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现在完成时 | English Grammar Lesson

The Present Perfect Tense | English Grammar Lesson

好 准备好你的笔记本
Okay! Get your notebooks ready!
这节课中我们主要讲的现在完成时态
In this lesson, we’re focusing on the present perfect tense
它是什么样的
– what it looks like,
如何使用
how to use it
以及什么时候用
and when to use it.
你们好 我是来自mmm英语的艾玛
Hello! I’m Emma from mmmEnglish.
如果你对英语中现在完成时的使用还不是很有信心
If you don’t feel confident using the present perfect tense in English yet,
几个可能的原因
there’s probably a few reasons why.
比如那些令人讨厌的不规则动词的过去分词形式
There’s those nasty irregular verbs in past participle form.
或者你可能不太确定
Or maybe you feel unsure
什么时候用现在完成时
about when to use the present perfect
什么时候用一般过去时态
and when to use the past simple tenses.
就算你十分擅长使用英语中的现在完成时态
Even if you’re quite good at using the present perfect tense in English,
也很值得复习这个时态
it’s definitely worth reviewing this tense
来唤起你的记忆
to jog your memory
这句话的意思是提醒你自己
– that expression means to remind yourself.
那你准备好了吗?
So are you ready to start?
拿一个笔记本一支笔
Grab a notepad and a pen
马上来复习这个美丽时态吧
and let’s go over this beautiful tense right now
这样你能更有自信地使用这个时态
so that you can feel more confident using it.
噢 还有如果你想起也需要复习这个时态的朋友
Oh and if you can think of a friend who needs to review this tense too,
确定你与他们分享这节课
make sure you share this lesson with them.
点击视频下方的分享
Click the share button just underneath this video,
他们会感谢你的分享的
they’ll thank you for it!
首先 语法结构
First thing, the grammatical structure.
现在完成时是什么样的呢?
What does it look like?
好的 它是这样的:
Well, it looks like this:
主语+“have”或“has”
Subject “have” or “has”
主动词是过去分词形式
and your main verb in past participle form.
主语你已经知道了
So, the subject, you already know this.
你能用专有名词或者代词
You can use a proper noun or a pronoun.
“I” “she” “they”
I, she, they.
在完成时态中
In the perfect tenses,
动词“have”是一个助动词 它是一个辅助动词
the verb”have” is an auxiliary verb, it’s a helping verb.
在句子中不是主动词
It’s not the main verb in the sentence
这就意味着它通常不重读
and that means that it’s usually unstressed
说的时候常用缩写形式
and often contracted when spoken.
所以“she has”变成“she’s”
So “she has” becomes “she’s”
“I have”变成“I’ve”
“I have” becomes “I’ve”
-我一会儿会多讲下这个缩写
– but I’ll talk more about that soon!
然后是主动词
But then comes the main verb.
在现在完成时态中
In the present perfect tense,
主动词要用过去分词形式
the main verb is in past participle form,
而不是一般过去式
not in past simple form.
现在 规则的动词过去时态是没有什么问题的
Now, this is no problem for regular past tense verbs.
对于规则动词来说
For regular verbs,
过去分词与一般过去式的形式是一样的
the past participle form is the same as the simple past.
你只需要加-ed
So you just need to add -ed.
现在时态中的“watch”在一般过去时中变成“watched”
“watch” in the present tense becomes”watched” in past simple
它的过去分词形式也是“watched”
and it’s also”watched” in past participle form.
“laugh”变成“laughed”
“laugh” becomes”laughed”
(过去分词形式)也是“laughed”
and is also “laughed”.
“dance” “danced” “danced”
“dance” “danced” “danced”
“call” “called” “called”
“call””called””called”
尽管有的不规则动词
and even some irregular verbs
一般过去式和过去分词形式是一样的
use the same verb for past simple as the past participle form.
现在时态中的“have”一般过去式是“had”
“have” in the presenttense becomes “had” in the simple past
“had”也是作为过去分词形式
and it’s also “had” as a past participle.
很简单 对吧
Easy, right?
“win” “won” “won”
“win””won””won”
真正的不规则动词是让人头疼的那些
But these really irregular verbs are the ones that cause all of the headaches
因为有三种不同的形式要记
because there are three different forms that you need to remember.
现在时态中的“go”
“go” in the present tense
一般过去式是“went”
becomes “went” in the past simple
过去分词形式
and in the past participle form,
是“been”或者“gone”
it’s “been” or “gone”.
更多示例
Some more examples.
“fly” “flew” “flown”
“fly””flew””flown”
“throw” “threw” “thrown”
“throw””threw””thrown”
“do” “did” “done”
“do””did””done”
“become” “became” “become”
“become””became””become”
“speak” “spoke” “spoken”
“speak””spoke””spoken”
我确信你能想到更多示例
I’m sure you can think of many more examples
但这些动词 没有规律没有规则可寻
but with these verbs, there’s no pattern, there’s no rule to follow.
你只能记住过去分词形式
You just need to memorise the past participle form –
但是留意我下周的视频
but keep an eye out for my next video next week,
将会帮你练习
which will help you to practise
和记忆这些不规则动词的过去分词形式
