings. The results of this were
结果不出所料 法国人和比利时人从此恨透了德国人
as you’d expect- French and Belgian hearts hardened against the Germans and anti-German
sentiment grew all over the world.
The stories of German atrocities were particularly abundant in the British papers, where propagandists
wanted to move away from the killing of an aristocrat in a far away country to atrocities
closer at hand in Belgium as a moral imperative for fighting the war. This would motivate
这在8月23号德国军队首次入侵英国 发起蒙斯战役时
the British troops enormously when, on August 23, the Germans ran into the British for the
first time in the war at the Battle of Mons.
到现在 德国最高指挥部已经嘲笑了英军好几个星期
Now, the German high command had been mocking the British army for weeks and joking that
they should just send the police to arrest them, but the British regulars, the only fully
但是作为欧洲战前唯一完全专业化的军队 英军拖住了数量远胜于他们的德军数小时之久
professional army in Europe before the war, held off the numerically superior Germans
for many hours, inflicting three times the losses they took themselves.
然而下午德国榴弹炮抵达战场 英军的大炮无法与之抗衡
German howitzers arrived in the afternoon, though, with which the British artillery could
只好撤退 当初德军以迅雷不及掩耳之势穿过比利时
not compete, and the British began to retreat, parallel to the French retreat as the Germans
击溃毫无防备的法军时 法军也采取了同样的撤退
quickly pushed through Belgium and slaughtered the unprepared French army.
在英国撤退的几天里 激烈的战斗一直没有停过
There was heavy fighting for the British along the retreat over the next few days, especially
尤其是当他们调转方向 于8月26号驻扎在勒卡托时
when they turned and held their ground on August 26th at Le Cateau, long enough for
这段时间本来足够让上千人有序撤离 一名英军上将赫拉斯·史密斯-多伦爵士
thousands of men to withdraw in good order, A British General, Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien,
决定停止撤退 迎战紧逼上来的德军
had decided to stop and fight as the Germans were so close and the rearguard divisions
而后卫部队已经成了一盘散沙 这注定是一场惨败
were becoming so scattered that a catastrophic battle was otherwise inevitable. Smith-Dorrien
史密斯–多伦是一位久经沙场的上将 已经随英国殖民军征战世界三十多年
was a general who had seen a lot of action, for over 30 years all over the world with
the British Colonial Army, and he knew what he was doing. Although the action that day
would prove deadlier for the British army than the D-Day invasion 30 years later, Smith-Dorrien
但在前十二个小时内史密斯–多伦震惊了德军 不过英军已经精疲力尽了
would give his army a 12 hour start on the Germans, but the troops were exhausted, and
there was now even talk in the air that the war would indeed be over by Christmas, but
with Germany the victor.
Although on the Eastern front, things to that point hadn’t been going well at all for
尤其是在贡比涅战役中 他们吃了败仗 被迫进行撤退
the Germans, especially after their recent defeat at Gumbinnen, which caused the German
retreat. After this, German army chief of staff von Moltke dismissed his paranoid General
von Prittwitz and brought General von Hindenburg out of retirement to replace him. Hindenburg
兴登堡于1911年退役 但不同于这次战争中许多欧洲司令官的是
had retired in 1911, but unlike many of the European generals so far this war, Hindenburg
had seen action going as far back as the 1860s.
现在表面上看是俄军在战争中占优势 但他们面临着严峻的后勤保障问题
Now, on the surface, things looked good for the Russians, but they had colossal logistical
和通讯问题 他们甚至不给电报加密 所以他们所有的有线通讯都可以被任何人监听到
and communications problems. They didn’t even encode their telegrams so all wire communications
could be monitored by anyone, and one tiny event occurred that had huge later repercussions:
贡比涅战役后 有人在一名死去的俄国军官身上发现了一张
After the battle of Gumbinnen, a note was found on a dead Russian officer that outlined
有俄国所有进攻计划大纲的纸条 有了这份情报
most of the Russian plans for their offensive. Armed with this knowledge, Hindenburg and
兴登堡和副指挥鲁登道夫中止撤退 并决定发起攻击
his second in command Ludendorff broke off the German retreat and decided to go on the attack.
