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出人意料的工作动机 – 译学馆
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出人意料的工作动机

The puzzle of motivation | Dan Pink

在开始前我需要坦白
I need to make a confession at the outset here.
大约在20多年前 我做了一件让我后悔莫及的事
A little over 20 years ago, I did something that I regret,
一件我丝毫不感到骄傲的事
something that I’m not particularly proud of.
从很多方面来说 我希望没有任何人会知道的事
Something that, in many ways, I wish no one would ever know,
但是在这里我觉得我不得不承认
but here I feel kind of obliged to reveal.
(大笑)
(Laughter)
在20世纪80年代后期
In the late 1980s,
因一时的年少轻狂
in a moment of youthful indiscretion,
我上了法学院
I went to law school.
(大笑)
(Laughter)
在美国 法律是一个专业学位
In America, law is a professional degree:
在你拿到大学学位之后 你才可以去法学院
after your university degree, you go on to law school.
当我到了法学院时
When I got to law school,
我的成绩不是很好
I didn’t do very well.
说得委婉点 我做的不是很好
To put it mildly, I didn’t do very well.
事实上 我的毕业成绩成就了
I, in fact, graduated in the part of my law school class
在我之上那其他90%的同学
that made the top 90% possible.
(大笑)
(Laughter)
谢谢
Thank you.
我这辈子从来没有当过律师
I never practiced law a day in my life;
基本上那样做还可能会犯法
I pretty much wasn’t allowed to.
(大笑)
(Laughter)
但是今天 我违背我的理性
But today, against my better judgment,
我违背了我自己的妻子的忠告
against the advice of my own wife,
我想重拾那些过去所学的诉讼技巧
I want to try to dust off some of those legal skills —
所剩无几的诉讼技巧
what’s left of those legal skills.
我不想给你们讲故事
I don’t want to tell you a story.
而是想提出一个陈述
I want to make a case.
我想做一个讲求实际的
I want to make a hard-headed,
有理有据的
evidence-based,
法庭陈述
dare I say lawyerly case,
来重新思考我们是如何经营我们的生意的
for rethinking how we run our businesses.
所以 陪审团的女士们 先生们
So, ladies and gentlemen of the jury,
来看一下这个
take a look at this.
这个叫做“蜡烛问题”
This is called The Candle Problem.
你们当中有些人可能知道它
Some of you might know it.
它是在1945年
It’s created in 1945
由心理学家 Karl Duncker 所创造的
by a psychologist named Karl Duncker.
他创造了这个实验
He created this experiment
在行为科学中被广泛运用
that is used in many other experiments in behavioral science.
下面来介绍它是如何工作的 假设我是实验者
And here’s how it works. Suppose I’m the experimenter.
我把你带进一个房间里
I bring you into a room.
给你一根蜡烛 一些图钉和一些火柴
I give you a candle, some thumbtacks and some matches.
然后告诉你说
And I say to you,
“现在请你尝试把蜡烛粘到墙上
“Your job is to attach the candle to the wall
而且蜡还不会掉到桌子上 ”
so the wax doesn’t drip onto the table.”
你会怎么做?
Now what would you do?
很多人开始试图用图钉把蜡烛钉到墙上去
Many people begin trying to thumbtack the candle to the wall.
结果没用
Doesn’t work.
我看到台下有人在那里做出动作了
I saw somebody kind of make the motion over here —
有的人想到了一个好主意他们可以点燃火柴
some people have a great idea where they light the match,
让蜡烛的一边熔化 然后尝试着把它粘在墙上
melt the side of the candle, try to adhere it to the wall.
这是一个非常好的主意 但是不管用
It’s an awesome idea. Doesn’t work.
最后 过了5分钟或10分钟之后
And eventually, after five or ten minutes,
大部分的人便会想出解决办法
most people figure out the solution,
就像图片上那样
which you can see here.
关键是要克服所谓的“功能固着”
The key is to overcome what’s called functional fixedness.
