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消费主义带来的问题

The Problem with Consumerism

This video was made possible by the people who support me on Patreon.
有了Patreon上的赞助 本期视频得以完成
In 2009, South Korea did something remarkable.
2009年 韩国一举动引人瞩目
The country poured 2% of its GDP,
韩国将2%的国内生产总值
some $38.1 billion,
约381亿美元
into environmental projects,
投入环境相关的项目
hoping to create one million green jobs over the next five years.
以期在未来5年创造100万个绿色就业岗位
The goal was to spur growth in a slumping economy
以摆脱经济下行 刺激经济增长
while simultaneously creating a low carbon society.
同时构建低碳社会
In one sense, the plan worked.
从某种意义上说 该计划成功了
South Korea’s economic system did eventually recover,
韩国经济最终迎来了复苏
but in a more important sense, the plan failed.
但从更重要的意义上看 它失败了
From 2009 to 2014,
2009至2014年间
Korea’s emissions rose 11.8%.
韩国的排放增长了11.8%
So, despite massive investments in clean energy, railway expansion,
尽管大量投资进入清洁能源 铁路扩张建设
and energy efficiency, South Korea’s emissions still climbed.
和能源效率领域 韩国的排放量依然攀升
What happened?
这是怎么回事?
Why didn’t South Korea’s green growth strategy work?
为什么韩国的绿色增长战略失败了?
Today, we’ll answer that question and more
本期视频会对这个问题及其他问题做出解答
in order to understand one of the insidious spectres
以更好理解绿色能源革命背后
that haunts the green energy revolution: consumption.
潜藏的“幽灵”之一:消费
第一部分:消费如何导致气候变化
It’s December and the streets of New York City are filled with Christmas.
12月份 纽约街头处处洋溢着圣诞气息
Stores, trees, lights, bags, packages, and trash.
商店 圣诞树 彩灯 手提袋 包裹 垃圾
Christmas in America is a sacred capitalist holiday
美国的圣诞节就是一个神圣的资本主义节日
wherein the average American explodes their average yearly emissions footprint
普通美国人这一天的排放足迹
by roughly 650kg of CO2e,
相比年均量激增约650千克二氧化碳当量
while spending cumulative $2.6 billion on wrapping paper.
包装用纸消费累计达26亿美元
Up until around 150 years ago, however,
但就在约150年前
the holiday rarely saw a wrapped present in sight.
几乎没有带包装的礼物在圣诞节出现
But then unofficial holidays like Black Friday
但随后黑色星期五之类的非官方节日
and department stores like Macy’s started to encourage shoppers
以及梅西百货之类的百货公司开始鼓励顾客
to fill their carts with tech and trinkets
用科技产品和小饰物塞满购物车
as a means of expressing care and love.
将其作为一种展现爱与关怀的方式
Now, Christmas shopping epitomizes the consumer experience in the United States.
如今 圣诞购物已成了美国消费者体验的缩影
It’s driven by a complex mix of personal desire,
消费受复杂因素影响 包括个人欲望
social pressures, status signaling, stress, and propaganda
社会压力 地位象征 心理负担及宣传活动
that work, in many instances, not to increase personal well-being,
很多时候 这些因素并不会增强人的幸福感
but to pad the pocketbooks of corporations.
只会让人为各大公司掏腰包
Advertisements on Instagram and billboards in Times Square
Instagram里的广告和时代广场的广告牌
bombard us with visions of what we could be
不停向我们展示 只要我们有了那个手表或手机
if only we had that watch or phone,
我们就能变成什么样子
which locks us into a world where,
我们被困在了这样一个世界:
in order to find happiness or comfort or political change,
如果想获得幸福 寻求安慰或政治变革
we need to buy…stuff.
我们就得买些什么
But a range of studies consistently found that
但是一系列研究一致发现
once a person’s needs are met,
一个人的需要得到满足后
extra consumption does not increase their well-being.
额外消费并不会让他更幸福
And buying new phones, clothes, and gadgets
况且不管是买新手机 新衣服 还是新玩意儿
all have an environmental price tag.
都要付出环境代价
Despite the fact that 100 companies were found
尽管我们发现70%的全球排放
to be the root cause of 70% of global emissions,
最终来源于100家公司
the reality is that the people using those companies’ products
事实是 使用这些公司的产品
and burning their fuel are us.
并消耗它们的燃料的人是我们
Or rather, I should say, primarily rich communities and countries.
不过确切地说 主要是生活在富裕国家和地区的人
Because consumption levels are not equal across the world,
因为世界各地的消费水平不一
the average American uses over 100 times
一个普通美国人的能源消耗量
the energy as someone from India.
要比一个普通印度人高出100多倍
And if everyone in the world were to live
如果世界上所有人都按照
in the same way the average German does right now,
一个普通德国人目前的生活标准生活
global emissions would double.
全球排放量将会翻上一番
So as those in rich countries
所以 当富裕国家的人们
gorge on luxury items and the newest tech,
大肆挥霍 购买奢侈品和最新科技产品
they use energy and emit at much higher rates
他们的能源消耗及排放量
than countries in the majority world,
要远远高于第三世界国家的人
which often are the ones
而通常正是这些第三世界国家
feeling the brunt of climate disasters
