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是什么让手电筒发光? – 译学馆
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是什么让手电筒发光?

The Power of Circuits #sciencegoals

对于手电筒的工作原理 你好奇过吗
Have you ever wondered how a flashlight works?
的确 它看上去似乎很简单 你需要做的就是移动一下开关或按一下按钮
Sure, it seems pretty simple…all you have to do is move a switch or press a button,
然后 哒哒
and…ta da!
光就出现了
The light comes on!
但是让手电筒发光的真正原因是什么呢
But what really makes the light go on?
你说的太对了 小老鼠
Right you are, Squeaks!
是电使得手电筒发光
It’s electricity that makes the light go on.
可能你已经知道关于电的一些事情 它能够给你的屋子供电
You probably already know something about the electricity that powers things in your house.
你知道的 手电筒的电来自它里面的电池
Well, the electricity in a flashlight comes from the batteries that are inside.
电从电池流向灯泡
Electricity flows from the battery to a light bulb.
当电流通过灯泡的时候 手电筒就发光了
And when the electricity goes through the bulb, the flashlight lights up!
但是电并不是直接从电池跑到灯泡里的
But the electricity doesn’t just jump from the battery right to the bulb.
电必须经过一个特定的路径才能从电池流到灯泡里
In order to get from the battery to the light bulb, the electricity has to go along a specific path.
那条路径就叫做电路
And that path is called a circuit.
听到“电路”这个词 是不是觉得有点像你可能知道的一种形状
If you listen to the word “circuit”, it kind of sounds like a shape you might know.
让我们来说出一些形状吧 然后看看哪一个形状听起来更像“电路”
Let’s name some shapes, and see which one sounds like “circuit!”
三角形… 不像 …正方形… 不像…我知道了 是圆形
Triangle…no…square…no…I know, circle!
当你看着一个圆形 你会看到它转了一圈又一圈
And if you look at a circle, you can see that it goes around and around and doesn’t have
并且里面没有任何空隙和间隔
any spaces or gaps in it.
电路也是这样的
And that’s true of a circuit, too!
电从电池到灯泡这个路径中
There can’t be any spaces in the path that electricity takes to get from a battery to
不能存在空隙
a light bulb.
在一个电路中 如果电不能沿着电路走 电就停止了
In a circuit, if electricity doesn’t have a path to travel on, it stops.
这有点像火车轨道上的火车…当没有多余的轨道 火车就停止了
It’s a little like a train on train tracks…when there’s no more track, the train stops.
所以让我们一起来看看一个简单的电路是怎样工作的吧
So let’s see how a simple circuit works.
电池 也就是我们所谓的电源 也就是 在这个电路中
The battery is what we call the power source … that is, it’s where the electricity
电的来源
comes from in this circuit.
电沿着这个电路从电源开始流动
Electricity flows from the power source on the path of the circuit.
并且很多时候 这个电路是由一根电线组成的
And a lot of the time, that path is made by some kind of a wire.
然后电路引领电到达我们想要用电的地方
The circuit then leads to whatever we want to power.
在这个电路中 需要用电的就是灯泡
In this circuit, that’s a light bulb.
当电穿过灯泡 灯泡就亮了
As the electricity goes through the bulb, the bulb lights up.
电从灯泡流出 并且流回电池
The electricity leaves the bulb, and flows back through the battery.
然后它又沿着这个电路再次循环
Then it follows the circuit all over again!
只要电路里没有空隙 灯泡就一直亮着
As long as there are no spaces in the circuit, the bulb will stay lit.
但是当想要开启或者关闭手电筒 我们该怎么做
But what if we want to turn the light on and off?
这就需要我们切断电路 这意味着我们需要在电路中插入一个空隙
Then we have to break the circuit, which means we need to put a space in it somewhere to
来停止电的流动
stop the flow of electricity.
所以… 我们需要一个开关
So…we use a switch.
如果我们想要切断电路 开关的使用可以使得电路中存在一个空隙
A switch allows us to make a space in the circuit if we want to.
当开关是处于打开的状态 电路里没有空隙 灯泡是亮的
When the switch is on, there’s no space in the circuit, and the light bulb is lit.