你看着那个盒子 你只是看到它是装钉子的容器
You look at that box and you see it only as a receptacle for the tacks.
但是它还有一个其它的功能
But it can also have this other function,
就是做蜡烛的烛台
as a platform for the candle.
这就是“蜡烛问题”
The candle problem.
现在 我想告诉你们一个运用“蜡烛问题”的实验
Now,I want to tell you about an experiment using The Candle Problem,
由一个现在美国普林斯顿大学的科学家
done by a scientist named Sam Glucksberg,
Sam Glucksberg 所完成的
who is now at Princeton University, US,
这个实验展示了诱因的力量
This shows the power of incentives.
他是这么做的 他将参与者聚集在一个房间里
Here’s what he did.He gathered his participants and said:
对第一组说“我会给你们计时 看你们多快能解决这个问题 ”
“I’m going to time you, how quickly you can solve this problem.”
_
To one group he said,
对第二组说“我将会给你们计时取平均值
“I’m going to time you to establish norms,
看看人们通常会用多长时间去解决这种问题 ”
averages for how long it typically takes someone to solve this sort of problem.”
对第二组人他提供了奖励
To the second group he offered rewards.
他说 “如果你是前25%里解决问题最快的人
He said, “If you’re in the top 25% of the fastest times,
你就可以得到5美元
you get five dollars.
如果你是我们今天所有测试者中解决问题最快的人
If you’re the fastest of everyone we’re testing here today,
那么你可以得到20美元 ”
you get 20 dollars.”
这个实验是几年前的事了 按照通货膨胀
Now this is several years ago, adjusted for inflation,
几分钟就能拿到20美元是很不错的
it’s a decent sum of money for a few minutes of work.
这是一个不错的诱因
It’s a nice motivator.
问题是:
Question:
这一组解决问题的速度比另一组快了多少?
How much faster did this group solve the problem?
答案是:
Answer:
平均来说他们比另一组人多花了三分半分钟
It took them, on average, three and a half minutes longer.
整整三分半分钟
3.5 min longer.
这没道理啊 是吧?
This makes no sense, right?
我的意思是 我是个美国人 我相信自由市场。
I mean, I’m an American. I believe in free markets.
这个实验不应该是这样的 对吗?
That’s not how it’s supposed to work, right?
(笑声)
(Laughter)
如果你想让人们表现的更好 你会奖励他们 对吧?
If you want people to perform better, you reward them. Right?
奖金 佣金 他们自己的真人秀
Bonuses, commissions, their own reality show.
用物质来激励他们
Incentivize them.
这才是商业的运作方式
That’s how business works.
但是这里却不是这样的
But that’s not happening here.
奖励机制是为了
You’ve got an incentive designed
增强思考能力及创意
to sharpen thinking and accelerate creativity,
但事实却恰恰相反
and it does just the opposite.
它阻断了思考和创意能力
It dulls thinking and blocks creativity.
这个实验的有趣之处在于
What’s interesting about this experiment
它不是误差
is that it’s not an aberration.
这个实验已经被反复做过了
This has been replicated over and over again
将近40年
for nearly 40 years.
这些因情况而异的激励因素
These contingent motivators —
如果你这样做 你就得到那个
if you do this, then you get that —
在某些情况下是可行的
work in some circumstances.
但是对许多工作来说 它们没有作用
But for a lot of tasks, they actually either don’t work
更有可能产生反效果
or, often, they do harm.
这是社会科学中最有力的发现之一
This is one of the most robust findings in social science,
也是最常被忽视的发现之一
and also one of the most ignored.
我用过去几年的时间
I spent the last couple of years
来研究人类动机
looking at the science of human motivation,
特别是外在的激励因素
particularly the dynamics of extrinsic motivators
以及内在动力
and intrinsic motivators.
我可以告诉你 两者相差悬殊
And I’m telling you, it’s not even close.
如果你使用科学查证的话 你会发现
If you look at the science, there is a mismatch
在科学知识和商业行为之间
between what science knows
有条鸿沟
and what business does.