在气候灾难中首当其冲
Why we can’t buy our way out of climate change:
第二部分 为什么消费无法让我们摆脱气候变化
The blame for overconsumption should not
对过度消费的谴责
and can not be placed solely on individuals.
不应该也不能只落到个人头上
Companies and corporations have a vested interest in making you buy more stuff
让人购买更多东西是各大企业和公司的既得利益
because if they don’t, they go bankrupt.
因为不这样做 它们就会破产
Which is why they slap green labels onto their products
这也是为什么公司都要给自家产品贴上环保标签
and advertise everywhere.
并且进行铺天盖地的宣传
Indeed, the whole idea of a personal carbon footprint
实际上 个人碳足迹这个概念
is a propaganda campaign created by the fossil fuel giant BP.
就是一场由化石燃料巨头BP发起的宣传运动
The move allowed them
人们不再关注
to lock-in decades of fossil fuel use
化石燃料公司在气变背景下的不当行为
by turning the attention
它们便能以路径依赖为由
away from their complicity in climate change,
在未来几十年继续使用化石燃料
and instead blaming the individual
并反过来指责个人
for not living a low carbon lifestyle or not buying the right thing.
生活方式不够低碳 消费选择不够正确
The natural conclusion in a system riddled with ads and cultural norms
身处这样一个体系:无处不在的广告和文化规范
imploring all your senses to buy more,
调动人的所有感官让人不停消费
is that your dollar is your vote.
结论自然是 你的美元就是你的选票
An idea which stands in stark contrast to the democratic ideal of one person, one vote.
这一结论与一人一票的民主理想对比鲜明
We are led to believe that growing the economy,
我们被误导而相信 促进经济增长
which for the individual means buying more,
对个人来说也就意味着多买东西
whether it be supporting new green tech,
不管是把钱花在支持新兴绿色科技上
or wearing sustainably-made clothing,
还是穿上可持续材料制成的衣物
is how we stop climate change.
这都是我们阻止气候变化的方法
But the reality is that
但事实上
this capitalist growth model counteracts the work
这种资本主义式的经济增长模式
being done to decrease emissions.
抵消了为减排付出的努力
Over the last 40 years,
在过去40年中
global emissions have skyrocketed
全球排放仍急剧增长
despite dramatic expansions of renewable and energy efficiency technologies.
即使可再生科技和节能科技得以大力推广
Yes, growth does lead to an expansion of new sustainable innovations,
的确 经济增长带来了可持续创新的发展
but it also leads to the expansion of fossil fuel-intensive industries.
但也带来了化石燃料密集型产业的扩张
Just one percent growth in GDP
国内生产总值仅1%的增长
leads to a 0.5 to 0.8% increase in carbon emissions.
就会带来0.5-0.8%的碳排放增长
And if we continue to grow at 3 percent per year,
并且 如果我们仍保持每年3%的增长率
by 2043, the global economy will be two times larger than it is now,
到2043年 全球经济总量就会是当前的三倍
which means energy consumption will be larger
这就意味着能源消耗会更多
and the task of transitioning towards a zero-carbon world
向零碳世界转型的任务
will be much harder.
也会愈发艰巨
So, something’s got to give.
所以有些东西必须做出让步
And that something is consumption in rich countries.
那就是富裕国家的消费
第三部分:我们有什么选择?
The unfortunate reality is that
不幸的是
expanding zero-carbon technologies to meet global energy demands,
推广零碳科技以满足全球能源需求
or what’s known as decoupling emissions from growth,
或者说将排放与增长脱钩
will be an extremely difficult task.
将会是一个异常艰难的任务
A task that South Korea attempted back in 2009
2009年韩国的尝试即是如此
and ran headfirst into the consequences of a growth-centered economy.
但冒失地尝到了以增长为先经济模式的苦头
The reason why South Korea’s emissions still rose 11.8% over five years
韩国的排放之所以在5年内仍增长了11.8%
is that their total energy consumption
是因为其能源消耗总量的增长在速度上
outpaced renewable installation and energy efficiency projects.
超过了可再生能源装机量和节能项目的增长
So the emissions they saved with green technology
因而消费水平的总体增长
were nullified by their overall increase in consumption levels.
抵消了这些绿色科技减少的排放
So then, what options do we have?
那我们还有什么选择呢?
One recent study modeled that
近期一项研究通过建模得出
by 2050 the world could support the equivalent of three times
到2050年 世界能够供养的人数
the current global population
是目前的三倍
if global consumption levels drop 60%
前提是全球消费水平能降低60%
back down to 1960 levels.
回到1960年水平
Most notably though,
但有一点尤为突出
the paper claims that this is possible
这篇论文指出 即使消费水平降低
while still maintaining or even improving a decent lifestyle for all.
也能让所有人都维持甚至改善体面的生活方式
And within their definition of a decent living,
在这一研究对于体面生活的定义中
the researchers include laptops, comfortable climate control,
研究者们纳入了手提电脑 舒适的温度调控
access to robust transportation networks and universal healthcare.
以及享受强大的交通网络和全民医保的机会
In order to achieve this world
为了让所有人
wherein everyone is able to enjoy a decent lifestyle