and memorise these past participle forms of irregular verbs.
事实上 如果你订阅了这个频道
In fact, if you subscribe to this channel
点击这里的红色按钮
– click the red button here
只要一更新你会立刻发现
– then you’ll find out as soon as it’s ready.
但要熟练使用现在完成时态
But to use the present perfect tense well,
你要多掌握一些有用的不规则英语动词
you may need to polish up on some useful irregular English verbs
还要提醒自己它们的过去分词形式
and remind yourself about their past participle form.
让我们回到语法结构中来
But let’s get back to the structure!
你有主语
You have the subject,
有“have”或者“has”
you have “have” or “has”
还有我们的过去分词动词
and our past participle verb.
“I have asked my parents to loan me some money.”
“I have asked my parents to loan me some money.”
“You have been really helpful today.”
“You have been really helpful today.”
“They have flown to the capital to meet with the officials.”
“They have flown to the capital to meet with the officials.”
“He has saved enough money to buy a car.”
“He has saved enough money to buy a car.”
“She has forgotten where her hotel is.”
“She has forgotten where her hotel is.”
现在 在这个结构中
Now, in this structure
“have”和“has”经常缩写成
often “have” and “has” are contracted to and
“I’ve asked”
“I’ve asked”
“You’ve been”
“You’ve been”
“They’ve flown”
“They’ve flown”
“He’s saved”
“He’s saved”
“She’s forgotten”
“She’s forgotten”
清楚了吗?
Got it?
好的
Good.
那什么时候用现在完成时态呢?
So when should you use the present perfect tense?
好的
Well,
当现在跟过去有联系的时候
when there is a connection between the present and the past.
想象它像一个桥梁
Think of it like a bridge
连接着过去和未来
that’s connecting the present and the past.
例如:
For example,
当某事在过去开始持续到现在
when something started in the past and continues in the present.
“They’ve been married for three years.”
“They’ve been married for three years.”
你能用它来讨论一个活动
You can use it to talk about an activity
你过去做过多次
that you’ve done several times in the past
你现在还要继续做的
and that you continue to do now.
“She has read many books.”
“She has read many books.”
她将可能读更多
And she’ll probably read more.
你也能用现在完成时来谈论生活经验
You can also use the present perfect to talk about life experience.
“He hasn’t travelled overseas before.”
“He hasn’t travelled overseas before.”
现在 在我列举更多示例之前
Now before I give you some more examples
让我们讨论一下
let’s talk about
什么时候用一般过去时和现在完成时态
when to use the past simple tense and the present perfect tense
因为这是这个时态中常常让人感到混乱的部分
because this is often the confusing part about this tense.
要回答这个问题
To answer this question,
你要考虑到时间
you need to think about time,
完成了的时间和未完成的时间
finished time and unfinished time.
那回想上周
So think about last week
那是个过去时间的好例子
– that’s a good example of finished time.
上周已经过去了 它结束了
Last week is finished, it’s over.
但这周怎么样呢?
But what about this week?
这周过去了吗?
Is this week finished?
不 还没有
No, not yet.
这是个未结束的时间
That’s an example of unfinished time.
这周还有很长时间
There is still more of this week to come,
它还没过去
it’s not finished yet.
昨天 上周 上个月 去年 1991年
Yesterday, last week, last month, last year, 1991.
这些是已过去时间的示例
These are all examples of finished time.
时间已经结束了
Time that is complete.
当你讨论一段过去时间的时候
When you’re talking about a time period that has finished
像这些
– like these –
你要用一般过去时态
you need to use the past simple.
但是当你谈论一段未完成的时间时
But when you’re talking about a time period that is unfinished,
像今天 这周 今年 这个月
like today, this week, this year, this month,
要用现在完成时态
use the present perfect tense.
那让我们用一些示例比较一下
So let’s compare some examples.
“Last month, I visited my brother three times.”
“Last month, I visited my brother three times.”
“This month I have visited my brother twice.”
“This month I have visited my brother twice.”
但是这个月还没结束 我可能又会去看他
But the month isn’t finished yet and I may visit him again.
和我一起试一个示例
Try an example with me.
“He borrowed my car yesterday.”
“He borrowed my car yesterday.”
这个句子是一般过去时态
So this sentence is in the past simple.
它是过去的时间
It’s finished time.
现在 试着自己把它改成现在完成时
Now, try to change it to the present perfect yourself.
你要做什么呢?
What do you need to do?
两件事
Two things.
你要加助动词
You need to add the auxiliary verb.
“he has”
“he has”
“has”而不是“have”
“has” not “have”.
因为主语是“he”所以它变了
It changes because our subject is he.”
“He has borrowed my car today” or this week.
