未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

独立思考的力量

The Power of Thinking For Yourself

On the 23rd of March, 2016,
2016年3月23日
Microsoft released a new chatbot named “Tay” on Twitter.
微软在推特上推出了一款新的聊天机器人:Tay
Described by Microsoft as an experiment in “conversational understanding,”
微软公司将其描述为“交谈理解”方面的一次实验
Tay was built to have conversations with people
机器人Tay被打造出来 通过推文和平台私信
through tweets and DMs with the slang of the Internet.
用网络语言与人交流
In the words of its creators, Tay was meant to be,
用其创造者的话来说 设计Tay是为了让她成为
and I quote, “Microsoft’s AI fam from the internet that’s got zero chill.”
其原话是: “疯癫网络上的微软智能妹子”
我不知道
Tay was designed to learn more about human language
Tay被设计出来在推特上与人交流
as she interacted with people through their tweets.
以进一步学习人类语言
She was to learn the patterns of our communication
她是来学习我们的交际模式的
and then emulate it when trying to create her own speech.
然后模仿这种模式以创造自己的话语
Tay’s first few tweets were fun and harmless.
一开始 Tay的推文很有意思 而且没有恶意
However, in just a few hours,
然而 就在几小时之后
everyone was in horror as Tay started tweeting the most offensive things imaginable.
所有人惊恐地发现 Tay开始推送令人难以想象的极具侮辱性的话语了
Things along the lines of, and again, I quote,
她会说出类似这样的话 再次引用原话:
“Bush did 9/11 and Hitler would have done a better job.”
“9/11是布什干的 希特勒会干得更漂亮”
In just 16 hours, Tay tweeted 95,000 times,
仅仅在16小时内 Tay发送了95000次推文
with a majority of her tweets being extremely abusive and offensive.
而她大部分的推文都极具侮辱性和攻击性
In less than a day, Microsoft had to suspend the account and the entire experiment.
不到一天 微软公司不得不暂停该账户并停止了整个实验
A complete social failure if you ask me,
要我说 这就是一次完全的社交失败
but it did do its job the way it was programmed to do.
但依据其编程设定 任务确实是完成了
Tay was not designed to think for herself.
Tay设计出来不是为了让她独立思考
She was built to learn from the language that was spoken to her.
而是要她学习人类对她说的语言
And so when people recognized that she was nothing more than a parrot-bot,
因此 当人们意识到 她只不过是鹦鹉学舌型的聊天机器人时
they intentionally started tweeting the most insensitive and offensive things at her,
就开始故意向她发送最不友善的 攻击性的话
tweets she echoed right back into the world.
这些推文被她直接发送回了这个世界
Sadly, many people today are like Tay.
令人悲哀的是 当下很多人都和Tay一样
We constantly feed ourselves with the same type of information,
我们始终接触同种类型的信息
and without pausing for a minute to verify what is “fact” and form an unbiased opinion.
却不曾停下核实 什么是“事实” 并形成不带偏见的观点
Many of us simply echo everything we think we know right back into the world.
我们很多人仅仅是把自认正确的一切直接投射回这个世界
Although we like to think that every opinion we have and every decision we make is down
尽管我们觉得自己所有的观点和决定依据的都是
to our best judgment and independent assessment,
自己最佳的判断和独立的评估
但事实并非如此
通常
our opinions, beliefs, views, and thoughts about the world
我们的主张 信念 观点 以及对世界的看法
are influenced by a larger group of people.
都受到更大的群体的影响
Research has shown that when presented with multiple options,
研究表明 当我们面临各种选择时
we often mimic the choice of the people around us.
我们通常会模仿周围人的做法
Rather than spending time researching, asking questions,
而不是花时间做研究 问问题
or learning about the different options to find out the best one for us,
或去了解于我们最有利的不同选择
we often defer to the “social norm.”
我们通常就会遵循“社会规范”
人类总是如此
We are social animals, after all.
毕竟 我们是社会性动物
然而 比任何时候
it’s becoming more and more important to think for yourself.
