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思维方式对成功的影响 – 译学馆
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思维方式对成功的影响

The Power of belief -- mindset and success | Eduardo Briceno | TEDxManhattanBeach

What do you think is the key to achieve our goals, our success?
你认为实现目标和获得成功的关键是什么?
Some people suggest things like hard work, focus, persistence.
有些人觉得是努力工作 专注和坚持不懈
But research shows these are all by-products of something else,
但是研究表明 这些特质全都是某些更有力量
something much more powerful that we can all develop.
而大家都可以培养的特征的副产物
It is this very special something
正是这些非常特殊的因素
that is really critical to success,
对成功而言是非常关键的
and is what I am here to discuss with you today.
这也是我今天想和大家讨论的内容
Someone who has achieved great success is Josh Waitzkin,
Josh Waitzkin 曾经获得巨大的成功
a chess international master and the subject of the movie
他是一位国际象棋大师以及
“Searching for Bobby Fischer”.
电影《寻找鲍比·菲舍尔》的主角
Nobody has won all the national chess championships that Josh has.
没有人能像Josh一样获得全国象棋冠军大满贯
But even more impressive, when he turned 21,
但更令人印象深刻的是 在他21岁时
he took on the challenge of mastering something completely new
他开始挑战去掌握一项全新的
and very different from chess: martial arts.
并且和象棋完全不同的内容:武术
He realized that he had learned how to grow and succeed,
他意识到 自己已经掌握了如何成长并取得成功的方法
and he could apply that understanding to other domains.
并且他可以把这种方法运用到其他领域
And so, he devoted himself relentlessly to tai chi chuan.
因此 他全身心的投入到太极拳中
And after lots of hard work,
在经历了说不清的努力练习
many failures, and some broken joints,
多次失败 以及数次关节错位接正后
he became a great martial artist, and he won two world championships.
他成为一个伟大的武术家并赢得两次世界冠军
Now he is off to jiu-jitsu.
而现在 他要去学习柔道
So what does Josh say is the greatest thing ever happened to him?
那么 Josh认为经历过最棒的事情是什么呢
Believe it or not, he says,”Losing my first national chess championship,
信不信由你 那就是“输掉第一个象棋冠军”
because it helped me avoid many of the psychological traps.”
“因为它帮我避免了许多心理陷阱”
The key trap that Josh avoided was believing
Josh避开的一个关键陷阱是
that he was special,
相信自己与众不同
that he was smarter than other people,
相信自己比其他人更聪明
and that he didn’t have to work hard.
认为自己不需要努力奋斗
He could have thought of himself as a prodigy,
他本可以视自己为奇才
but he doesn’t think that he has extraordinary intelligence.
但他并不认为自己具有无与伦比的才智
He says,”The moment we believe
他说 “当我们相信
that success is determined by an ingrained level of ability,
成功是由固有的能力所决定的
we will be brittle in the face of adversity.”
我们将在逆境面前不堪一击”
Josh often quotes Stanford Professor Carol Dweck
Josh常引用斯坦福大学教授Carol Dweck的发现
who discovered that some people see intelligence or abilities as fixed
那就是有些人认为智慧或能力值是固定的
what is called a fixed mindset,
即所谓的“固定思维”
while other people see them as Josh does,
而其他人则像Josh一样
as qualities that can be developed; a growth mindset.
将它们当做可以培养的品质 也就是“成长型思维”
More important, Dr. Dweck discovered that these two different mindsets
更重要的是 Dweck教授发现这两种不同的思维方式
lead to very different behaviors and results.
会导致极具差异的行为方式和结果
In a study she did with Dr. Lisa Blackwell,
在她和Lisa Blackwell教授共同进行的一项研究中
several hundreds seventh graders were surveyed to determine
他们调查了几百个七年级学生 并确认了
which mindset each student had, and then they were tracked for two years.
每个学生的思维方式 然后对他们进行为期两年的追踪
Results showed that the students with a growth mindset,
结果显示拥有成长型思维
those who thought they could change their own intelligence
也就是那些认为可以改变自己智力的学生
increased their grades over time.
逐步提高了成绩
While those with a fixed mindset did not.
而那些拥有固定思维的学生却没有
You can see the trend, the gap in performance
你可以看一下趋势 成绩上的差距
just widens and widens over time.