“He has borrowed my car today” or this week.
我们也要改变时间表达
We need to change the time expression too
让句子用在现在完成时态中
for our sentence to work in the present perfect tense.
它必须得是未完成的时间
It must be unfinished time.
好的
Okay.
所以 那些都是现在完成时态在肯定句中的示例
So those were all examples of the present perfect in positive sentences.
但否定形式怎么样呢?
But what about negative forms?
当然 我们要在句子结构中加“not”
Of course, we need to add “not” to our sentence, to our structure.
主语加“have”或者“has”
Subject plus “have” or “has”
加“not” 然后我们的过去分词动词
plus not and then our past participle verb.
那比较下这些句子:
So compare these sentences.
“Last month, I visited my brother three times.”
“Last month, I visited my brother three times.”
“This month, I haven’t visited him at all.”
“This month, I haven’t visited him at all.”
但是这个月还没结束
but the month isn’t over, yet.
我仍有可能去看望他
I may still visit him.
再来看下这个结构在口语中通常是缩写形式
Again, see that this structure is usually contracted in spoken English.
“Haven’t” 这是最常见的否定缩写形式
“Haven’t” This is the most common way to contract the negative form
但你可能也听到人们说
but you may also hear people say
“I’ve not visited him.”
“I’ve not visited him.”
两种说法都是可以的
Both ways are acceptable
但你不能把所有三个单词合在一起
but you can’t contract all three words together.
“I’ven’t”
I’ven’t.
你不能那样做
You can’t do that!
只能是一个缩写或者另一个
It’s one contraction, or the other.
另一个示例
Another example,
“He ate so much yesterday!”
“He ate so much yesterday!
注意我们使用的时间词
Notice the time word that we’re using.
那在现在完成时态的否定句中
So in present perfect negative,
我们能说“He hasn’t eaten a lot today.”
we can say “He hasn’t eaten a lot today”
但今天还未过去
but there is still more day
所以他可能吃更多的食物
so he could eat more food.
再举个例子
One more example.
“They were at school yesterday.”
“They were at school yesterday.”
在现在完成时态中
In the present perfect,
“They haven’t been at school all morning.”
“They haven’t been at school all morning.”
但是时间还没完全过去
But the day’s not finished yet
他们可能下午到
and they may arrive in the afternoon.
当然
Of course,
你还是必须用现在完成时态来提问 知道了吗?
you need to ask present perfectquestions too, right?
根据所有的英语问题形式
As with all English question forms,
助动词要改变位置
our auxiliary verb needs to change position.
那我们有“have“和”has“
So we have “have” and “has”,
主语和过去分词动词
our subject and our past participleverb.
“Has he cleaned the bathroom?”
“Has he cleaned the bathroom?”
“Have you eaten enough?”
“Have you eaten enough?”
“Has it rained today?”
“Has it rained today?”
“Have they finished yet?”
“Have they finished yet?”
现在 比较下这两个问题
Now compare these two questions.
“Did you go to Thailand last year?”
“Did you go to Thailand last year?”
这是一个一般过去时的问题
This is a past simple question
助动车“do”随着时态变成”did“
so the auxiliary verb”do” takes the tense it becomes “did”
“Have you been to Thailand?”
but now compare it to “Have you been to Thailand?”
意思是在过去的任意时间
This means at any time in the past,
它是你的人生经历
it’s your life experience,
当然 你还活着
but of course, you’re still alive,
所以你可能将来会去
so you may go in the future.
不同的是提及的时间
The difference is the time reference.
要考虑许多
There is a lot to think about
当用现在完成时态的时候 对吧
when using the present perfect tense, right?
但是我希望这节课让一切变得更简单
But I hope that this lesson made everything a little easier,
尤其是基础部分
especially the basics.
如果你已经清楚基本的部分了
If you’re clear on the basics,
这是件好事
it’s a good thing.
确定你已经订阅了mmm英语频道
Make sure that you’re subscribed to the mmmEnglish Channel
因为我做的下几节课程
because the next few lessons that I make
会帮助你练习使用现在完成时态
will help you to practise in using the present perfect tense.
你不会想错过他们的
You don’t want to miss them!
只需点击这里的红色订阅键
Just click that red subscribe button just there.
你能在这里看到更多mm英语课程
You can watch more mmmEnglish lessons right here
或者你能提升你的发音和英语口语能力
or you can improve your pronunciation and your English speaking skills
通过这里的模仿技巧练习
by practising with the imitation technique right here!
感谢收看
Thanks so much for watching
下节课见
and I’ll see you in the next lesson.
再见
Bye for now!

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视频概述

英语语法课程之现在完成时

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Genie

审核员

审核员 LD

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XGw2-p2WuJk

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