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优秀前言的价值 – 译学馆
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优秀前言的价值

The power of a great introduction - Carolyn Mohr

想想你最爱的书是如何吸引你的。
Think about how your favorite stories hook you.
我兄弟吉姆在他13岁左右
“When he was nearly 13, my brother Jim
胳膊受伤了,挺严重的。
got his arm badly broken at the elbow.
伤口恢复后,他对以后都不能踢球的担心
When it healed, and Jim’s fears of never being able to play football
也减缓了,他自己几乎没有意识到自己的伤。”
were assuaged, he was seldom self conscious about his injury.”
这一切亦真亦假,但是战争那部分内容
“All this happened, more or less. The war parts, anyway,
是千真万确的。我认识的一个朋友在德累斯顿真的被射中了
are pretty much true. One guy I knew really was shot
就因为他拿了个不属于他的茶壶。”
in Dresden for taking a teapot that wasn’t his.”
我父亲姓皮日普,我的教名是菲利普,
“My father’s family name being Pirrip, and my Christian name Philip,
我在婴孩时期两个名字都叫不准,也叫不准确,
my infant tongue could make of both names nothing longer
顶多叫成”皮普”
or more explicit than ‘Pip.’
所以我叫自己皮普,后来就真的成了皮普。”
So I called myself Pip, and came to be called Pip.”
想象力,好奇心,情感因素:每个因素都让你想读下去。
Imagery, intrigue, emotion: each introduction makes you want to read more.
如果你有一篇文学作品分析的作业,
If you have an assignment to write a literary analysis,
前言也一样重要。
your introduction will be just as important.
你的文章需由四部分组成:
There will be four elements in your essay:
前言,
your introduction,
主题论述,
thesis statement,
分析和结论。
analysis and conclusion.
如果你的文学分析和前言一起开始写,
If you begin writing a literary analysis with the introduction,
那你可能会大受打击。
you may be discouraged.
以下是写好一篇前言的技巧:
Here’s a tip for writing a great introduction:
先写论题,
Write it last,
最后写前言。
and write your thesis first.
在你真正进行分析前,明确你想要分析什么。
Figure out what you want to analyze before you actually analyze it.
你的论题是文章的基础,
Your thesis is the foundation for the rest of your essay,
包括前言在内。
including your introduction.
那么,如何确定论题呢?
So how do you find your thesis?
由问问题开始。
Start by asking questions.
拿查尔斯·狄更斯来说,你可能会问,
To Charles Dickens you may ask,
“你为什么专注于描写角色的手呢?”
“why do you draw attention to characters’ hands?”
“他们的名字有什么寓意?”
“What’s up with their names?”
“潘波趣,真的吗?”
“Pumblechook? Really?”
回答问题,缩小主题分析范围。
To narrow your concept for analysis, answer the questions yourself.
“埃斯特拉嘲笑皮普的手,贾格斯不停的洗手,
“Estella ridicules Pip’s hands, Jaggers constantly washes his hands,
皮普难以忍受地灼烧双手,
Pip insufferably burns his hands,
乔伊亲手带大皮普。”
Mrs. Joe brings Pip up by hand.”
这有你要的答案吗?
Are there patterns in your answers?
艾斯黛拉的评论带有冷酷的味道,
“Estella’s comments smack of cruelty,
然而,贾格斯却掩盖他邪恶的良心?
while Jaggers’ cleanses his immoral conscience.
皮普找到第二次机会
Pip finds a second chance,
当乔夫人在爱和奉献的伪装下虐待一个孩子
while Mrs. Joe abuses a child under the guise of love and dedication.”
你从这个图案中分析到什么
What can you analyze with this pattern?
手象征社会阶级不平等
“Hands symbolize social class inequities,
通过狄更斯的批判,他揭露了改革的必要性
and through Dickens’ criticism, he exposes the dire need for reform
在维多利亚时代的伦敦。
in Victorian London.
接下来你要做什么,
What you will do next, which is an entirely different lesson,
制定和修改你的分析是完全不同的课程。
is to draft and revise your analysis.
只有在你写出你的分析之后
Only after you write your analysis,
再回头看你的前言
return to your introduction.
就像作者早些时候
Like authors earlier,
试着去激发和鼓励读者
try to intrigue and inspire your reader.
开头避免引用
Avoid starting with famous quotations,
字典的定义
dictionary definitions
或修辞的问题
or rhetorical questions.
考虑你的主题的历史背景
Consider the historical context of your topic,
或一件趣闻或一些大的想法或观点
or an anecdote or some larger idea or concept.
举个例子
Here’s an example:
手上和手腕的27块骨头使人们能够同时创造
“27 bones in the hand and wrist allow humans to concurrently create
和破坏。成千上万只手能够创造出历史上惊人的作品
and destroy. Thousands of hands have been behind history’s astounding creations.
手是力量的象征
Hands represent a powerful symbol,
是查尔斯狄更斯不会丢弃的对象。
one that was not lost on Charles Dickens.
在远大前程中狄更斯用手
In Great Expectations, Dickens uses hands
来象征着社会阶级的不平等
to symbolize social class inequities,
通过批判,他揭露了社会改革的必要性
and through his criticism, he exposes the dire need for social reform
在维多利亚时代的伦敦
in Victorian London.”
花费时间提出并修改你的论点和前言
Take time crafting and revising your thesis and introduction.
记住,如果你在写作时感到厌烦,
Remember, if you are bored while writing,
那么你的读者也会在阅读你的作品时感到无聊。
your reader will be bored while reading.
顺便问下,你注意到本课的前言了吗?
By the way, did you notice the introduction to this lesson?
它并不是以怎样写论点和前言开始的。
It didn’t start with “here’s how to write a thesis and introduction.”
那已经吸引你了吗?
Would that have hooked you?

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