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自恋这种心理是怎样产生的

The psychology of narcissism - W. Keith Campbell

Way before the first selfie,
在第一张自拍照出现之前
the ancient Greeks and Romans had a myth
古希腊和古罗马的人早就有了
about someone a little too obsessed with his own image.
关于自我痴迷的神话故事
In one telling, Narcissus was a handsome guy wandering the world in search of someone to love.
相传 那喀索斯是一个在全世界寻找爱人的帅哥
After rejecting a nymph named Echo,
在拒绝了仙女厄科后
he caught a glimpse of his own reflection in a river, and fell in love with it.
他在河里瞥见自己的倒影 并为之深深迷倒
Unable to tear himself away, Narcissus drowned.
他不愿与影子分离 最终竟溺水而亡
A flower marked the spot of where he died, and we call that flower the Narcissus.
鲜花在他的逝地盛开 我们将之称为 水仙
The myth captures the basic idea of narcissism,
这个神话描述了自恋的基本特征
elevated and sometimes detrimental self-involvement.
即自我赞赏以及某些过分的自我投入
But it’s not just a personality type that shows up in advice columns.
但这不仅是在社评中出现的一种性格类型
It’s actually a set of traits classified and studied by psychologists.
实际上心理学家也研究出这系列特征
The psychological definition of narcissism is an inflated, grandiose self-image.
心理学对自恋的定义是膨胀浮夸的自我形象
To varying degrees, narcissists think they’re better looking, smarter,
自恋者或多或少都觉得他们更好看更聪明
and more important than other people,
比其他人更重要
and that they deserve special treatment.
而且觉得他们理应受到特殊照顾
Psychologists recognize two forms of narcissism as a personality trait:
心理学家把两种形态的自恋作为人格特质
grandiose and vulnerable narcissism.
浮夸型和脆弱型
There’s also narcissistic personality disorder,
自恋也会导致一些人格缺陷
a more extreme form, which we’ll return to shortly.
那是一种更极端的形式 我们不久后就会讲到
Grandiose narcissism is the most familiar kind, characterized by extroversion,
浮夸型自恋是我们最熟悉的一种 特点是
dominance, and attention seeking.
外向 有控制欲 并希望得到关注
Grandiose narcissists pursue attention and power, sometimes as politicians,
浮夸型自恋者追求关注和权力 有的成为政客
celebrities, or cultural leaders.
名人或者文化领袖
Of course, not everyone who pursues these positions of power is narcissistic.
当然 不是每一个追求这些职权的人都是自恋者
Many do it for very positive reasons, like reaching their full potential, or helping make people’s lives better.
有些人还有一些积极的目的 如挑战自我潜能 提高人们生活质量
But narcissistic individuals seek power
但是自恋者渴望权利
for the status and attention that goes with it.
追求地位和随之而来的关注
Meanwhile, vulnerable narcissists can be quiet and reserved.
然而脆弱自恋者就显得安静缄默
They have a strong sense of entitlement, but are easily threatened or slighted.
他们虽有强烈的权力感 但易受威胁或轻视
In either case, the dark side of narcissism shows up over the long term.
不论哪种情况 时间一久自恋的黑暗面都会出现
Narcissists tend to act selfishly,
自恋者倾向于变得自私
so narcissistic leaders may make risky or unethical decisions,
所以自恋的领导者可能会做有风险或不道德的决定
and narcissistic partners may be dishonest or unfaithful.
而自恋的伙伴也有可能不诚实可靠
When their rosy view of themselves is challenged,
当他们美好的自我形象受到挑战
they can become resentful and aggressive.
他们就会愤懑且变得有侵略性
It’s like a disease where the sufferers feel pretty good,
这就像一种病 病人感觉很好
but the people around them suffer.
但他们身边的人却在遭殃
Taken to the extreme, this behavior is classified as a psychological disorder
如果再严重些 那就是一种心理障碍了
called narcissistic personality disorder.
我们把它称作自恋型人格障碍
It affects one to two percent of the population, more commonly men.
它影响了1~2%的人群 且多数是男性
It is also a diagnosis reserved for adults.
这也是一种仅限成人的诊断
Young people, especially children, can be very self-centered,
年轻人尤其是孩子 可以变得非常自私
but this might just be a normal part of development.
但这可能只是发展中的一个正常部分
The fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s
美国精神病学会第五版
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
诊断统计手册
describes several traits associated with narcissistic personality disorder.
描述了几种自恋型人格障碍的特征
They include a grandiose view of oneself, problems with empathy,
包括自我膨胀 缺少同情
a sense of entitlement, and a need for admiration or attention.
权利欲 和渴望被钦佩或关注
What makes these trait a true personality disorder
这些特征真正造成人格障碍的原因
is that they take over people’s lives and cause significant problems.
是它们主宰了人们的生活并导致了严重的问题
Imagine that instead of caring for your spouse or children,
想象一下 你不关心你的配偶或孩子
you used them as a source of attention or admiration.
而把他们当做关注和赞美的来源
Or imagine that instead of seeking constructive feedback about your performance,
想想你不理会对提高自己表现有利的建议
you instead told everyone who tried to help you
反而想告诉那些想帮你的人
that they were wrong.
他们错了
So what causes narcissism?
那么是什么导致了自恋呢
Twin studies show a strong genetic component,
对于双胞胎的研究很大程度上体现了基因的参与
although we don’t know which genes are involved.
尽管我们尚且不知哪些基因与之相关
But environment matters, too.
另外 环境也很重要
Parents who put their child on a pedestal
对孩子搁置不管的家长
can foster grandiose narcissism.
能滋养浮夸型自恋症
And cold, controlling parents can contribute to vulnerable narcissism.
而冷漠的控制型家长能塑造脆弱型自恋
Narcissism also seems to be higher
自恋似乎在那些张扬个性
in cultures that value individuality and self-promotion.
和自我推销的文化中也更常见
In the United States, for example, narcissism as a personality trait has been rising since the 1970s,
比如在美国 自恋这种性格特征自70年代变得广泛
when the communal focus of the 60s
而本来在60年代只引起关注的事
gave way to the self-esteem movement
却要给自尊运动让路
and a rise in materialism.
向物质主义屈服
More recently, social media has multiplied the possibilities for self-promotion, though it’s worth noting
尽管没有什么意义 社交媒体却增加了自我推销的可能性
that there’s no clear evidence that social media causes narcissism.
值得一提的是没有明显证据说社交媒体导致了自恋
Rather, it provides narcissists a means to seek social status and attention.
相反 它给自恋者提供了寻求社会地位和关注的方法
So can narcissists improve on those negative traits?
自恋者能改进那些负面特征吗
Yes!
当然
Anything that promotes honest reflection on their own behavior and caring for others,
任何促进自身反思和关怀他人的事
like psychotherapy or practicing compassion towards others, can be helpful.
比如心理疗法或练习同情他人都是有用的
The difficulty is it can be challenging
难就难在让自恋型心理障碍
for people with narcissistic personality disorder
的人坚持自我提升
to keep working at self-betterment.
很有挑战
For a narcissist, self-reflection is hard from an unflattering angle.
因为自恋者很难从一个不那么美好的角度去反思自我

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