我们必须要注意的是我们的商业运作机制
What’s alarming here is that our business operating system —
想想我们的商业下的假设和协议
think of the set of assumptions and protocols beneath our businesses,
我们如何激励人心 如何应用我们的人力资源
how we motivate people, how we apply our human resources–
全是以这些外部的激励因素所建立起来的
it’s built entirely around these extrinsic motivators,
软硬兼施
around carrots and sticks.
对许多20世纪的工作来说其实是好的
That’s actually fine for many kinds of 20th century tasks.
但是对于21世纪的工作来说
But for 21st century tasks,
机械化的 奖罚分明的方式
that mechanistic, reward-and-punishment approach
不管用了
doesn’t work,
它是行不通的
often doesn’t work,
而且经常适得其反
and often does harm.
我们来看看
Let me show you.
Glucksberg又做了另一个相类似的实验
Glucksberg did another similar experiment,
他用了一个稍微有些不一样的方式提出了一个问题
he presented the problem in a slightly different way,
就像这上面的这样
like this up here.
将蜡烛粘到墙上 而蜡不会掉到桌子上
Attach the candle to the wall so the wax doesn’t drip onto the table.
同样的 一组:我们要平均时间
Same deal. You: we’re timing for norms.
另一组:我们给奖励
You: we’re incentivizing.
这次又会发生什么呢?
What happened this time?
这次 有奖励的那组完胜另一组
This time, the incentivized group kicked the other group’s butt.
这是为什么?
Why?
因为把图钉从盒子里拿出来时
Because when the tacks are out of the box,
问题就很简单了不是吗?
it’s pretty easy isn’t it?
(笑声)
(Laughter)
假设 在这种任务下奖励就非常有效了
If-then rewards work really well for those sorts of tasks,
在规则简单
where there is a simple set of rules
方向明确的情况下
and a clear destination to go to.
奖励 产生了作用
Rewards, by their very nature,
让我们集中精神 变得专注
narrow our focus, concentrate the mind;
这便是为何奖励在许多情况下有效的缘故
that’s why they work in so many cases.
所以 对这样的任务来说
So, for tasks like this,
范围狭窄 你就只能看见一个目标
a narrow focus, where you just see the goal right there,
勇往直前的向前冲
zoom straight ahead to it,
奖励就很有效果
they work really well.
但是对真正的“蜡烛问题”来说
But for the real candle problem,
你不能只是这样看
you don’t want to be looking like this.
解决之道就在你的周围 你需要去四处寻找
The solution is on the periphery. You want to be looking around.
奖励制度却令我们眼光狭隘
That reward actually narrows our focus
限制了我们的潜力
and restricts our possibility.
让我来告诉你为什么这个问题很重要
Let me tell you why this is so important.
在西欧
In western Europe,
在亚洲的大部分国家
in many parts of Asia,
在北美 澳大利亚
in North America, in Australia,
白领是很少会处理这类工作的
white-collar workers are doing less of this kind of work,
而更多的这样的工作
and more of this kind of work.
那种日常的 循规蹈矩的 左脑式的工作
That routine, rule-based, left-brain work —
一些会计 财务分析
certain kinds of accounting, financial analysis,
计算机程序
computer programming —
变得极为容易外包
has become fairly easy to outsource,
变得自动化
fairly easy to automate.
软件可以处理的更快
Software can do it faster.
低价供应商可以以更便宜
Low-cost providers can do it cheaper.
所以真正重要的是
So what really matters
更多的右脑的创意 概念式的能力
are the more right-brained creative, conceptual kinds of abilities.
想一想你自己的工作
Think about your own work.
想想你的工作
Think about your own work.
你所面对的问题
Are the problems that you face,
甚至是我们在这里所谈到的问题
or even the problems we’ve been talking about here,
它们有清晰的规则
do they have a clear set of rules,
和一个解决之道吗?
and a single solution?
