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皮格马利翁效应

The Pygmalion Effect

皮格马利翁效应是
The Pygmalion effect is the phenomenon
一种期望值越高导致表现越好的现象
whereby higher expectations lead to higher performance.
这可以被理解为一种循环
It can be best understood by a circle
我们对别人的看法
where our beliefs about another person’s abilities
影响了我们对别人的行为
influence our actions toward the other person,
这种行为影响着他们对自我的看法
this action has an impact on the other’s beliefs about themselves.
自我的看法会导致他人对我们的行为态度
the beliefs about themselves cause the others actions toward us,
从而加强我们对这个人的看法
which again reinforce our beliefs about that person.
如此重复循环
And so on and on and on.
以我们自己举例
Let’s look at an example and start with your beliefs.
假使你是一名篮球教练
Imagine you are the coach of a basketball team,
第一天观察你的队伍
and you observe your team on the first day.
克里斯和乔是新成员
Chris and Joe are new members of your team,
克里斯使你想到一位著名球星
Chris reminds you of a famous player,
乔让你想起一个高中的讨厌同学
Joe reminds you of an annoying boy from your high school years.
无意识中你就对每个人做出猜想
Unconsciously you decide what to expect of each one of them.
你的看法影响了你的行为
Your beliefs influence your actions.
克里斯的加入让你很开心
When Chris enters the court you are happy to see him,
当他打球时你督促让他做的更好
when he plays you push him to do better practice harder,
额外增加一小时练习
stay an extra hour.
当他犯错你会向他解释如何改进
If he makes a mistake you explained to him how to improve.
而当乔过来时你根本没有注意到他
When Joe comes in you hardly notice him.
他得分你与有荣焉
You’re glad to see him score,
但你不会给他更多反馈
but you don’t give him much feedback
也不会在他的训练上投入多余的精力
and don’t invest extra time in his training.
当乔犯错时你只会有点生气
When Joe does a mistake you are a little annoyed.
你的行为影响着他们的看法
Your actions impact their beliefs about themselves.
克里斯感受到你的赏识
Chris feels you appreciate him
他对你也报以感激之情
and he appreciates you in return,
他相信自己的成就
He believes in his own success.
乔觉得你对他没有什么耐心和赏识
Joe feels you have little patience and appreciation for him,
他不相信他自己的成就
he does not believe in his own success.
他们自己的看法导致他们对你的行为态度
Their beliefs about themselves causes their actions toward you.
克里斯找到了打球的乐趣
Chris finds more and more joy,
从不缺席每一场训练
and playing and he never misses a training session.
他在比赛中百发百中
During the games, he gives a hundred percent all the time.
乔发现打球比起之前毫无乐趣
Joe finds less joy in playing than before
他在比赛也不会付诸全力
and doesn’t give his full effort in the games,
他开始不上训练课
he starts to miss the training sessions sometimes.
这更加证实了你对他们的看法
Which reinforces your beliefs about them.
你看到克里斯喜欢运动打球
You see how Chris enjoys playing,
他怎样努力的训练
how he trains hard,
并且在比赛中的表现显著提高
and shows a fast increase in his performance.
乔看起来就没有什么动力
Joe seems not to be very motivated,
他没有什么提升
his skills don’t increase as much,
紧接着上场的机会也少了
and he starts to show up less.
你意识到
You knew it right away
你的直觉是对的
thank God your instincts were right!
皮格马利翁效应也被称为罗森塔尔实验
The Pygmalion effect is also known as the Rosenthal experiment
以哈佛大学罗伯特·罗森塔尔的一项研究命名
named after a research of Robert Rosenthal at Harvard.
第一次实验
In a first study,
为了证实这个课题他用迷宫训练老鼠
he challenged test subjects to coach rats through a maze.
一部分人被告知老鼠很聪明
Half the group were told their rats were extremely intelligent
并且经过特殊的训练
and specifically trained,
而另一部分人则被告知这些老鼠是愚笨的
the other half were told that their rats were dumb
事实上它们都是一样的
In fact the rats were all the same
在实验期间聪明老鼠比笨老鼠表现的更好
During the experiment however the smart rats performed well better than the dumb ones.
这表明教练的看法对学员的影响
This showed how the expectations of the coaches influenced
甚至对老鼠表现的影响
even the performance of rats
随后罗森塔尔和莱诺·雅各布森一起在学校研究皮格马利翁
Rosenthal then did the Pygmalion in school study together with Lenore Jacobson.
在新学期开始时
At the begining of the school year,
一组小学老师被告知
a group of elementary school teachers were told that
某些学生有非凡的天赋和潜力
some of their new pupils had extraordinary talent and potential.
这个完全是编造出来的消息
This information which was completely made up
其实是关于每个班随机抽取的普通学生
was given about random average students in each class.
这些学生都预先做了智力测试
All students had done the IQ test in advance.
到年底
By the end of the year,
谣传更加聪明的学生
the students that were described as more talented
他们在智力测试上的表现比
had significantly increased their performance in the IQ tests
班级里其他的学生有显著提高
compared to the rest of the class
罗伯特·罗森塔尔总结道 当我们预料其他人某些行为时
Robert Rosenthal concluded:”When we expect certain behaviors of others
我们可能的行为方式
we are likely to act in ways
会使预料的行为更容易发生
that make the expected behavior more likely to occur.”
你如何看待这一理论呢?
What do you think about this theory?
你是否相信有一种
And if you believe it is there a way
防止他人用消极方式塑造我们自己的方法?
to prevent ourselves from being shaped by others in a negative way?
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If you like this video and the way we explain the subject
可以订阅我们的频道
subscribe to our channel.
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We try to explain complex subjects in simple language and cartoons
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to support students all around the world in their learning.
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视频概述

什么是皮格马利翁效应?它对我们有那些影响呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

那一个平行宇宙

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4aN5TbGW5JA

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