都愈发重要的 就是独立思考
A few decades ago, we only had a handful of different thoughts that we were exposed to.
几十年前 我们只能接触到少量的不同想法
So, it was easy to filter all of them and figure out what was right for us.
所以 对所有观点进行筛选 以确定我们所认可的并不难
But thanks to the internet and social media, there are billions of people
但由于有了网络和社交媒体 数以亿计的人们
with completely different worldviews, ideologies, and beliefs,
有着完全不同的世界观 意识形态和信仰
and the societal norm is changing so rapidly that there’s no time
社会规范变化如此之迅速 以至于人们都没有时间
静下来思考
等一下 这不就是在说我吗?
If you’re not subscribed to my channel,
如果你没订阅我的频道
there’s a high chance that the YouTube algorithm brought you here,
很可能是YouTube平台的算法指引你至此
and if that’s the case, hi. You see, algorithms are great. They bring
如果是这样的话 嗨 你瞧 这个算法太伟大了
everything we want right to our doorsteps,
它们把所有我们最需要的东西都送至眼前
but there’s one big problem.
但是这里有一个大问题
Slowly, they’re beginning to dictate our lives.
慢慢地 它们开始主导我们的生活
They’re starting to think for us.
它们开始替我们思考判断了
First, it’s content-based platforms like YouTube and Netflix suggesting things for you to watch.
首先 这是以内容为基础的平台 如YouTube和Netflix 它们会向你推荐值得观看内容
Soon, you’re watching everything not because you searched for it,
很快 你看到的一切并不是因为你搜过
but because the algorithm suggested it.
而是因为算法推荐
总得说来
this looks harmless.
这看似无害
It exposes you to content you otherwise might not have seen,
因为它让你接触到你有可能根本没看过的内容
and gives smaller creators the chance to blow up without having an established pedigree.
并给予一些没什么名气的创作者迅速窜红的机会
It’s literally the reason Aperture has grown to the size it’s at today.
Aperture软件就是因此发展至如今的规模
But then you have Amazon’s algorithm that tells you
但是亚马逊平台的算法会告诉你
all the products you should add to your cart alongside the one purchase you made.
那些类似于你曾买过的 应该加到购物车里的产品
Then Gmail Smart Reply telling you how to reply to emails,
此外 Gmail邮箱智能回复功能会告诉你如何回信
and Tinder telling you who to spend the rest of your life with.
而Tinder交友软件会告诉你该和谁共度余生
Before you know it, we give the algorithm the driver’s seat
不知不觉 我们把掌握人生方向的驾驶员位置交给了网络算法
and we become passengers in our own lives,
而我们成为了乘客
merely coasting through the roads we are suggested.
只是沿着对方所指引的方向行进
This in and of itself is a problem.
这本身就是个问题
But the fact that the algorithm is not perfect makes it an even bigger problem.
但事实上 这个算法并不完美 且引向了另一更严重的问题
For one, the algorithms that are now thinking for us don’t actually think.
一方面 替我们思考的算法实际上并不会思考判断
They simply find patterns and parrot them.
它们只是找出了规律模式并进行复制
Once they realize we like or agree with a certain thing,
一旦它们辨识出我们对某种事物的喜好与赞同
we are constantly fed with that one thing.
就会持续为我们提供同样的东西
And in a short while, we find ourselves in an echo chamber,
很快 我们会发现自己处于一个网络回音室中
where everything we see and hear are only things we’ve agreed with in the past.
我们只能看到 听到我们曾经认可的事物
It doesn’t give much room for change, for growth,
再没有空间让自己改变 成长
for the opportunity to listen to opposing arguments and learn.
也没有机会听到与自己相左的论点 并停止了学习
Think about it,
仔细想一下
how many times have you randomly found a video on YouTube
你在YouTube上随机发现的
that you completely disagreed with?
自己完全不喜欢的视频的次数是多少?
Compare that to how many times you’ve found a video
将其与你发现自己喜欢的
that you enjoyed and you completely agreed with.