没有 规则都是模糊的
No. The rules are mystifying.
解答 如果有解答的话
The solution, if it exists at all,
也是令人意外且不那么显而易见的
is surprising and not obvious.
在这儿的每一个人
Everybody in this room
都在处理着他们自己的“蜡烛问题”
is dealing with their own version of the candle problem.
对所有形式的“蜡烛问题”
And for candle problems of any kind,
在所有领域中
in any field,
那些‘如果-就’式的奖励
those if-then rewards,
在商业世界里无处不在的奖罚机制
the things around which we’ve built so many of our businesses,
是行不通的!
don’t work!
这简直让我发狂
It makes me crazy.
这不是……重点是
And this is not…here’s the thing.
这不是一种感觉
This is not a feeling.
好吗?我是一名律师 我不相信感觉
Okay? I’m a lawyer; I don’t believe in feelings.
这也不是哲理
This is not a philosophy.
我是一个美国人 我不相信哲理
I’m an American; I don’t believe in philosophy.
(大笑)
(Laughter)
这是事实
This is a fact —
或者就像我们在华盛顿特区的政治圈常说的
or, as we say in my hometown of Washington, D.C.,
一个事实真相
a true fact.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
(掌声)
(Applause)
让我来给你举个例子
Let me give you an example.
让我排列一下这些证据
Let me marshal the evidence here.
因为我不是在告诉你一个故事 而是陈述一个案子
I’m not telling a story, I’m making a case.
陪审团的女士们和先生们 证据在此:
Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, some evidence:
Don Ariel 是当代伟大的一位经济学家
Dan Ariely, one of the great economists of our time,
他和他三个同事 对一些麻省理工的学生做了一个研究
he and three colleagues did a study of some MIT students.
他们给了这些麻省理工的学生们一堆游戏
They gave these MIT students a bunch of games,
一些需要创造力
games that involved creativity,
需要动力和专注力的游戏
and motor skills, and concentration.
然后他们根据学生们的表现
And they offered them, for performance,
划分了三个等级的奖励:
three levels of rewards:
小奖 中奖 大奖
small reward, medium reward, large reward.
如果你玩得好 你就能得到大奖 依次类推
If you do really well you get the large reward, on down.
结果怎么样呢?
What happened?
只要是机械式的工作
As long as the task involved only mechanical skill
红利就像我们所认知的
bonuses worked as they would be expected:
奖励越高 表现越好
the higher the pay, the better the performance.
是吗?
Okay?
但是如果这份工作需要任何的认知技能
But once the task called for even rudimentary cognitive skill,
越大的奖励导致的则是越差的表现
a larger reward led to poorer performance.
于是他们会说
Then they said,
“我们来看看这里是否会有文化差异
“Let’s see if there’s any cultural bias here.
我们去印度马杜赖测试看看 ”
Let’s go to Madurai, India and test it.”
在马杜赖 生活水平较低
Standard of living is lower.
北美标准的的中等奖励
In Madurai, a reward that is modest in North American standards,
在那里的意义很大
is more meaningful there.
同样地 一堆游戏 三个奖励级别
Same deal. A bunch of games, three levels of rewards.
结果如何?
What happens?
得到中等奖励的人
People offered the medium level of rewards
并不比得到小奖励的人做的好
did no better than people offered the small rewards.
但这次 得到大奖励的人
But this time, people offered the highest rewards,
他们是所有人里做的最差的
they did the worst of all.
三种实验 我们测试的九个实验里有八个
In eight of the nine tasks we examined across three experiments,
奖励越高 表现则越差
higher incentives led to worse performance.
是因为有感情用事的社会主义的阴谋在作怪吗?
Is this some kind of touchy-feely socialist conspiracy going on here?
不是 这些经济学家分别来自麻省理工
No, these are economists from MIT,
卡耐基梅隆 和芝加哥大学
from Carnegie Mellon, from the University of Chicago.
你们知道是谁赞助了这场研究的吗?
Do you know who sponsored this research?
