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动力心理学:构建目标尊重贡献给予奖励 – 译学馆
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动力心理学:构建目标尊重贡献给予奖励

The Psychology of Motivation: Build Purpose, Respect Contributions, Give Credit | Dan Ariely

第一课便是 不要扼杀积极性
So the first lesson is don’t kill motivation.
你知道 通常企业并不只是增加积极性 还要防止它下降
You know businesses are often not about just increasing it, it is by stop decreasing it.
我来讲个故事 几年前我给一家位于西雅图的公司做演讲
I’ll tell you a story I gave a talk at a company in Seattle a few years ago.
那是一家很大的软件公司 我在房间里对着200位
It’s a big software company and I was giving a talk and I was in this room with 200 really
看起来非常沮丧的工程师做演讲
depressed engineers talking to them.
原来 他们之前正在致力研发新一代的(软件)
It turns out they were working on whatever the next version of the – they were working
那是个大项目 对公司非常重要 然而在我去的前一周
on something really important and big for that company and the week before I showed
公司的CEO将项目取消了
up the CEO of the company came to them and canceled the project.
他们为此深受打击
And they were incredibly devastated.
这些工程师已经为之努力了两年 他们觉得
This was a group that worked for two years on something that they felt would be the next
那会是公司的下一个重大成就 直到上周被取消
great thing for that company and the week before he just canceled it.
(演讲的时候)他们没有准时到场
And they did not show up on time.
他们只是太沮丧了
They were just devastated.
而且信念受到了打击 那之后他们中的很多人选择
They were just morally devastated and by the way after that many of them just left the
离开公司
company.
他们都是很棒的人
They were very good people.
他们只是受到的打击太大了
They were just so demoralized.
然后我就问他们 我说好吧 让我们就当他必须取消这个项目
And I asked them I said okay, let’s just assume the CEO had to cancel the project.
让我们假设他因为某些原因必须这样做
Let’s assume he had to cancel for whatever reason.
我们先不要质疑这个
Let’s not question that.
那么CEO怎样做才能让你们不这么失望?
What could the CEO have done not to get you to be so depressed?
然后他们提出了各种想法
And they came up with all kinds of ideas.
他们说如果CEO允许他们去做一些雏形 然后
They said what if he allowed them to make a few working prototypes and distribute them
在公司内部分配使用几年
within the company for a few years.
只是看看人们会用它们做些什么
Just kind of see what people do with them.
他么说如果CEO允许他们拿正在开发的新技术
They say what if he allowed them to take parts of this new technology that we’re developing
去试看看新技术的哪部分在系统里的其它地方可以充分利用
and see which parts will be useful in other parts of the organization, right, have some
即项目剩下来的部分给他们测试看看
kind of leftovers from the project.
他们说如果允许他们去做一个面向整个公司的研讨会
They said what if you would allow them to do a workshop for the whole company to show
去展示他们过去两年的历程
them the journey of the last two years.
以及他们的成就 他们的所学 他们的挣扎
What they’ve accomplished, what they’ve learned, what they struggled with, what they
还有他们的领悟
figured out.
然而所有的这些建议 都需要时间 金钱
And the thing about all of those suggestions, all of them would have needed some time, money
以及努力才能完成
and effort, right.
而且如果CEO认为这些人只是像笼子里的老鼠 他说
And if the CEO thinks that those people are just like rats in a cage he said oh, I told
我让你走这边 你就走这边
you to go this way, you went this way.
现在 我想去其他的地方
Now I want to go somewhere else.
我要把这边的门关上
I’ll close that gate.
我会告诉你去其他的地方
I’ll tell you to go somewhere else.
这样你就不需要担心积极性
Then you don’t need to worry about motivation.
但是如果你知道积极性非常重要 你会问要怎样做
But if you understand that motivation is incredibly important then you say how do we get
这些人为这个项目已经投入很多 我们怎样做才能不摧毁他们的信念
these people who have invested a lot in this and how we don’t just crush their spirits.
而这个CEO干的就是摧毁人信念的事
But what he did was to crush their spirits.
所以第一课就是 停止摧毁人们的信念
So lesson number one is stop crushing people’s spirit.
好吧 你可能会觉得 这是谁都知道的事
And, you know, it might seem like a ridiculous obvious thing to do but if you look at lots
但是 如果你看得多 你会看到有很多时候人们并不是有意去伤害
of companies you’ll see lots of places where not because people intend to do harm but just
只是因为我们无法领会到那些行为的意义
because we don’t truly appreciate where meaning comes to life.
我们做很多这样的事情
We do lots of those things.
我们让人去开始一个项目然后又中途砍掉它
We get people to start projects and we cut it in the middle.
我们让人去准备发布会然后永远不给人机会发布
We get people to prepare presentations and they never get delivered.
我们做各种各样的扼杀积极性的事情
We do all kinds of things that eliminate motivation.
想象我们正在做一个小视频 我们知道很可能
Imagine we were doing this little video segment and we knew all along there’s a good chance
它将永远无法面世
it will never see the light of day.
永远不会被发布或公开
It will just never be posted or anything like it.
它像是被放在一个黑洞 永远 永远 永远没人能看见