但是当我们关闭开关 电路里就存在一个空隙
But when we move the switch off, we open up a space.
电不能跳过这个空隙 所以它到达不了灯泡
The electricity can’t jump over the space, so it can’t reach the light bulb…and the
灯泡就不亮了
bulb stays off!
好的 现在我要开始使用一些在这儿的零件 制作一个属于我自己的电路
Okay, so I’m going to try to build my own circuit using some of the parts that I have here.
我有一个电源:这个电池
I have a power source: this battery …
还有一根供电流过的线
… and a wire for the electricity to travel through
还有一个小灯泡
…and a little light bulb.
如果我把每样东西都这样放好它有点像 一个圆圈
If I arrange everything just so, it kind of looks like a circle!
但是灯泡并没有亮起来
But the bulb isn’t on.
那是因为我还没有把这几部分都连接好
That’s because I haven’t connected all of the pieces together.
记住 电路中不能存在任何空隙
Remember, there can’t be any spaces in the circuit.
所以我将把电线连接到电源上…然后我将把一根电线连接到灯泡上
So I’ll connect the wires to the power source…then I’ll connect one wire to the bulb…
并且当我把另一根电线连接到灯泡上时 就完成这个电路…灯泡就亮了
And when I connect the other wire to the bulb and complete the circuit…the bulb lights up!
现在我要加一些其他的东西 来使得它运作起来更像是一个手电筒
Now, I’m going to add something else to make it work more like our flashlight does.
我这个部件看上去像一个按钮
I have this part that looks like a button.
我要把它放在这里
And I’m going to put it right here.
快看
And look!
灯泡正在发光
The bulb is lighting up.
这就意味着电路里没有空隙
That means that there are no spaces in the circuit.
好的 小老鼠 现在我要按一下这个按钮
Okay Squeaks, I’ll press the button!
嘿 灯灭了
Hey, the light is off now!
这就意味着当我按下按钮的时候 这个电路是不完整的…这就意味着
That means that when I press the button, the circuit is incomplete…that means there’s
电路里存在一个空隙
a space.
当我松开这个按钮 电路再次完整了
And when I let go of the button, the circuit is complete again.
电池里的电无法穿过这个空隙 所以电无法到达灯泡
The electricity from the battery can’t cross the space, so it can’t get to the bulb and
并且点亮灯泡
make it light up.
这个按钮就是一个开关 就像手电筒上的开关
The button is a switch, kind like a switch on a flashlight!
如果你往周围看看 你就会发现像这样的电路无所不在
If you look around, you’ll find that circuits just like this are everywhere, powering all
为你周围所有的事物供电
of the things around you!
车 卡车 和一些公共汽车都要用到有电池的电路来发动车子
Cars, trucks, and buses all use a circuit with a battery to get started.
你的冰箱里也有电路
And circuits run through your refrigerator, too, and in all of the other machines in your
也在你家里所有处于工作状态的电器里
home that use electric power in order to work.
再如你现在正在使用的手机或者电脑
Inside devices like phones and computers — which you’re using right now — there are very,
都有很小很小的电路 他们的基本原理跟我刚才制作的电路一样
very small circuits that use the same basic set-up as the one I just built!
无论大还是小 电总是通过电路到达我们需要用电的地方
Large or small, it takes a circuit to carry the power we need to get going!
谢谢加入我们的SciShow Kids
Thanks for joining us on SciShow Kids.
并且特别感谢谷歌制造科技为我们制作这个视频提供帮助
And special thanks to Google Making Science for helping us make this video!
你对这件事情还存在疑问吗
Do you have a question about something?
(你可以)向大人寻求帮助 在视频的屏幕下方留言
Grab a grownup and ask them to help you leave a comment on this video, or send an email
或者发送邮件到kids@scishow.com!
to kids@scishow.com!
谢谢 我们下次再见 在堡垒这儿
Thanks, and we’ll see you next time, here at the fort!

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视频概述

简单电路的组成以及日常生活中无所不在的电路

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Crayon

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HOFp8bHTN30

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