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过程的力量 – 译学馆
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过程的力量

The power of believing that you can improve | Carol Dweck

The power of yet.
过程的力量
I heard about a high school in Chicago
我听说芝加哥的一所高中里
where students had to pass a certain number of courses to graduate,
学生毕业前要通过规定量的一系列课程
and if they didn’t pass a course,
如果某一门课没有通过
they got the grade”Not Yet.”
成绩就会显示“暂未通过”
And I thought that was fantastic,
我想 这真是绝妙的方法
because if you get a failing grade,
因为如果你某门课不及格
you think, I’m nothing, I’m nowhere.
你会觉得自己一无是处
But if you get the grade”Not Yet”,
但如果你的成绩是“暂未通过”
you understand that you’re on a learning curve.
你就会明白学习的步伐并没有停下
It gives you a path into the future.
它指给你通向未来的路
“Not Yet” also gave me insight
“暂未通过”也让我想起我早期职业生涯中
into a critical event early in my career,
发生的一件非常重要的事
a real turning point.
那是一个转折点
I wanted to see
当时我想探究
how children coped with challenge and difficulty,
孩子们是怎么面对挑战和困难的
so I gave 10-year-olds problems
于是 我让一些10岁的孩子
that were slightly too hard for them.
尝试解决一些对他们而言偏难的问题
Some of them reacted in a shockingly positive way.
一些孩子积极应对的方式让我震惊
They said things like,”I love a challenge,”
他们会这样说:我喜欢挑战
or,”You know, I was hoping this would be informative.”
或说:你知道 我希望能有所收获
They understood that their abilities could be developed.
他们明白自己的能力是可以提高的
They had what I call a growth mindset.
他们有我所说的成长型思维模式
But other students felt it was tragic, catastrophic.
但另一些孩子觉得这太困难了 宛如灾难
From their more fixed mindset perspective,
从他们更加固定的思维模式来看
their intelligence had been up for judgment,
这意味着他们的才能已有评定
and they failed.
而他们失败了
Instead of luxuriating in the power of yet,
他们不懂得享受学习的过程
they were gripped in the tyranny of now.
而只盯住眼前的成与败
So what do they do next?
他们接下来表现如何呢?
I’ll tell you what they do next.
我来告诉你们他们的表现
In one study,
在一项研究中
they told us they would probably cheat the next time
他们告诉我们如果某次考试不及格
instead of studying more
他们很可能会在补考作弊
if they failed a test.
而不是更努力学习
In another study, after a failure,
在另一项研究中 考试不及格后
they looked for someone who did worse than they did
他们会找出谁考得还不如他们
so they could feel really good about themselves.
以此获得心理安慰
And in study after study, they have run from difficulty.
后续的研究陆续表明 他们会逃避困难
Scientists measured the electrical activity
科学家监测了学生们面对困难时的
from the brain as students confronted an error.
脑电活动图像
On the left, you see the fixed-mindset students.
左边是固定型思维模式的学生
There’s hardly any activity.
几乎没有什么活动
They run from the error.
他们选择了逃避困难
They don’t engage with it.
而不是积极应对
But on the right, you have the students with the growth mindset,
但请看右边 这是成长型思维模式的学生
the idea that abilities can be developed.
这些学生相信能力能够得到提升
They engage deeply.
他们积极地应对问题
Their brain is on fire with yet.
他们的大脑高速运转
They engage deeply.
他们积极地应对难题
They process the error.
他们分析错误
They learn from it and they correct it.
从中吸取教训并改正
How are we raising our children?
我们应该如何培养孩子呢?
Are we raising them for now instead of yet?
是教育他们注重一时的结果 而不注重过程?
Are we raising kids who are obsessed with getting As?
是教育他们每门课要得到A吗?
Are we raising kids who don’t know how to dream big dreams?
我们在培养没有远大理想的孩子吗?
Their biggest goal is getting the next A,
他们最远大的目标就是再得一个A
or the next test score?
或者下次考试的分数吗?
And are they carrying this need for constant validation
他们在今后的生活中
with them into their future lives?
都要通过分数来获得认可吗?
Maybe, because employers are coming to me and saying,
也许是的 因为雇主们来找我说:
“We have already raised a generation of young workers
我们培养的这新一代走上工作岗位的人
who can’t get through the day
如果没有奖励
without an award.”
他们一天也熬不下去
So what can we do?
我们能做什么呢?
How can we build that bridge to yet?
如何让孩子专注过程而不是结果呢?
Here are some things we can do.
我们可以做这样几件事
First of all, we can praise wisely,
首先 我们可以有技巧地去表扬
not praising intelligence or talent.
不要表扬天分或才智
That has failed.
那是行不通的
Don’t do that anymore.
不要再那样做了
But praising the process that kids engage in,
相反我们要表扬孩子们积极参与的过程
their effort, their strategies, their focus, their perseverance, their improvement.
他们的努力 策略 专注 坚持 和进步
This process praise
这种对过程的表扬
creates kids who are hardy and resilient.
能塑造孩子的毅力和适应力
There are other ways to reward yet.
还有其它方法能对过程给予奖励
We recently teamed up with game scientists
最近 我们和来自华盛顿大学的
from the University of Washington
游戏研究者合作
to create a new online math game that rewarded yet.
开发了一款奖励过程的在线数学游戏
In this game, students were rewarded