符合你口味的视频次数相比
The difference is probably incredible.
两者可能存在巨大的差别
And the better the algorithms become,
算法运行得越好
the better they would be at serving you information that you already agree with.
就越能为你提供你思想上已认同的信息
This leads to confirmation bias.
这就会形成确认偏见
The tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information
这是一种倾向 它让搜索 诠释 回忆信息的方式
in a way that confirms or supports your prior beliefs or values.
变得能认同和支持你之前已有的信念和价值观
Because these algorithms constantly surround us with ideas that we already agree with,
由于这些算法不断将我们包裹于我们本就认同的观点
we quickly block our minds to every shred of evidence that contradicts this bias.
我们很快就阻止自己的大脑去思考与这种偏见相左的所有证据
There’s a subtle difference between the desire to have been right and the desire to be right.
想“一直正确”和想“变得正确”是有细微差别的
The desire to have been right prevents us from seeing the real truth,
想要一直正确的想法会阻止我们直面真实情况
causing us to hold on to ideas that might be logically and factually flawed.
导致我们坚守可能逻辑和事实上都有瑕疵的观点
We fail to see how we’re wrong, and so we fail to learn and to grow.
我们看不见自己的错误 就无法学习 无法成长
We hold on to beliefs that we have been surrounded by, so much so,
我们坚持着将我们包裹着的信念 并且坚定不移
that we start to seek out evidence to back up our bias and not to find out the truth.
于是我们开始去寻找支持这种偏见的证据 而不是寻找真相
The truth is that humans find it very difficult to process information
真相是:一旦人们对某事物有了强烈的情感或态度
in an unbiased and rational manner
就会发现想要不偏不倚理智地
once they’ve developed strong feelings or sentiments about the issue.
处理信息就会很困难
So people interpret everything they see in a way
人们用自己所了解 所信仰的世界相符的方式
that already agrees with everything they know and believe about the world.
阐释他们所见到的一切事物
Some people believe in something called extrasensory perception.
一些人相信所谓超感知觉
So for example, they remember all the times when they were thinking about their mom
例如 他们记得每次想起母亲并拿起电话时
and picked up their phone, only to see she was calling. It seems like “fate” in a way,
母亲都正在给他们拨电话 仿佛是“命中注定”
but yet they forget all the times when mom called when they weren’t thinking about her,
但是他们忘记了 在他们没这么想的时候 母亲也打过不少次电话
and the other times when they were thinking about mom but she never called.
而且有时候 他们想着母亲时 她却并未来电
Because they believe so strongly in extrasensory perception,
因为他们坚信有超感认知的存在
they are far more likely to remember instances that back up their claims,
他们更倾向于记得支持他们这种观点的事情
even when the instances that don’t agree with those claims occur far more frequently.
即便与该观点不符的事件频繁发生 他们也不会受到影响
To make our confirmation bias even worse, social media has created the influencer culture.
社交媒体创造了网红文化以后 我们这种确认偏见情况变得更糟
People like me, apparently.
很显然 对我这样的人是这样
Now, not only do we look to each other for guidance,
我们现在不仅互相寻求指引
we look to influencers, gurus, and thought leaders.
而且还指望着网红 大咖 思维领袖
Because we consider these people part of our packs, more so than traditional celebrities,
因为我们认为 与那些传统意义上的名人相比 这些人更是我们的同类
we often place them on incredibly high pedestals,
我们把他们放在令人难以置信的高度
giving them the opportunity to, well, influence us.
赋予他们影响我们的机会
People buy a product because an influencer said so,
人们买某件产品是因为网红说“买”
even when the product might not be the best option for them.
即便这产品可能对他们来说并不是最好的选择
They employ unsafe dieting practices and workout routines,
他们采纳不安全的节食做法和日常锻炼方法
just because an influencer said it’ll work
因为网红说这行得通
without doing the research for what works for their own body.
而他们自己却不去研究适合自己身体的方法
People listen to fake gurus and influencers,
人们听假大咖和网红们的
and without taking the time out to think for themselves,
根本不花时间去独立思考
they do exactly what these people tell them to do,
完全照做 即便这些人说的方法很不健康
even if it’s unhealthy and potentially dangerous.