随着时间的推移 逐步拉大
The difference between these two groups: a different perspective on intelligence.
而这两组人的区别 源于对智力的不同认知
Other studies have shown similar effects for our mindset about other abilities
其他的研究显示了不同心态对于其他能力产生了类似效果
like problem solving, playing sports, managing people,
像解决问题 运动 人员管理
or anything else you’d like, dancing La Macarena.
或者其他你喜欢的东西 像跳La Macarena恰恰舞
The key to success is not simply effort,
成功的秘诀不仅仅是努力
or focus, or resilience,
注意力集中 或者是抗逆力
but it is the growth mindset that creates them,
而是创造它们的成长型思维
the mindset itself is critical.
思维本身就很关键
Research shows that when we directly try to build grit or persistence,
研究表明 当我们尝试直接去培养勇气或毅力时
it’s not nearly as effective as addressing the mindset that underlies them.
远不如培养它们背后的思维方式有效
How many of us think of ourselves
我们当中有多少人虽觉得自己
as not math people, or creative,
既不是数学家或富有创造力
or sociable, or athletic, or conversely, that we are naturals?
又不善于交际或体格健壮 而与此同时认为自己都是天才?
If we are to fulfill our potential, we have to start thinking differently.
如果我们要发挥出潜力 我们必须开始“非同凡想”
We have to realize we are not chained to our current capabilities.
我们需要意识到自己并没有被束缚在现有的能力上
Neuroscience shows the brain is very malleable.
神经科学表明大脑的可塑性非常强
And we can change our own ability to think and to perform.
因此我们可以改变自己的思考和表现能力
In fact, many of the most accomplished people of our era
事实上 我们这个时代最有成就的人中的许多
were thought of by experts, to have no future.
曾经被专家认为是没有未来的
People like Charles Darwin, Lucille Ball, Marcel Proust, and many others.
如查尔斯·达尔文 露西尔·鲍尔 马赛尔·普鲁斯特 等等
But they, along with all great achievers from Mozart to Einstein,
但是他们 和从莫扎特到爱因斯坦时代所有伟大的成就者一样
built their abilities.
创造了他们的超能力
But the key insight I would
我希望今天
like you to walk away with today
你们能够带走的关键观点
is that when we realize that,
是当我们意识到这一点
when we realize we can change our own abilities,
意识到我们可以改变自己的能力
when we have a growth mindset,
并当我们拥有了一个成长型思维的时候
we bring our game to new levels.
我们的人生将会到达全新的高度
So how does a growth mindset do that?
所以成长型思维是如何做到这些的?
It turns out that there are physiological manifestations to mindset.
事实证明思维是具备生理临床表现的
Brain scans show that for people with a fixed mindset,
大脑扫描显示对于拥有固定型思维的人
the brain becomes most active when receiving information
当接收到关于这个人表现如何的信息
about how the person performed such as a grade or a score.
例如一个等级或是分数的时候 大脑会变得最为活跃
But for people with a growth mindset,
而对于拥有成长型思维的人
the brain becomes most active
当接收到那些下次能做的更好的信息时
when receiving information about what they could do better next time.
大脑变得最为活跃
In other words,
换句话说
people with a fixed mindset worry the most
拥有固定型思维的人最为担心
about how they are judged,
他们如何被评价
while those with a growth mindset focus the most on learning.
而拥有成长型思维的人最关心学习
There are other consequences of mindset:
思维方式还会导致其他后果:
people with a fixed mindset see effort as a bad thing,
拥有固定型思维的人将努力视为坏事
something that only people with low capabilities need,
视为只有低能者才需要去做的事情
while those with a growth mindset see effort
而拥有成长型思维的人将努力视为
as what makes us smart,
让我们变聪明的事情
as the way to grow.
将其视为成长的方式
And when they hit a set back or a failure,
而当他们遭遇挫折或失败的时候
people with a fixed mindset tend to conclude that they are incapable.
拥有固定型思维的人趋向于认为自己是无能的
So to protect their ego, they lose interest or withdraw.
所以为了保护自我 他们失去兴趣或者放弃
We observe that as lack of motivation.
我们将其视作缺乏积极性的表现
But behind it is a fixed mindset,
其背后却是固定型思维
whereas people with a growth mindset understand that set backs are part of growth.