在这款游戏中 学生因他们的
for effort, strategy and progress.
努力 策略和进步而受到奖励
The usual math game
通常的数学游戏里
rewards you for getting answers right, right now,
玩家只有解答正确后才能获得奖励
but this game rewarded process.
但是这款游戏奖励过程
And we got more effort,
在游戏中孩子们付出更多努力
more strategies,
想出更多策略
more engagement over longer periods of time,
更长久而忘我地投入其中
and more perseverance when they hit really, really hard problems.
遇到尤为困难的问题时 他们也更有毅力
Just the words”yet” or”not yet,” we’re finding,
我们发现 只是“暂且”或“暂未”这样的用词改变
give kids greater confidence,
就能让孩子变得更自信
give them a path into the future
引导他们不断向前
that creates greater persistence.
越发坚持不懈
And we can actually change students’ mindsets.
我们的确能够改变学生的思维模式
In one study, we taught them
在一项研究中 我们告诉学生
that every time they push out of their comfort zone
每当他们迫使自己踏出舒适区
to learn something new and difficult,
学习新知识 迎接新挑战
the neurons in their brain can form new, stronger connections,
大脑中的神经元就会形成更强大的新连接
and over time, they can get smarter.
久而久之 他们就能越来越聪明
Look what happened: In this study,
看看发生了什么:在这项研究中
students who were not taught this growth mindset
没有接受成长型思维模式训练的学生
continued to show declining grades over this difficult school transition,
在这一困难的过渡阶段 成绩持续下滑
but those who were taught this lesson
但是受过这种思维训练的学生
showed a sharp rebound in their grades.
成绩有明显的反弹
We have shown this now, this kind of improvement,
如今 我们已经证实这一结论
with thousands and thousands of kids,
通过成千上万个学生的实例
especially struggling students.
尤其是那些在学业上挣扎的孩子
So let’s talk about equality.
那现在我们就来说一说教育平等
In our country, there are groups of students
在我们国家 有些特定区域的孩子
who chronically underperform,
学习一直以来都处于下游
for example, children in inner cities,
比如说 内城区的孩子
or children on Native American reservations.
或印第安人居留地的孩子
And they’ve done so poorly for so long
长期以来这些孩子都没什么起色
that many people think it’s inevitable.
以致于很多人觉得不可挽回了
But when educators create growth mindset classrooms
但当教育家把孩子的思维
steeped in yet,
转变为成长型思维模式后
equality happens.
教育平等实现了
And here are just a few examples.
这有一些例子
In one year, a kindergarten class in Harlem, New York
纽约哈莱姆区一所幼儿园的学生
scored in the 95th percentile
仅一年内 就在国家水平测试中
on the national achievement test.
获得了前百分之五的成绩
Many of those kids could not hold a pencil
其中的许多孩子在刚入学时
when they arrived at school.
甚至还不会握笔
In one year,
一年之内
fourth-grade students in the South Bronx, way behind,
远远落后的南布朗克斯区的四年级学生
became the number one fourth-grade class
其标准数学测试成绩攀升到
in the state of New York on the state math test.
纽约州所有四年级学生中的第一名
In a year, to a year and a half,
在一年到一年半时间内
Native American students in a school on a reservation
某印第安居留地一所学校的学生
went from the bottom of their district to the top,
成绩从全区倒数变成名列前茅
and that district included affluent sections of Seattle.
该区还包括了西雅图的富裕地段
So the Native kids
所以那些印第安孩子
outdid the Microsoft kids.
战胜了“微软孩子”
This happened
这得以实现
because the meaning of effort and difficulty were transformed.
是因为努力与困难的含义已发生了改变
Before, effort and difficulty
在此之前 努力和困难
made them feel dumb, made them feel like giving up,
让他们感觉自己很笨 让他们想放弃
but now, effort and difficulty,
但是现在 正是困难和努力
that’s when their neurons are making new connections,
让他们大脑中的神经元产生新的连接
stronger connections.
更强大的连接
That’s when they’re getting smarter.
正是在这个过程中 他们变得越来越聪明
I received a letter recently from a 13-year-old boy.
最近我收到了一个13岁男孩的来信
He said,”Dear Professor Dweck,
他说:“亲爱的德韦克教授
I appreciate that your writing is based on
我欣赏您的著作 因为它们都基于
solid scientific research,
可靠的科学试验
and that’s why I decided to put it into practice.
因此 我决定将您的方法付诸实践
I put more effort into my schoolwork,
我更加努力学习
into my relationship with my family,
更用心处理好与家人的关系
and into my relationship with kids at school,
与学校同学的友谊
and I experienced great improvement
结果我在这些方面上都获得了
in all of those areas.
巨大的进步
I now realize I’ve wasted most of my life.”
现在我才意识到 过去浪费了太多生命”
Let’s not waste any more lives,
让我们不要再浪费生命
because once we know
因为既然我们知道
that abilities are capable of such growth,
能力是能够提升的
it becomes a basic human right
那么 生活在一个
for children, all children,
能促进孩子成长
to live in places that create that growth,
一个处处以过程为重的地方
to live in places filled with”yet”.
就是每个孩子的权利
Thank you.
谢谢
[Applause]
[掌声]

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视频概述

关注于过程,不纠结于当下的成败,才能够获得长足的进步。

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_X0mgOOSpLU

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