A black hole where it’s being posted and nobody, nobody, nobody will see it.
这难道会令人激动?
How exciting would that be.
你知道很多人都是在这样的环境下工作
You know lots of people are working in an environment like that.
现在更重要的问题是 我们怎样做才能 你知道的 使人有更多的积极性
Now the more important question is how do we get people to be, you know, get more motivation,
不只是停止降低积极性 还有要增加工作的意义
not just stop decreasing motivation but increasing the sense of meaning.
有很多方式可以做到 可能最好的例子就是像开源社区一样思考
Lots of ways to do it and maybe the best example is to think about the open source community.
在开源社区 有一个前提规定
One of the things that happened in the open source community is that there was a legal
社员们基本上认同 即每当一个人写一段代码
advance where they basically agreed that everybody who writes a piece of code their name would
他的名字就与这段代码关联起来
always be connected to it.
现在你可能说 谁会关心?
Now you can say who cares.
创作者会关心
People care.
如果你的名字和一段代码联系在一起 你就会去维护它
If your name is connected to a piece of code you’re going to maintain that piece of code
直到永远
forever.
有一段时间 人们不敢使用开源软件
There was a period in time where people were worried about getting open source software.
他们担心没人维护它
They said who’s going to maintain it?
可是如果你的名字与代码关联 你就会去维护它
If your name is connected to it you’re going to maintain it.
而且人们也确实在各种看似不可能的情况下 维护着各种软件
And indeed people maintain all kinds of software in all kinds of unlikely events.
人们在上面投入时间精力金钱 知道如果我创造一些东西 其他人会在此基础上继续建造
And people invest in it and knowing that if I create something and other people build
它将一直带着我的名字 和我相关 是我奉献的意义所在
on it, it would always have my name and my connection and my sense of contribution is
这就是最不可思议的动力
incredibly motivating.
所以只要解决一个简单的小问题 我们要怎么把人的名字
So just think about that simple idea of where do we put people’s names.
放到每一个软件上
On every piece of software.
像所有相关的人都可以在汽车引擎盖上签下自己的名字
Like why on the hood of the car all the people who are involved could sign their name in
用非常小的字迹
a very small print.
当然 还有其它需要注意的
And then of course there’s other things, right.
那并不只是一个名字大集合
It’s not just about name association.
它事关人们的奉献感 以及——你可以说是——自主感
It’s about the feeling of contribution and the feeling that you have a say, autonomy
是吧
right.
不再是你被告知要做什么 而是你自己选择去做
That you’re not just told what you’re going to do, it’s that you are doing it.
他们用孩子做了一个非常有趣的实验
There’s a very cute experiment in which they take kids.
这些孩子随他们的母亲去一个实验室
They come with their mother to a lab
然后孩子们和助手去到另一个房间
and they go into a separate room with the research assistants.
他们在一起画画 先是助手作画
And they do a drawing together and one time the research assistant does the drawing and
孩子告诉助手该怎样做
the kid tells them what to do.
也就是孩子们给出指令 助手只需按指令做
So the kids give the instructions and the research assistant does the mechanical work.
另一个条件下 助手给指令 孩子们
Another condition the research assistant gives the instruction and the kids, the kid does
照指令做
the mechanical work.
当他们完成后 助手把画拿在手里 在孩子之前走了出去
And then as they finish it the research assistant takes the drawing in their hand, go out of
并且把画展示给母亲们看 说“看 这是我做的”
the room first before the kid, shows it to the mother and says look what I did.
问题是哪种条件下 孩子们会更加不安
And the question is when will the kid be more upset, right.
研究助手把孩子们的功劳据为己有
So the research assistant takes credit for the kid’s job.
什么情况下孩子会更加沮丧呢?
When will the kid be more upset?
当孩子执笔但想法来自其他人的时候 还是
When the kid did the drawing but the idea was somebody else’s or when the idea was
想法是孩子的 别人只是照着画的时候?
the kid’s and somebody else did the mechanical thing?
结果是 当是孩子的想法 是他们的想法的时候孩子会更加沮丧
And the kids get more upset when it was their idea, which was their idea.
想一下有多少时候 我们没有对别人的想法给予赞扬
Think about how much we don’t give credit in this world to other people’s ideas.
又有多少人感到他们的想法已被窃取 有人在利用它
How many people feel that their ideas were taken, somebody else is using it and they
他们自己却没有获得赞扬
don’t get credit.
赞扬是免费的 是吧
Credit is free, right.
赞扬是无价的
Credit is great.
赞美每个人 对吧
Give everybody credit, right.
团队有100个人 给每一个人赞扬
There’s a team of a 100 people, give everybody credit.
为什么不呢?
Why not?
为什么我们在给别人赞扬时那么吝啬
Why are we so stingy with giving people credit.
无论如何 还有许多其它这样的例子 你只需不吝赞扬
Anyway, so there’s lots of other examples like this where you could just say let’s
所以让我们着眼于所有可以给予人们意义的事情
look at all the things that give people a sense of meaning and let’s just try to give
让我们努力将每一天都过得更有意义
more of it on an every day basis.

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无论工作还是生活,我们都需要尊重别人的劳动成果,多多赞扬别人。

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