然而拥有成长型思维的人却将失败理解为成长的一部分
So when they hit one, they find a way around it.
当他们遭遇失败时 他们会寻找解决的方法
Like Josh Waitzkin did when he lost in chess or in martial arts.
就像Josh Waitzkin输掉象棋或武术比赛时做的那样
Research clearly shows these effects of mindset.
研究明确地证明了思维的这些效果
In one study Dr. Dweck did with Dr. Claudia Mueller,
在Dweck教授和Claudia Mueller教授完成的一项研究中
they had children do a set of puzzles,
他们让孩子们做一些智力游戏
and then they praised the kids.
然后他们表扬了孩子
To some of the kids, they said, “Wow,
对于一些孩子 他们说:“哇 ”
that’s a really good score, you must be smart at this.”
“这分数真高 你一定很聪明”
That’s fixed mindset praise because it portrays intelligence or abilities as a fixed quality.
这是固定思维的赞赏 因为它将智力或能力描述成固定的品质
To other kids they said, “Wow,
对另一些孩子他们说:“哇”
that’s a really good score, you must have tried really hard.”
“这分数真高 你一定很努力”
That’s growth mindset praise because it focuses on the process. Then,
这是成长型思维赞赏 因为它关注过程
they asked the kids,
之后 他们询问孩子
“OK, what kind of puzzle would you like to do next?
“好的 你们下次想做什么样的智力游戏呢?”
An easy one or a hard one?”
“简单的还是难的?”
The majority of the kids who received the fixed mindset praise
大多数接受了固定型思维赞赏的孩子
chose to do the easy puzzle.
选择去做简单的智力游戏
While the great majority of those who received the growth mindset praise
而大多数接受了成长型思维赞赏的孩子
chose to do challenge themselves.
选择去挑战自己
Then the researchers gave a hard
然后研究者给所有的孩子
puzzle to all of the kids
一份难的智力游戏
because they were interested in seeing
因为他们很想知道面对困难
what confronting difficulty would do to their performance.
孩子们的表现会发生如何变化
Look at what happened when the kids later went back
来看看当孩子们之后做他们
to the set of easier problems that they started with.
刚开始做的简单题的时候会发生什么
The kids who received the fixed mindset praise
接受固定型思维赞赏的孩子
did significantly worse than they had originally,
做的比他们原先做的更为糟糕
while those who received a growth mindset praise did better.
而接受了成长型思维赞赏的孩子做得更好
And to top it off, at they very end,
而最糟糕的是 在结束的时候
kids were asked to report their scores;
孩子们被要求报告他们的分数
and the kids who received the fixed mindset praise
接受了固定型思维赞赏的孩子中
lied about their scores over three times more often
比起接受了成长型思维赞赏的孩子
than those who received the growth mindset praise.
在分数上撒谎的人数多了三倍
They did not have another way to cope with their failure.
他们没有别的方法去处理他们的失败
The difference between these two groups: one short little sentence.
这两组的区别可用一个简短的句子来概括
How often do we praise kids for being smart or
我们多久对于孩子聪明的行为
for being great at something?
或做的很棒的某事而进行赞赏
We have been told that this will raise their self-esteem.
我们知道这会提升他们的自尊心
But instead, it puts them in a fixed mindset.
然而 这会让他们拥有固定型思维
They become afraid of challenges, and they lose confidence when things hit hard.
他们变得害怕挑战 在巨大的失败面前失去信心
As Josh Waitzkin says,
正如Josh Waitzkin所说
It is incredibly important
对家长来说非常重要一点是
for parents to make their feedback process related
让他们的反馈和过程相关联
as oppose to praising or criticizing talent.
而不是赞扬或批评天赋
If we win because we are winners,
如果我们是因为是胜者而获胜的话
then when we lose, it must make us losers.
那么当我们失败的时候 它一定让我们变成失败者
These studies show not only the mechanisms
这些研究不止说明了怎样的心态
by which mindset affects performance,
会影响到工作中的表现
but they also show something else that is very important:
也说明了其他非常重要的东西:
they show that we can change mindsets,
我们可以改变思维方式来改变自己
and that’s important, because most of us have fixed mindsets about something.
