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拜占庭公主

The princess who rewrote history - Leonora Neville

拜占庭的皇帝 阿莱克修斯•科穆宁
Alexios Komnenos, Byzantine emperor,
带领他的军队和塞西亚部落交战
led his army to meet the Scythian hordes in battle.
幸运的是 他携带着基督教的神迹之一:
For good luck, he carried one of the holiest relics in Christendom:
曾属于圣母玛利亚的帷幕
the veil that had belonged to the Virgin Mary. ,
不幸的是 这东西没什么用
Unfortunately,it didn’t help.
不仅军队战败了
Not only was his army defeated,
逃跑时 国王本人的手臂也被刺伤了
but as they fled, the Emperor was stabbed in the buttocks.
更糟的是 因为风大
To make matters worse, a strong wind
这个神迹变得很重难以带走
made the relic too heavy to carry,
于是他在逃走时把神迹藏在了灌木丛中
so he stashed it in some bushes as he escaped.
但就算是逃跑 他也在途中杀了许多塞西亚人
But even as he fled, he managed to slay some Scythians
并救了一些同族人
and rescue a few comrades.
至少 在近六十年后
At least, this is how Alexios’ daughter Anna recounted the story,
他的女儿安娜是这样叙述这件事的
writing nearly 60 years later.
她用自己漫长生命的最后十年
She spent the last decade of her long life
写下了这部五百页的 名为《阿莱克修斯传》的关于她父亲统治的史书
creating a 500-page history of her father’s reign called The Alexiad.
该书用希腊文写成
Written in Greek, the book was modeled
仿照了古希腊史诗和历史书的写作风格
after ancient Greek epics and historical writings.
但安娜略有不同 比传统的作家更灵活
But Anna had a different, trickier task than the writers in these traditions:
作为描述自己家族的公主
as a princess writing about her own family,
她必须要平衡对家族的忠诚
she had to balance her loyalty to her kin
尽自己的义务准确描绘这些历史事件
with her obligation to portray events accurately,
诸如阿莱克修斯的手臂被刺伤这样的尴尬问题
navigating issues like Alexios’s embarrassing stab to the buttocks.
研究和参与其父亲政府的一生的时间
A lifetime of study and participation in her father’s government
使她准备好承担这项责任
prepared Anna for this undertaking.
安娜生于1083年
Anna was born in 1083,
在她父亲抓住罗马帝国的控制权后不久
shortly after her father seized control of the Roman Empire
随之而来的是十年残酷的战争和反抗
following a decade of brutal civil wars and revolts.
当他掌权时 这个帝国
The empire was deep in decline when he came to power,
正逐渐衰落 还面临来自各方面的威胁:
and threatened from all sides:
东边的土耳其人
by the Seljuk Turks in the East,
西边的诺曼人 北边的塞西亚掠夺者
the Normans in the West, and Scythian raiders to the north.
在安娜童年和青年时期
Over the course of Anna’s childhood and adolescence,
阿莱克修斯经常发动军事活动
Alexios fought constant military campaigns
来保证帝国边疆的安全
to secure the frontiers of his empire,
甚至与十字军建立了一个不太稳定的联盟
even striking up an uneasy alliance with the Crusaders.
与此同时 在君士坦丁堡
Meanwhile in Constantinople,
安娜打了自己的“一仗”
Anna fought her own battle.
她很期待学习
She was expected to study subjects
去考虑那些适合拜占庭公主的事
considered proper for a Byzantine princess,
比如宫廷礼仪和圣经
like courtly etiquette and the Bible,
但更偏爱古典神话和自然哲学
but preferred classical myth and philosophy.
为掌握这些材料 她不得不在晚上偷偷学习 练习阅读并讲古希腊语
To access this material, she had to learn to read and speak Ancient Greek, by studying secretly at night.
最后 父母发现她是认真的 于是给她找了家教
Eventually her parents realized how serious she was, and provided her with tutors.
安娜学习了经典文学 修辞 历史
Anna expanded her studies to classical literature, rhetoric, history,
哲学 数学 天文学 还有医学
philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine.
一位学者甚至抱怨说她经常
One scholar even complained that her constant requests
要求讲更多亚里士多德的著作 这让他感到很累
for more Aristotle commentaries were wearing out his eyes.
十五岁时 安娜嫁给了尼基弗鲁斯•布林尼乌斯
At age fifteen, Anna married Nikephoros Bryennios
以缓解家族冲突并加强阿莱克修斯的统治
to quell old conflicts between their families and strengthen Alexios’s reign.
幸运的是 安娜和尼基弗鲁斯分享了许多知识
Fortunately,Anna and Nikephoros ended up sharing many intellectual interests,
主持并和当时的顶尖学者辩论
hosting and debating the leading scholars of the day.
于此同时 阿莱克修斯的军队开始取得短暂的胜利
Meanwhile,Alexios’s military excursions began to pay off,
夺回了许多之前失去的领土
restoring many of the empire’s former territories.
到了她父亲这个年龄 安娜和丈夫开始帮助父母管理国家事务
As her father aged, Anna and her husband helped her parents with their imperial duties.
在此期间 安娜提倡公平对待
During this time, Anna reportedly advocated for just treatment
那些反抗政府的人民
of the people in their disputes with the government.
阿莱克修斯死后
After Alexios’s death,
安娜的兄弟约翰继承了皇位
Anna’s brother John ascended to the throne
于是安娜又回到了哲学和知识的世界
and Anna turned back to philosophy and scholarship.
她的丈夫曾写过一个历史争论 说自己的祖父比阿莱克修斯更适合皇位
Her husband had written a history arguing that his grandfather would have made a better emperor than Alexios,
但安娜并不这么认为
but Anna disagreed.
她开始创作《阿莱克修斯传》
She began working on the Alexiad,
主要讲的是自己的父亲在位时的功绩
which made the case for her father’s merits as emperor.
囊括拜占庭11世纪后期到12世纪初期的历史
Spanning the late 11th and early 12th centuries of Byzantine history,
《阿莱克修斯传》描述了阿莱克修斯统治时期的动荡
the Alexiad recounts the tumultuous events of Alexios’s reign,
和安娜本人对这些事件的态度
and Anna’s own reactions to those events,
比如想到父母和丈夫的死 会突然大哭起来
like bursting into tears at the thought of the deaths of her parents and husband.
她也许把这些感性的段落写进书里
She may have includedthese emotional passages in hopes
希望这些段落能让其作品在一个
that they would make her writing more palatable
认为女性不应该写关于战争和国家的社会中更受欢迎
to a society that believed women shouldn’t write about battles and empires.
她对父亲的忠心在对其辖区的喜爱上表现明显
While her loyalty to her father was evident in her favorable account of his region,
同时也对一些事情提出了批评及自己的观点
she also included criticism and her opinions of events.
在她逝去的几个世纪
In the centuries after her death,
安娜的书不断再版
Anna’s Alexiad was copied over and over,
它见证了阿莱克修斯的统治
and remains an invaluable eyewitness account of Alexios’s reign today.
通过史诗级的历史叙述
And through her epic historical narrative,
安娜•科穆宁确立了自己在历史上的一席之地
Anna Komnene secured her own place in history.

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拜占庭公主用自己的实力写下属于自己的历史

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