都能享受这样一种体面的生活方式
while also avoiding a climate emergency,
同时避免气候紧急状态
the researchers suggest a dual-pronged approach.
研究者们提出了一种双管齐下的方法
On the demand-side,
在需求侧
consumption levels must drop by as much as 95%
消费者人均消费量最高的国家里
in countries with today’s highest per-capita consumers.
消费水平必须下降多达95%
That means no more second houses
即意味着不能再有第二套房
or eating red meat every single day of the week.
也不能一周七天都吃红肉
This then must be simultaneously coupled with massive rollouts of advanced technology
这也必须与能效 可再生能源及其他领域
in energy efficiency, renewable energy, and other sectors.
先进科技的大规模应用同时配合实施
Together, the model predicts,
综合来看 该模型预测
these scenarios could allow the global population
所有这些措施的应用
to live well in a zero carbon world.
能让所有人在一个零碳世界里生活得很好
And if all this sounds scary,
如果这些听起来都很可怕
Hope Jahren, author of The Story of More,
The Story of More一书的作者霍普·洁伦
compares this future lifestyle
将这种未来的生活方式
to that of someone living in Switzerland in the 1960s,
比作20世纪60年代生活在瑞士的人的生活
which, to me, doesn’t sound that bad,
对我来说 这种生活听起来不算多糟
especially considering that everyone in the world
特别是考虑到世界上每个人
would be able to live the 1960s Swiss life.
都能过上20世纪60年代瑞士人的生活
第四部分:向去增长迈进
The key point here is that reducing emissions
关键的一点是
or what’s known as decoupling emissions from growth
减排 或者说排放与经济增长脱钩
is not enough to quickly prevent the worst-case climate change scenario.
并不足以迅速阻止气候变化最坏情况的发生
Reducing consumption has to be integrated into our solutions toolkit
如果我们要在2050年前迅速应对气候危机
if we are to quickly tackle the climate crisis before 2050.
减少消费必须被纳入我们的解决方案中
But the burden of this task should not be laid upon the individual,
但减少消费的重担不应该被压到个人头上
it’s the job of governments
这是政府的责任
and the very corporations who created the mess in the first place
也是最先创造出麻烦的公司的责任
to facilitate this drop in consumption.
它们都负有促使消费减少的责任
Imagine for a moment,
想象一下
if instead of lobbying for fuel subsidies
如果BP不再为燃料补贴四处游说
and spending millions telling us to decrease our carbon footprint,
也不再花几百万让我们减少碳足迹
BP was required to address its complicity in climate change
而是被要求处理其在气变中的不当行为
by leaving fossil fuels in the ground
不再开发化石燃料
and developing renewable energy, rapid public transportation,
而是发展可再生能源 快速公共交通
and energy efficiency technologies.
和节能科技
I’d imagine the task of reducing our own consumption and emissions
我会觉得 减少我们的消费和排放的任务
would probably be a lot easier.
大概率会容易得多
Ultimately, degrowth is a path we need to take seriously
如果我们要应对气候变化突发情况
if we are to tackle the climate emergency.
去增长是我们最终必须要认真考虑的路径
While I can’t pretend to predict
尽管我无法自称
the far reaching consequences reducing growth would create,
能预测到降低经济增长带来的长远后果
I do know one thing:
但我确实知道一件事:
the smaller our global needs,
我们的全球需求越少
the easier the transition will be.
向零碳社会的转型就会越容易
Hey everyone, Charlie here.
嗨 大家好 我是Charlie
If you’ve been watching Our Changing Climate for a while
如果你关注《气候变化》已经有一段时间
or just stumbled across this video
或者是碰巧看到这个视频
and are wondering how you can help me make more videos,
想知道你如何能帮上忙 让我能做更多视频
then consider supporting the show on Patreon.
可以考虑在Patreon上支持我的频道
As an OCC patron,
成为《气候变化》的一名赞助者
you’ll gain early access to videos,
你将有机会提前看到视频
special behind-the-scenes updates,
获取幕后特别节目的最新消息
as well as a members-only group chat.
还能加入仅向会员开放的群聊
In addition, each month my supporters
此外 每月我的支持者们
vote on an environmental group
会投票选出一个环保组织
that I then donate a portion of my monthly revenue to.
之后我就会把我的部分月营收捐给这个组织
So if you want to support the channel
所以如果你想支持我的频道
or are feeling generous,
或者非常大方
head over to patreon.com/ourchangingclimate
可以去patreon.com/ourchangingclimate
and become an OCC patron.
成为《气候变化》频道的赞助人
If for whatever reason you’re not interested
如果无论什么原因你不感兴趣
or aren’t financially able to,
或者经济条件不允许
then no worries!
也别担心!
I hope you enjoyed the video, and I’ll see you in two weeks!
希望你喜欢这个视频 两周后见!

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视频概述

视频以韩国绿色经济政策的失败为切入探讨了消费、化石燃料公司、去增长等气候变化相关问题。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

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审核员

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x0ckvo2Z5BU

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