甚至可能很危险
One of the biggest reasons people no longer seem to think for themselves
人们貌似不再独立思考的最大原因之一
is because they are scared of the repercussions.
是他们害怕后果
How can you think for yourself when sharing ideas
当我们的想法和社会规范不相符时
that are not in accordance with the societal norm
分享自己的想法会让你受到社会排斥的话
gets you exiled from society?
你还怎么去独立思考呢?
When you could lose your job, your education, everything you’ve ever worked for,
就是因为想法与众不同 表达了不同的观点 你可能会失去工作
simply for thinking differently and expressing those different opinions.
无法得到受教育的机会 以及所有你为之奋斗的东西
Yes, I’m talking about Cancel Culture.
是的 我所说的就是“取消文化”
The real victims of Cancel Culture are the ideas that will be left unsaid.
“取消文化”的真正受害者是那些未被说出的思想
The thoughts left in the mind for fear of extreme backlash.
这些被留在心里的思想是出于对极负面反应的恐惧
It’s the beliefs that are only expressed in the dark,
这些信仰只能在暗处表达
where the big bright eyes of Big Brother cannot see.
这样老大哥的雪亮双眼就无法看见了
To prevent the rats from coming out, Big Brother urges you to doublethink.
为了阻止无稽之谈的出现 老大哥会劝你三思
To prevent yourself from getting “canceled,” a relatively new phenomenon,
为了不被“取消” ——这个当下较新的现象
society urges you to groupthink.
社会会敦促你进行群体性思维
Coined by Irving Janis in 1972,
1972年Irving Janis 创造的术语“群体性思维”
“groupthink” simply means avoiding conflict by swiftly reaching an agreement
意味着要通过迅速达成协议
without evaluating other options or alternative ideas.
而非评估其它选择或观点来避免冲突
It means to bend your back to the social norm without giving other ideas a second thought.
这意味着 屈服于社会标准而不再去考量其它想法
The danger of this is that our individuality and uniqueness dies
其所带来的危险是:我们的个性和独特之处会消亡
and the world moves to a point where we all collectively agree on the same ideas.
世界会发展至某个阶段 届时我们会达成共识 赞同一样的想法
No difference in thought, no individual ideas, just…
思想上没有差异 没有个人观点 只有……
集体思维
But it doesn’t have to be this way.
但结果也可以不是这样
To think for yourself is a skill that you must learn,
独立思考是你必须学习的一种技能
else you become a puppet of someone else’s programming.
要不然你就会成为他人思想设定的傀儡
To think for yourself is to challenge your existing ideas, beliefs, and decisions.
独立思考就是要挑战你现有的想法 信仰和决策
Ask yourself, are my thoughts mine?
扪心自问 这是自己的想法吗?
Or are they simply influenced by everyone around me?
还是受到了周围人的影响?
My friends, my parents, society, influencers, and so on?
是我的朋友 父母 社会网红 还是其他人?
To think for yourself is to look at the evidence,
独立思考就是要审视证据
to investigate and to use thoughtful analysis.
去调查 去进行深思熟虑的分析
Understand that all of us battle with confirmation bias,
要理解 我们都在与“确认偏见”进行抗争
we all want to seem to “fit in,”
我们都想看似“融入”
and so remember to not shy away from ideas that might negate your existing bias.
所以别忘了 不要回避那些否定你现存偏见的观点
To think for yourself is to battle with your mind.
独立思考就是与自己的思想作战
Go out there and find the root of the ideas you support,
快去寻找自己所支持观点的根源
and then find opposing arguments.
然后找到反面论点
Look at your new found beliefs as diamonds encased in a rock.
像审视被岩石包裹的钻石一样审视自己新发现的信仰
Before you get to the fine jewel, you must break through the rock with a lot of force,
在获得精美宝石之前 你必须花大力气击穿岩石
but carefully and diligently.
