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空中高速公路

The Plane Highway in the Sky

如果你曾经在美国东部时间晚上十点到十一点左右看过实时航班信息图
If you’ve ever looked at a flight tracker sometime around 10 or 11 pm eastern, you might
你就会发现所有通往欧洲的航线堪称完美
have noticed something—perfect lines of planes stretching all the way to Europe.
这只是2000个越过北大西洋上空的日常航班中的一部分
These are just some of the over 2,000 daily flights that cross the Northern Atlantic.
这么多条航线 必须要保证它们井然有序
With so many flights, there just has to be organization.
这是纽约飞伦敦的最短航线
This is the most direct route from New York to London.
你可能会觉得 直线航线才是最短的
You may think it’s this, a straight line, but that straight line isn’t actually a
但看上去的直线航线并不真的就是直的
straight line.
这条弧线其实才是直的 你大概也猜到了 这是因为
This curved line is a straight line because, despite what some may think, the earth is
地球是个球体
curved.
从平面地图上看纽约飞伦敦的航线并不是特别弯曲
From New York to London the curve you see on a flat map isn’t too extreme, but in
但如果是一条长得多的航线 比如说从纽约到曼谷
the case of a longer flight, such as from New York to Bangkok, the most direct route
最直的航线就不是这条了 而是从北极上方经过的这条航线
is not this, but this—straight over the North Pole.
从北极上方看的话就更清楚了
It makes more since if you look at a north-pole oriented map.
如果你画一条从亚特兰大到伦敦的直线
If you draw the most direct route between Atlanta and London, you’ll see that it passes
你会发现它经过了北美东海岸所有主要的国际机场
over every major east coast international airport.
这就意味着从亚特拉大飞欧洲的航线
That means that planes from Atlanta to Europe travel on the exact same route as planes from
跟从夏洛特市、华盛顿、巴尔的摩、费城、纽约、波士顿飞欧洲的航线一模一样了
Charlotte, Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York and Boston.
而且 所有这些横跨大西洋的飞机都在美国东部时间下午6点到8点(也就是国际时间晚上10点到12点)起飞
On top of that, all these transatlantic planes typically leave between 6-8 pm Eastern to
在清晨抵达欧洲
time their arrival for early morning in Europe.
这就意味着 同一条航线上可能
This means that there are potentially hundreds of planes all going the exact same route at
得有几百架飞机同时航行
the exact same time.
北大西洋上空还有很著名的喷流
The North Atlantic also has something known as the Jet Stream.
这些东向的气流带平均时速可达到100英里 飞机一旦进入 就可以大大减少航行时间
These easterly winds average around 110 mph and if planes fly in them, they can cut hours
然而 风力最强劲的部分位于仅离地面三英里的(即5千米)高空
of their travel time, however, the winds are only strongest in a line three miles high
而且只有100英里宽(160千米)
(5 km) and 100 miles (160 km) wide.
那样大大减少了航程时间
That further concentrates the flights.
一般来说 一班东向横越大西洋的纽约飞伦敦的飞机
On average, an eastbound transatlantic flight from New York to London takes about 6 hours
大概要飞6小时15分钟
and 15 minutes.
而返航时逆向穿过喷流则会花上七个多小时
Coming back against the jet stream, the same flight takes over 7 hours.
有时 风更加强烈 比如2015年1月8日
Sometimes, the winds can be even more active such as on January 8th, 2015 when British
英国航空114号航班从纽约到伦敦仅用了5个小时16分钟
Airways flight 114 flew from New York to London in only 5 hours and 16 minutes—a new record
刷新了亚音速客机的纪录
for a commercial subsonic plane.
那天 喷射气流时速为200英里 并且波音777
On that day, the jet stream was blowing over 200 mph (320 km/h) and the Boeing 777 reached
航行时速为745英里(1200千米/小时)-只比声障低了16英里/小时(25km/h)
a speed of 745 mph (1200 km/h) —only 16 mph (25 km/h) below the sound barrier.
所以风能为飞机缩短一个小时的行程 并且波音777只消耗了2700加仑的燃料(10200升)
So when winds can cut an hour off a flight and a 777 burns 2,700 gallons (10,200 liters)
飞机燃料价格是每加仑1.89美元 所以在花费上
of fuel per hour and jet fuel costs $1.89 per gallon, that’s a $5,103 difference between
顺风和逆风之间差距就有5103美元
being in the right, and the wrong winds.
希望现在你能明白为什么这很重要
Hopefully you now see why this is important.
所以所有这些飞机都按完全相同的航线飞行
So there are all these planes that are flying the exact same route, but usually that’s
却通常没什么问题
no problem.
美国北部最繁忙的路线是纽约到芝加哥 每天大概有100次航班
The busiest route in North America, New York to Chicago, sees over 100 flights per day
早晚高峰期 每五分钟起飞一班
leaving as frequently as every five minutes during the morning and evening rush and these
这些飞机飞的都是最高效的路线
planes just fly the most efficient route.
在航班飞行之前 线路规划者向空中交通指挥中心提交飞行计划
Before the flight, route planners file a plan with air traffic control and during the flight,
在飞行过程中空中交通指挥中心直接指挥航班
they’re just directed by air traffic control in a way that keeps them 5 nautical miles
确保各飞机之间保持五海里的距离
from other planes.