8月24号 俄军与德军产生冲突 俄军夺得不小的地盘
On August 24th, the Russians collided with the Germans and the Russian center made great
不过一切只是错觉 26号 德军西翼打败了俄军左翼
progress, but it was a complete illusion. On the 26th, the German western flank cut
并切断了通讯 27号 德军东翼
through the Russian left and cut off communications, and on the 27th the German Eastern flank did
又打败了俄军右翼 俄军被围困在了中间
the same to the Russian right flank. The Russian army was trapped in the middle, running out
所有补给都即将耗尽 8月28号 他们开始大批投降
of basically everything, and on August 28th they began surrendering in droves, nearly
几天之内 近10万人中伤亡的超过5千
100,000 men with 50,000 more killed or wounded over the course of several days. This was
这是这次战争中最震撼的失败 也让兴登堡成为了德国英雄
the most spectacular defeat of the war and made Hindenburg a German national hero, even
if much of the credit rightly belonged to the ironically named German General Francois.
附近有个村庄叫坦能堡 中世纪时波兰立陶宛联军曾在这里战胜了条顿骑士
There was a village nearby named Tannenberg, where in a medieval battle the Slavs had defeated
the Teutonic Knights[ad], and this village gave its name to the battle, which would become
a big symbol of German pride.
现在局势十分关键 因为东普鲁士完全落入了德国手中
This was a big moment, because it put East Prussia now totally under German control.
但是南边 德国盟友奥匈帝国却控制不了局势
But further south, Germany’s ally Austria-Hungary was having huge difficulties with control,
奥匈军队还以此为借口 为自己在战争中做过的暴行开脱
which the Austrian army used as an excuse for wartime atrocities of their own.
The Austro-Hungarian Empire had launched this war in the first place to teach Serbia a lesson
或者说甚至想从地球上抹去它 这两个国家已经水火不容
or even end her existence, and there was no love lost between the two, so when Austria-Hungary
所以当奥匈帝国入侵时 塞尔维亚人民对侵略部队进行了广泛的抵抗——游击战
invaded it provoked widespread Serbian civilian resistance to the invading army- guerilla
这有效挫伤了奥匈帝国的锐气 尤其是他们因循守旧的贵族军事领导人
warfare- and this really upset the Austrians, particularly their stuck-in-the-past aristocratic
他们想让战争按照他们的想法进行 他们还单方面颁布法令
military leaders, who wanted the war conducted on their terms, and they decreed that they
would deal with civilian resistance ruthlessly.
他们确实这么做了 射杀 吊死 用刺刀刺死 塞尔维亚人民倒在了血泊之中 大多数都是无辜的男女 甚至还有儿童
And they did, shooting, hanging, and bayonetting Serbian civilians, most of whom were innocent-
men, women, and even children. But the Serbian guerillas were good at creating chaos in the
总是在等他们路过时 在后面开枪切断他们的队伍
Austrian lines, often waiting for them to pass before sniping them with rifles from
这种策略虽然有效 代价却十分高昂——仅在奥匈军队进军的前两周
behind. This was effective but it had its cost- an estimated 3,500 Serbian civilians
were executed during just the first two weeks of the August campaign.
这方面史实证据很多 因为奥匈人从来没
And we have a lot of evidence of this because executing Serbian civilians was not something
想要掩盖处死塞尔维亚人这一事实 实际上 奥匈总参谋长康拉德·冯·霍申道夫
the Austrians tried to hide. In fact, Austrian army chief of staff Conrad von Hotzendorf
想让人们看见这些惩罚 所以大量处死平民的场景
wanted people to see these punishments, so many of the executions of civilians were photographed
被拍成照片发表 大量的杀戮 大片的墓地
and the photos were published. Mass executions and mass graves.
这一周即将结束 由于德国占领了东西两侧
And here we are at the end of the week, with Germany ascendant in both the east and the
west, and a terrified citizenry- including over a million Belgians- fleeing from the
很多战前持反战意见的人都在这周内都改变了观念 认为这终究是一场正义之战
Many formerly anti-war people decided this week that the war was, after all, justified,
必须不惜一切代价阻止德国的侵略扩张 来保护欧洲现有的文明
and that Germany must be stopped at all costs to preserve civilization in Europe, and we
其实不难看出 1914年8月德国对平民的大屠杀
see years later that the massacres of civilians by the Germans in August 1914 were a direct
factor in the harsh conditions imposed on Germany after the war which indirectly, or
这种制裁又间接 甚至可以说是直接导致了纳粹主义和二战
maybe even directly led to Nazism and the Second World War.
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