是美国联邦储备银行
The Federal Reserve Bank of the United States.
完全的美国经验
That’s the American experience.
让我们横跨大西洋去伦敦的经济学院看看
Let’s go across the pond to the London School of Economics,
LSE 伦敦经济学院
LSE, London School of Economics,
十一位诺贝尔经济奖得主的母校-
alma mater of eleven Nobel Laureates in economics.
培养伟大经济学家的地方
Training ground for great economic thinkers
例如George Soros和Friedrich Hayek
like George Soros, and Friedrich Hayek,
以及Mick Jagger
and Mick Jagger.
(大笑)
(Laughter)
上个月
Last month,
就在上个月
just last month,
政经学院的经济学家汇整了51个关于
economists at LSE looked at 51 studies
企业内部绩效薪酬的研究
of pay-for-performance plans, inside of companies.
他们是这么说的:
Here’s what they said:
“我们发现财政激励
“We find that financial incentives
能为整体绩效带来负面影响 ”
can result in a negative impact on overall performance.”
这就是一条在科学知识和
There is a mismatch between what science knows
商业行为之间的鸿沟
and what business does.
我所忧心的是,在我们站在金融风暴的
And what worries me, as we stand here in the rubble
废墟之中时
of the economic collapse,
有太多的组织团体
is that too many organizations are making their decisions,
对人才 人事
their policies about talent and people,
仍以一些过时的
based on assumptions that are outdated,
未经验证的
unexamined,
非科学的假设来制定规则
and rooted more in folklore than in science.
如果我们真的想要摆脱这个经济危机
And if we really want to get out of this economic mess,
如果我们真的想要在这些
if we really want high performance
属于21世纪的核心工作中取得绩效的话
on those definitional tasks of the 21st century,
这解答无疑是错上加错
the solution is not to do more of the wrong things,
如用红萝卜来吸引人
to entice people with a sweeter carrot,
亦或是用锋利的棍棒来威胁人
or threaten them with a sharper stick.
我们需要的是一套全新的方式
We need a whole new approach.
好消息是这些研究人类动机的科学家
The good news is that the scientists
已经给了我们一个新方向
who’ve been studying motivation have given us this new approach.
这个新方向讲究内在激励
It’s built much more around intrinsic motivation.
想要去做是因为他们重要
Around the desire to do things because they matter,
因为我们喜欢 它们有意思 或是因为他们是重要事务的一部分
because we like it, they’re interesting, or part of something important.
在我看来 这种新的商业系统
And to my mind, that new operating system for our businesses
围绕在三个基础上
revolves around three elements:
自主性 掌握力和使命感
autonomy, mastery and purpose.
自主性 想要主掌自己人生的需求
Autonomy: the urge to direct our own lives.
掌握力 想要在举足轻重的事情上做得更好的欲望
Mastery: the desire to get better and better at something that matters.
使命感 希望能做我们想做的事
Purpose: the yearning to do what we do
是为了更高远的理想的渴望
in the service of something larger than ourselves.
这些便是建立新的商业机制的
These are the building blocks of an entirely new operating system
基石
for our businesses.
我今天只想说说自主性
I want to talk today only about autonomy.
20世纪产生了管理学的概念
In the 20th century, we came up with this idea of management.
管理学不是自然发生的
Management did not emanate from nature.
管理学就像……管理学不是一颗大树 它是一个电视机
Management is like… management is not a tree, it’s a television set.
对吗?有人发明了它
OKay ? Somebody invented it.
不代表它永远都好用
It doesn’t mean it’s going to work forever.
管理学很好
Management is great.
如果你需要的是服从
Traditional notions of management are great
那么传统管理学概念是很好的
if you want compliance.
但如果你想要员工全心投入 自动自发更好
But if you want engagement, self-direction works better.
有一些革命性的例子
Some examples of some kind of radical notions of self-direction.