这很重要 因为我们中的大多数对某些事情都有固定型思维
Another study that showed that we can change mindsets
另一研究告诉我们可以通过改变思维是
is one in which Dweck and Blackwell did a workshop with seventh graders
Dweck和Blackwell做的
to instill a growth mindset in them.
让七年级学生培养成长型思维的实验
As a result of the workshop,
实验的结果是
the students gained more interest in learning,
学生在学习中增加了更多的兴趣
and they worked harder;
并且更加努力
and as a result of that, their grades improved.
因此 他们的分数提升了
Other studies have shown that when we teach a growth mindset,
其他的研究表明 当我们传递成长型思维
not only that it improves achievements for students as a whole
不仅可以提高整体学生的成绩
but it also narrows the achievement gap,
还能缩小成绩差距
because the effects are most pronounced
因为此效果对于
for the students who face negative stereotypes
面对刻板印象的学生最为明显
such as minority students, and girls in math.
比如少数民族学生 和学数学的女生
I have spoken mostly about children, but mindsets affects all of us.
我说得最多的是孩子 但思维影响我们所有人
In our work places,
在工作中
managers with fixed mindsets don’t welcome feedback as much,
拥有固定型思维的经理不怎么乐于接受反馈
and they don’t mentor employees as much.
并且他们不怎么指导员工
And employees with growth mindsets
而在特殊技能 例如谈判技巧上
about specific skills like negotiations
有着成长型思维的员工
become far better at those skills than people with fixed views.
想比起固定性思维的员工 他们表现得更好
Mindsets can even help us solve big social issues.
思维甚至能帮助我们解决大的社会问题
A recent study showed that when we expose Israelis and Palestinians
最近的一项研究表明 当我们让以色列人和巴基斯坦人
to the idea that groups can change,
面对大家认为可以改变的观点时
they increase their attitudes towards one another,
他们增加了彼此的好感
they improve them.
这些观点改变了他们
and they enhance their willingness to compromise and to work for peace.
并且增强了他们妥协和为和平而奋斗的意愿
We also see the effects of mindsets on relationships, sports, health.
我们还见识到思维对于人际关系 体育和健康的影响
How is it possible that as a society,
对于一个社会 它是怎样变得合理的
we are not asking schools to develop a growth mindset in children?
我们并不是要求学校给孩子培养成长型思维
Our myopic efforts to teach them facts, concepts,
我们短视的努力去教他们事实 观念
and even critical critical thinking skills
甚至是批判思考技能
is likely to fail,
是很有可能失败的
if we don’t also deliberately teach them the essential beliefs
如果我们不刻意地教给他们一些基本的信念
that will allow them to succeed not only in school but also beyond.
一些将会帮助他们在学校及毕业后取得成功的信念
There is a lot that we can do to change mindsets,
我们仍可以做很多事来改变思维
but here are three things
此处有三个建议
that any of us can do to instill a growth mindset
能帮助我们和身边的其他人
in ourselves and in those around us.
建立起成长型思维方式
First, recognize that the growth mindset is not only beneficial
首先 意识到成长型思维不但很有用
but it is also supported by science.
而且是有科学依据的
Neuroscience shows that the brain changes and becomes more capable
神经科学表明 当我们努力提升自己时
when we work hard to improve ourselves.
大脑能调整并变得更具有适应性
Second, learn and teach others about how to develop our abilities.
第二 学习和教导他人如何提升我们的能力
Learn about deliberate practice and what makes for effective effort.
进行刻意练习 了解什么是有效的努力
When we understand how to develop our abilities,
当我们知道如何提升自身能力
we strengthen our conviction that we are in charge of them.
我们就能坚定管控自身能力的信念
And third, listen for your fixed mindset voice,
第三点 聆听固定型思维的声音
and when you hear it, talk back with a growth mindset voice.
而当你听到后 用成长型思维回应它们
If you hear,”I can’t do it,” add,”Yet.”
当你听到“我做不到” 请加上“暂时”二字
My request to you today is that you share this knowledge
今天我给大家的要求是 分享成长型思维的知识
about the growth mindset with your family, friends, and schools
给你的家人 朋友和同学
so that all of us can go and fulfill our potential.
这样所有人都能行动起来并实现自我潜能
Thank you.
谢谢

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视频概述

讲述了成长型思维和固定型在工作、生活、学习中的影响。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Jack

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pN34FNbOKXc

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