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变态也许就在你身边

The Psychopath Next Door :: James Fallon

一个五十人的派对里面会有一个心理变态 而且是一个完完全全的心理变态
Go to a party with fifty people in it, there’s a psychopath, a full-blown psychopath there.
很有可能还会有五个临界心理变态
There’s probably five borderline psychopaths there.
他们并没有要杀害你 强奸你 或者抢你的钱
They’re not going to kill you, rape you, or maybe even take your money, but they’re
但是他们会操控事情的局面 让你很不堪 或用某些方法来利用你
going to manipulate the situation, make you look bad, or use you in some way.
总之 不好的事情将要发生
Something bad is going to happen.
如果你察觉到了…人们一般能感觉到某些人有点不对劲
And if you sense that… people have a sense that something is wrong with somebody, you
你会走开 不会跟他们斗 因为他们是操控大师
walk away,you don’t fight these guys, because they’re masters at manipulation.
心理变态本质上来说就是种族内的狩猎者
The psychopath, in its simplest form, is an intraspecies predator, is a predator on other
捕猎其他人类的狩猎者
humans.
我们很难从表面去判断 心理变态的某种实际行为是不是心理变态的行为
It is hard to look at the actual behavior of a psychopath and say that thing is psychopathic
因为心理变态者也许会装出乐于助人的样子
or not, because psychopaths will come to the rescue of people.
“女士 我能帮上忙吗?”
“Can I help you up, ma’am?”
他们能预见某些行为带来的结果 并且能通过模仿他人行为来与别人和睦相处
They, they can see the outward behaviors, and they just can mimic it to get along.
但是其实他们根本对这些毫无感觉
But fundamentally, they don’t feel it.
某些心理变态特质和他们身上的其他东西 有可能为他们带来很多优势
You know, some psychopathic traits and what goes along with it can be very advantageous.
首先 他们不恐惧任何事情
First of all you’re fearless.
他们进入一个地方 表现得像是那里的主人一样
You walk into a room, you own everybody, and you look like you own everybody, and they
并且那里的人也让他们充当主人 因为他们拥有个人魅力 就像自带光环会发光一样
let you own them because you have that aura around you, that charisma, that light.
这就是为什么会选举出总统的原因 因为这些人拥有个人魅力的光环
That’s why elect people president, because they have that light around them.
另一方面是他们对疼痛并不敏感
Another thing is you’re not very susceptible to pain.
他们不为疼痛所困扰 并且如果他们在做什么不好的事情被当场发现时 他们不表露出任何破绽
Pain doesn’t bother me, and also when you’re caught doing something, you have no tells.
比如出轨的时候 他们可能会被当场抓住
You could be caught red handed, you know, having an affair with somebody, and you could
他们会说”不,不是我” 就像是说 你要相信我
say, ‘no that’s not me’, it’s like, are you going to believe me or your lying
还是相信你那不可靠的眼睛?
eyes.
这就是说谎也不表露出破绽
And so it’s this ability to lie, without any tells, because in fact it doesn’t cause
因为事实上他们并不因此而焦虑
any anxiety.
心理变态者脑部有两个主要的区域是无法正常管控的
Two main areas of the brain of a psychopath that are not regulated correctly: orbital
那就是额眶部皮质以及杏仁核
cortex and the amygdala.
额眶部皮质与抑制行为有关
Orbital cortex is involved in inhibiting your behavior.
而杏仁核就是直接产生行为的
Now, the amygdala, on the other hand, really causes behavior.
正常情况下它们处于平衡
And normally they’re in balance.
两者相互制衡
They inhibit each other.
而对于心理变态者来说 这两个功能都被关闭了 无法相互制衡
Now, in a psychopath, they’re both turned off, so they don’t inhibit each other, and
它们无法正常管控行为
they don’t regulate it.
人的动物本能与社交和道德之间本应正常的平衡状态
So the normal balance of animal drives and your social interactions, your morality, are
在心理变态身上是失衡的
not right.
一直都是失衡的
It’s never right.
攻击性行为可以在特定情况下合理发生
I mean, there’s a time for aggression.
甚至杀戮在某些情况下也是可以合理发生的
There’s a time for killing, even.
性也是
There’s a time for sex.
关键是你大脑的其余部分能够告诉你的额眶部皮质
And part of it is how the rest of the brain is able to tell your orbital cortex the social
你的行为合理发生在正确的社会场合
context is correct now.
而心理变态者丧失这些能力
Psychopaths don’t have that.
他们做的事情完全不考虑社会场合 这就是问题
They’re doing things completely out of context, out of social context, and that’s the problem.
大家经常会问的问题是 心理变态有多大比例是由基因决定的
Usually the question is, what percent do you think is due to genetics, and what percent
外部环境的影响又占多少?
is due to environment?
然而这不是一个好的问题
And it turns out not to be the great question to ask.