这样的例子不多
You don’t see a lot of it,
但是你可以看到一些有趣的事情正在发生
but you see the first stirrings of something really interesting going on,
它意味着付给人们合理 公平的的工资
what it means is paying people adequately and fairly, absolutely —
让钱不再是问题
getting the issue of money off the table,
然后给人们很大的自主权
and then giving people lots of autonomy.
举些例子
Some examples.
在座有多少人听说过Atlassian公司?
How many of you have heard of the company Atlassian?
看起来连一半都不到
It looks like less than half.
(大笑)
(Laughter)
Atlassian是澳大利亚的一家软件公司
Atlassian is an Australian software company.
他们做了一件很酷的事
And they do something incredibly cool.
一年有几次 他们跟他们的工程师说
A few times a year they tell their engineers,
“接下来的24小时去做你想做的事吧
“Go for the next 24 hours and work on anything you want,
只要和你每天的工作无关
as long as it’s not part of your regular job.
随便去做吧”
Work on anything you want.”
这些工程师们便利用这个时间想出一套很酷的代码
Engineers use this time to come up with a cool patch for code,
优雅的包装这些想法
come up with an elegant hack.
然后那天的最后 在全员到齐的会议室里
Then they present all of the stuff that they’ve developed
他们向他们的组员 公司的全体员工
to their teammates, to the rest of the company,
呈现出了他们所有的发明
in this wild and woolly all-hands meeting at the end of the day.
当然 身为澳大利亚人 每人手中都有一罐啤酒
Being Australians, everybody has a beer.
他们称那一天为联邦快递日
They call them FedEx Days.
为什么那么叫?
Why?
因为你必须隔夜交出你的作品
Because you have to deliver something overnight.
这个很棒 不错
It’s pretty; not bad.
虽然违反商标法 但这是很好的想法
It’s a huge trademark violation, but it’s pretty clever.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
在有高度自主性的这一天中
That one day of intense autonomy
他们做出了许多之前根本没人想到的软件编程的革新
has produced a whole array of software fixes that might never have existed.
这个政策的成功实施使得Atlassian公司进一步的发明了
It’s worked so well that Atlassian has taken it to the next level
20%时间
with 20% time —
谷歌把这个想法发扬光大
done, famously, at Google —
工程师可以用20%的时间
where engineers can spend 20% of their time
做所有他们想做的事情
working on anything they want.
他们可以自由的分配他们的时间
They have autonomy over their time,
任务 小组 方法
their task, their team, their technique.
完全的自主权
Radical amounts of autonomy.
诚如大家所知 在谷歌
And at Google, as many of you know,
一年中有一半的新产品
about half of the new products in a typical year
都来自于这20%时间
are birthed during that 20% time:
像谷歌邮箱 Orkut 谷歌新闻
things like Gmail, Orkut, Google News.
让我给你一个更具革命性的例子
Let me give you an even more radical example of it:
一个叫做“只论结果的工作环境”简称ROWE
something called the Results Only Work Environment (the ROWE),
由两个美国分析师创造
created by two American consultants,
用于十多家北美公司上
in place at a dozen companies around North America.
在ROWE中 人们没有日程表
In a ROWE people don’t have schedules.
他们想来就来
They show up when they want.
他们不需要在特定时间到公司或者一直在公司
They don’t have to be in the office at a certain time, or any time.
他们只需要完成工作
They just have to get their work done.
怎么做 何时做 在哪做 都取决于他们自己
How they do it, when they do it, where they do it, is totally up to them.
甚至连开会都是具有选择性的
Meetings in these kinds of environments are optional.
结果呢?
What happens?
几乎所有公司
Almost across the board,
生产力都提升了 工作投入度提升了
productivity goes up, worker engagement goes up,
工作满意度提升了 人员流动率降低了
worker satisfaction goes up, turnover goes down.
自主性、掌握力和使命感
Autonomy, mastery and purpose,
这就是新工作方式的基础
the building blocks of a new way of doing things.
在座的人可能会看着然后说
Some of you might look at this and say,
“恩 听起来不错 就是太理想化了”
“Hmm, that sounds nice, but it’s Utopian.”