但是又要细致且认真
Before you fully accept a new way of thinking,
在完全接受一种新的思维方式之前
make sure that you’ve broken through the rock
要确保你已击穿了岩石
by wrestling with these new ideas in a way that might take you out of your comfort zone.
你已与这些新观念进行了博弈 这可能需要你走出舒适区
To think for yourself is to go out there in search of information.
独立思考意味着你得走出去寻找信息
Don’t wait for the algorithm to keep echoing the things you already know.
不要等着算法持续向你推送已熟知的东西
Acquire new knowledge.
要去获取新知识
Feed your mind continuously by reading, listening,
通过阅读 倾听和讨论这些伟大的新观点
and discussing these big new ideas with a view from both sides.
来不断地充实你的思想
Break your pattern of thought and view everything the world has to say through your own lenses.
打破你的思维模式 通过自己的视角来看待这个世界
To think for yourself is to be humble in your knowledge.
独立思考就是在自己的知识领域保持谦虚
One of the reasons people fall into the trap of confirmation bias
人步入确认偏见的原因之一
is that they don’t want to be wrong.
就是他们总想着一直正确
We’ve built this idea for some reason that we have to protect ourselves from being wrong.
我们形成这个想法是出于某种原因 要保护自己不犯错
People seem to pride themselves as intellectuals and knowledgeable,
人们似乎为自己的聪慧和渊博而感到骄傲
and disconfirming evidence goes against that notion.
否定性的证据会否认这种观念
So they shy away from it, keeping themselves in the dark about the truth,
所以人们就会回避 不让自己去了解真相
simply because they want to keep up the façade of being right.
仅仅是因为 他们只想维持自己始终正确的表像
Don’t be scared of being wrong. There’s literally nothing wrong with it.
不要害怕自己是错误的 这没什么大不了
Remember, we used to think the Earth was the center of the universe
还记得吗 我们过去曾认为地球是宇宙的中心
and that everything revolved around us.
世间万物围绕着我们运转
We’re egocentric.
我们很自我
We enjoy feeling important, and being right gives us that sense of superiority.
我们享受被重视的感觉 “正确”给了我们一种优越感
But, in my mind, I feel as if you should be more concerned about finding out what’s right
但是 于我而言 你应该更在乎发现什么是真理
and not craving the state of “being right.”
而不是渴望保持“一直正确”的状态
To think for yourself is to be courageous.
独立思考意味着要有勇气
To not buckle under fear, pressure, or guilt.
不屈服于恐惧 压力 或内疚
To stand up for what you believe in, as long as you have come to see it as the truth for yourself.
要坚持自己的信仰 只要你将其视作真理
To think for yourself is standing out and not going along with the crowd
独立思考意味着站出来 不与大众为伍
simply for the sake of keeping the so-called “peace” and avoiding confrontation.
不为保持所谓的“安宁”而避开冲突
Because the truth is, we would have no new scientific discovery
因为真相就是:如果旧的观念不受挑战
if the old ideas were never challenged.
新的科学发现将不会出现
Everything we believe about the world today
我们对当今世界所持的一切信仰
is a product of someone thinking out of the box, challenging the status quo.
都是某人在打破固有思维 挑战现状后所得
We must do the same.
我们必须去做同样的事
Being a free-thinker opens the avenues to ideas that some of us may never truly experience,
成为自由思想者 为我们中的一些人可能从未真正体验过的想法打开道路
and new ideas are something we can all benefit from as individuals.
新观念能给我们所有个体带来益处
There is no progress without change,
没有变化就没有进步
and there is no change without admitting there’s a problem in the first place.
一开始就不承认有问题就不会有变化

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

听说过微软公司推出的网络聊天机器人Tay吗?为什么她一天就下架了呢?下架的原因是和我们人类有关还是和计算机算法有关?在如今这个网络包围的世界里,我们被算法计算出的信息包围,这样会有什么后果吗?我们在独立思考吗?独立思考为什么很重要?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Ada

审核员

审核员VS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qc6g66mP2tA

相关推荐