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这位诗人用他的文字作画 – 译学馆
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这位诗人用他的文字作画

The poet who painted with his words - Geneviève Emy

在文学史上 那些伟大的诗人
Among the great poets of literary history,
像荷马
certain names like Homer,
莎士比亚
Shakespeare,
弥尔顿
Milton,
以及惠特曼 都是我们耳熟能详的但是
and Whitman are instantly recognizable.
有一些20世纪早期的法国诗人
However, there’s an early 20th century great French poet
我们可能并不知道他们的名字例如
whose name you may not know:
纪尧姆·阿波利奈尔
Guillaume Apollinaire.
他是很多艺术家的密友和合作伙伴 例如
He was a close friend and collaborator of artists like Picasso,
毕加索罗梭
Rousseau,
和夏加尔
and Chagall.
他首创了“超现实主义”一词
He coined the term surrealism,
而且在1911年 他被怀疑偷了名画 “蒙娜丽莎”
and he was even suspected of stealing the Mona Lisa in 1911.
在他短暂的一生里
During his short lifetime,
他创作了许多图文并茂的诗歌
he created poetry that combined text and image
这似乎在以一种方式预示着艺术革命即将到来
in a way that seemingly predicted an artistic revolution to come.
在19世纪末
In the late 19th and early 20th century Paris,
20世纪初巴黎的低阻区 像蒙马特和蒙帕纳斯
the low-rent districts of Montmartre and Montparnasse
是各种落魄的艺术家的集聚地
were home to every kind of starving artist.
他们只能住得起这样的地方
It was all they could afford.
这些画家 作家和知识分子
These painters, writers, and intellectuals,
集聚了他们的热情和反主流文化的信念
united in their artistic passion and counterculture beliefs,
在法国形成了一股自由不羁的文化风气
made up France’s bohemian subculture.
他们在艺术、文学和知识上的创作撼动了世界
And their works of art, literature, and intellect would shake up the world.
在20世纪初期
At the turn of the 20th century,
在这个动态的环境下
within this dynamic scene,
作为艺术评论家、诗人和文学先锋的
art critic, poet, and champion of the avant-garde,
纪尧姆·阿波利奈尔是十分著名的
Guillaume Apollinaire was a well-known fixture.
作为一名艺术评论家 阿波利奈尔认为
As an art critic, Apollinaire explained
许多立体主义者和超现实主义者
the cubist and surrealist movements to the world,
对很多年轻艺术家有抵触情绪
and rose to the defense of many young artists
这源于他们对于外国文化入侵的恐惧以及他们狭隘的目光
in the face of what was often a xenophobic and narrow-minded public.
作为一个诗人 阿波利奈尔对各种形式的艺术都充满了热情
As a poet, Apollinaire was passionate about all forms of art
对于中世纪的文学 他绝对是一个内行者
and a connoisseur of medieval literature,
特别是在书法和首字母放大文化方面
especially calligraphy and illuminated initials.
作为一个空想家 他看到了两个艺术机构之间的鸿沟
As a visionary, Apollinaire saw a gap between two artistic institutions.
其中一边是流行的收到高度赞扬的传统文化形式
On one side was the popular, highly lauded traditional art forms of the time.
另一边是一种通过超现实主义
On the other, the forms of artistic expression
让艺术表达成为现实
made possible through surrealism,
立体主义
cubism,
和一些新的发明
and new inventions, like the cinema
例如电影院和摄影
and the phonograph.
在这种分歧中
Within that divide,
通过创作最有贡献的诗歌
through the creation of his most important contribution to poetry,
书法
the calligram,
纪尧姆·阿波利奈尔在两者之前建起了一座桥梁
Guillaume Apollinaire built a bridge.
他创造了画诗
Apollinaire created the calligram as a poem picture,
一种文字形式的素描
a written portrait,
和绘画形式的思想
a thoughts drawing,
他用这个来表达他的现实主义
and he used it to express his modernism
以及让诗歌摆脱原有文字和诗歌体裁的束缚的想法
and his desire to push poetry beyond the normal bounds of text and verse
并且一直延续了20世纪
and into the 20th century.
他的一些画诗是很有趣的
Some of his calligrams are funny,
像“Lettre-Ocean”
like the “Lettre-Océan.”
有一些是为了他逝去的年轻的朋友们创作的
Some of them are dedicated to his young dead friends,
和“La Colombe Poignardéeet le jet d’eau”
like “La Colombe Poignardée et le jet d’eau.”
其中一些表达了激动人心的一刻
Some of them are the expression of an emotional moment,
例如“II Pleut”“雨
as is “Il Pleut”:
如女人柔弱的声音般落下 如同她已经从记忆中消失了一样
“It’s raining women’s voices as if they had died even in memory,
雨点也打向你 我生命中那美妙的偶遇
and it’s raining you as well, Marvellous encounters of my life,
化成雨珠滴滴
o little drops.
环状的乌云在城市上空尽情咆哮
Those rearing clouds begin to neigh a whole universe of auricular cities.
听听这雨声 为古老的乐章而后悔哭泣吧
Listen if it rains while regret and disdain weep to an ancient music.
看看这枷锁 它已经早已囚禁了你全身
Listen to the bonds fall off which hold you above and below.”
每篇画诗都是为了让读者从传统的诗歌体验中
Each calligram is intended to allow readers to unchain themselves
更好的释放自己
from the regular experience of poetry,
并从中感受和发现新的事物
and feel and see something new.
在“Lettre-Ocean”中 你甚至不用翻开书本 光听名字就有了画面
“Lettre-Océan” is first an image to be seen before even the words are read.
书中仅有文字 但都有自己的形状和风格
Text-only elements combine with words in shapes and forms.
两种循环的形式 一个被所在正方形里
Two circular forms, one locked in a square,
另一种以螺旋的形态在改变
the other, morph beyond the page in the shape of a spiral.
他们合在一起形成了立体主义然后
Together they create a picture that hints towards cubism.
为了进一步的阅读文章
Then on closer reading of the text,
一部分的描述性文字甚至
the descriptive words within suggest
展现成了从空中俯视埃菲尔铁塔的样子
the image of an aerial view of the Eiffel Tower.
他们为电报中电磁波的研究作出了极大的贡献
They give tribute to electromagnetic waves of the telegraph,
也就是当时新的一种通信方式
a new form of communication at the time.
毫无疑问 在阿波利奈尔的诗画中那些深层次的表达
Undoubtedly, the deeply layered artistic expressions in Apollinaire’s calligrams
不仅仅是一种超凡的
are not just a brilliant display of poetic prowess
大师级的作品形式
from a master of the form.
每篇诗画像都是对一个场景的抓拍
Each calligram itself is also a snapshot in time,
充满着着热爱
encapsulating the passion,
激动
the excitement,
以及对巴黎的那些自由不羁的艺术家的期望
and the anticipation of all the bohemian artists of Paris,
包括阿波利奈尔自己
including Apollinaire,
他们中的大多数往往已经走在时代的最前沿
most of whom are well ahead of their time,
带着他们颠覆性的作品
and with their innovative work,
以及对未来热切的渴望
eagerly grasping for the future.

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