我说“错了
And I say, “Nope.
我有证据”
I have proof.”
在90年代中期 微软开始了一个名叫Encarta的百科全书计划
The mid-1990s, Microsoft started an encyclopedia called Encarta.
他们使用了所有正确的诱因
They had deployed all the right incentives,
他们付钱给专业人士 让他们撰写并编辑这些文章
They paid professionals to write and edit thousands of articles.
收入颇丰的管理者们管理着整个计划
Well-compensated managers oversaw the whole thing
确保它不会超过预算和时间要求
to make sure it came in on budget and on time.
几年后 另一个百科全书计划开始了
A few years later, another encyclopedia got started.
完全不同的模式 不是吗?
Different model, right?
为兴趣而做
Do it for fun.
没有人能拿到一分钱
No one gets paid a cent, or a euro or a yen.
因为自己喜欢做而做
Do it because you like to do it.
如果十年前
Just 10 years ago,
你到一个经济学家那里去
if you had gone to an economist, anywhere,
“你好,我有两种撰写百科全书的模式
“Hey, I’ve got these two different models for creating an encyclopedia.
拿来对比 哪种方式更好?”
If they went head to head, who would win?”
十年前 你在这个地球的任何地方绝不会找到
10 years ago you could not have found a single sober economist
一个冷静的经济学家
anywhere on planet Earth
能够预知维基百科的模式
who would have predicted the Wikipedia model.
这是一个两种模式之间的巨大战役
This is the titanic battle between these two approaches.
就像阿里和弗雷泽在马尼拉的拳王之战
This is the Ali-Frazier of motivation, right?
那样的动机之战 对吗?
This is the Thrilla in Manila.
内在动机对外在动机
Intrinsic motivators versus extrinsic motivators.
自主权 掌握力和使命感
Autonomy, mastery and purpose,
对“胡萝卜”和“棍子” 谁赢了?
versus carrot and sticks, and who wins?
内在动机 自主权 掌握力和使命感 获得胜利
Intrinsic motivation, autonomy, mastery and purpose, in a knockout.
让我总结一下
Let me wrap up.
科学知识和商业行为之间有条鸿沟
There is a mismatch between what science knows and what business does.
以下是科学所了解到的
Here is what science knows.
一:这些20世纪的奖励
One: Those 20th century rewards,
这些我们认为是商业中理所当然的一部分的诱因
those motivators we think are a natural part of business,
是有用的 但只是在出人意料的一个非常狭窄的情况下
do work, but only in a surprisingly narrow band of circumstances.
二:这些奖励往往会破坏创造力
Two: Those if-then rewards often destroy creativity.
三:高绩效的秘密不是奖励和惩罚
Three: The secret to high performance isn’t rewards and punishments,
而是看不见的内在动力
but that unseen intrinsic drive–
让人为了自己而做的动力
the drive to do things for their own sake.
让人有使命感的动力
The drive to do things cause they matter.
最棒的是
And here’s the best part.
我们已经知道了这些
We already know this.
科学证实了我们的心中所知
The science confirms what we know in our hearts.
如果我们修复了科学与商业之前的鸿沟
So, if we repair this mismatch between science and business,
如果我们带着动机 动机的观念
if we bring our motivation, notions of motivation
进入21世纪
into the 21st century,
如果我们越过懒惰 危险 理想化的
if we get past this lazy, dangerous, ideology
“胡萝卜”和“棍子”的想法
of carrots and sticks,
我们可以强化我们的公司
we can strengthen our businesses,
解决许多的“蜡烛测试”
we can solve a lot of those candle problems,
或许 或许
and maybe, maybe —
我们便能改变世界。
we can change the world.
演讲完毕
I rest my case.
掌声
(Applause)

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译制信息
视频概述

揭开动机的秘密,传统的报酬是否真的有我们想象的那样激励人心?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Mia

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rrkrvAUbU9Y

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