因为看起来答案会是 如果你生来就带有心理变态的生物标记
Because it looks like the answer is, if you are born with the biological markers for psychopathy,
比如说 在婴幼儿早期就存在的基因和变异的脑部结构
for example, that is the genetics and the altered brain pattern, early on.
如果你是一个容易受外界影响的孩子 那环境对你意义非凡
If you are a susceptible kid, then environment means everything.
环境将起到很大的作用
It means a lot.
可能占百分之八十之多
Maybe eighty percent.
因为这些孩子可能会完全偏离轨道发展
Because those kids can be really thrown off track, and they can be helped by a good environment
也有可能被好的环境引导回到正轨
too.
九十年代初 我有些同事当时正在研究杀人犯 一些十恶不赦的坏人
Back in the early 90s, some of my colleagues were studying these killers, real bad guys,
某些是连环杀人犯 非常可恶
some serial killers, nasty guys.
我的同事让我去观察这些杀人犯的大脑
And they asked me to come in to look at the brains.
我把自己和其他人的大脑扫描图也放进去作为正常情况的对照
So I put myself and some other people in as normal.
当我拿到最后一张大脑扫描时 它看起来完全就像一个心理变态的大脑
And I got to the last scan, and I looked at it, and it was like completely pathological.
我告诉技术员:”你把它们搞混了”
And I told the technician, I said, “You got these mixed up.
很明显是跟一个心理变态或其中一个杀人犯的大脑扫描搞混了
There’s obviously, you know, a psychopath or one of the killers.
我们刚刚把那叠扫描图混在一起
We just mixed the pile up.
去检查一下吧”
Go check it.”
他检查了机器和其他所有东西
And he went and checked the machine and everything.
他回来后 说:”不,这张扫描是属于控制组(正常组)的”
He came back, he goes, “No, it’s one of these controls.”
当我把盖着名字的标签掀开 我看到了我的名字
And so when I pulled back the name, the tag covering the name, of course was my name on
我和那位技术员因此大笑起来
it, and we had a good laugh about it.
当时很忙 我几乎都忘记这件事了
We were so busy, I kind of blew it off.
虽然这件事似乎难以置信
Which seems incredible.
你知道 大多数人认为我们在说笑
You know, most people go, we gotta be kidding!
但我说 我知道自己是谁
But I said, I know who I am.
我不是心理变态
I’m not a psychopath.
肯定是数据有误或者哪里出错了
There’s something wrong with the data, or, you know, something’s wrong.
一年半之后 我收到其他基因数据
I mean, within a year and a half, all the other genetics came back, and I had all the
我带有所有暴力倾向的基因标记 缺乏同情心
genetic markers for violence and, you know, this poor empathy and everything associated
以及其他与心理变态相关的基因
with psychopathy.
我带有两个主要的生理基因标记
So I had the two main biological markers.
当时我依然一笑置之
I still laughed at it.
直到2010年 我被邀请到挪威奥斯陆进行演讲
Well, it wasn’t till about 2010, I was invited to give a talk in Oslo, Norway.
那里的研究人员跟我谈了好几个小时
And they talked to me for a few hours.
他们拿到我的数据 跟我说”噢,顺便告诉你,你很有可能是一个临界的心理变态”
They had my data, and they said, “Oh, by the way, you’re probably a borderline psychopath.”
我说:”神马?!”
I went, “What?!”
这是第一次我认真看待这件事 因为这些人并不认识我
And that’s the first time I took it seriously, because these people didn’t know me.
他们是通过刚刚跟我面谈得到这些科研数据的
They were just going from the scientific data from interviewing me.
当我坐飞机回到家 就是从那时开始 一切都变了
And when I flew back, that’s when everything changed.
我问我妻子
And so, I asked my wife.
我说”现在告诉我所有事情吧
I said, “Don’t tell me anything, now.
我不会发疯的”
I’m not gonna be mad.”
我跟我的亲朋好友也问了同样的问题
And I did that to my close friends and family.
他们给出一样的答案
They all said the same thing.
他们说你极度自恋 非常有攻击性
They said extreme narcissist, you have the extreme, you know, you’re very aggressive,
还有其他等等等等
and on and on.
你冷漠无情
You’re cold.
你知道吗 我真的很幸运
I’m very fortunate, you know.
我在一个积极美好的家庭长大
I was, grew up in a wonderful family.
我的那些基因从没有被引发至一个不好的方向
And, and those genes were never really triggered in a bad direction.
尽管我身上有那些特质 但并没有做出什么可怕的事情
Even though I’m, I have those traits, they didn’t go far south, because I should be
而其实我很有可能会成为一个极恶之人
a really bad guy.

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视频概述

心理变态之所以变态是什么原因?基因就决定了一切吗?也许你身边很多人都有跟心理变态相似的大脑。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

米丁

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vjhZfyhvR6w

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