纽约飞芝加哥和纽约飞伦敦线路的不同之处在于
The difference between New York to Chicago and New York to London is that, over the North
一个要经过没有雷达的北大西洋
Atlantic, there is no radar.
雷达只能覆盖沿岸250英里
You see, radar only extends about 250 miles offshore.
跨洋飞机距离海岸线超过一千英里
Transatlantic planes can be more than a thousand miles from shore.
这就是为什么每天早晨 位于纽芬兰的甘地空中交通指挥中心的线路规划者
That’s why every morning, the route planners at Gander Air Traffic Control Center in Gander,
发布当天北大西洋追踪的线路
Newfoundland publish the days North Atlantic Tracks.
傍晚前 每一架隔天起飞的跨洋航班
The night before, every airline that will fly across the atlantic the following day
向指挥中心发送他们认为的最佳路线
sends Gander a preferred route message indicating what they think the best route will be.
甘地指挥中心很大程度上会根据这些请求创建出十条路线
For the most part, Gander center follows these requests and creates a set of 10 or so routes.
这些路线使得最大量的飞机最快速的到达欧洲
These tracks attempt to get the most amount of planes on the most efficient route to Europe.
线路都会被取名标记 Zulu是最南端的航线 Yankee其次
The tracks are labeled: Zulu being the southernmost route, Yankee being the second southernmost,
然后Xray Whisky等等
then Xray, then Whisky, and so on and so forth.
这是一段航线怎样运作的机理 要提醒的是
Here’s how a flight on the tracks works, and I’ll warn you, this is when the video
这段视屏仅供技术交流
gets technical.
以纽约到巴黎的航线为例
Let’s say we’re going from New York to Paris.
大约在起飞半小时之前 机长与空中指挥中心联系
Around half an hour before scheduled departure, the captain talks to normal air traffic control
请求清除纽芬兰 加拿大段航线
to request clearance for the route up to around Newfoundland, Canada.
一般情况 请求会被同意 不久之后便可起飞
In most cases clearance is given, and soon after we’ll take off.
当飞机经过圣劳伦斯湾时 飞行员会请求他们即将到达的
ABOUT when the plane crosses the Gulf of St Lawrence, the pilot will request the North
北大西洋段航线
Atlantic Track that he or she desires.
这就是 今天大西洋全天航线的相关信息
Here’s today’s message describing the day’s routes over the Atlantic.
看完这个 飞行员会请求Whisky航线
After looking over this, the pilot decides to request track Whisky.
这就意味着 至少目前为止 我们要飞往RAFIN航点
That means that, at least for now, we’ll head towards the RAFIN waypoint, our oceanic
即我们的海洋入口点
entry point.
航点是用于飞行导航的固定地点
Waypoints are fixed spots that are used for flight navigation.
在通过无线电广播的时候 这使得空中交通管制与飞行员的
These are much easier for Air Traffic Control to communicate to pilots than map coordinates
联系要比用地图坐标要容易得多
when speaking over radio.
偶尔 还会出现一些名字非常有趣的航点
Occasionally you’ll see some creatively named waypoints.
就比如黎巴嫩北部新罕布什尔州的HAMMM BURGR FRYYS
Just north of Lebanon, New Hampshire are HAMMM, BURGR, and FRYYS.
在去堪萨斯城机场的航线上还有SPICY BARBQ TERKY SMOKE RIBBS
On approach to Kansas City Airport there’s SPICY BARBQ TERKY SMOKE RIBBS.
波士顿还有命名为KUBBS和BEARS的两个航点 用以支持他们的球队
Boston has two waypoints in support of their sports teams, the KUBBS and BEARS.
也有一些航点的名字更忧郁一点
Some waypoint names are more somber.
在前往华盛顿里根国家机场的北部航线 距离911事件中
On the northern approach route to Washington Regan National Airport, just miles away from
被飞机撞的五角大楼不远的地方 那里的航点被命名为WEEEE WLLLL NEVVR FORGT SEP11
where a plane hit the Pentagon on 9/11, the waypoints read WEEEE WLLLL NEVVR FORGT SEP11.
由于北大西洋航线每天都在变化 因此莫塔姆只给出了进出的航点
Since the North Atlantic Tracks change every day, the MOTAM just gives entry and exit waypoints,
然后在两者之间协调航线
and then coordinates for the route in between.
既然自动驾驶仪在起飞之前线路就被提前设定好
Since the track coordinates are pre-programed into the autopilot before take-off, there’s
那么就没有理由把它们命名为航点 因为它们不会接收无线电广播
no reason to name them as waypoints since they won’t be given over radio.
在这条航线中 我们会请求Whisky航线或者Gander航线
In the case of this flight, we’re REQUESTING track WHISKY and, more than likely, Gander
管控中心会同意请求 尽管有时候他们会让我们另选航线
Control Center will give permission, although, sometimes they’ll tell us to take a different
那也是因为我们与另一架飞机的距离小于最小安全间距
track, usually because we’re closer to another plane than the minimum separation distance.
想要知道飞行在北大西洋上空的飞机的具体位置相当困难
Since it’s much more difficult to know where planes are over the North Atlantic, THEY’RE
他们会要求保持15分钟(140英里)的距离而不是一般情况下
required to be 15 minutes separated—about 140 miles—rather than the normal 5 miles
有雷达覆盖区域的5英里间距
in areas with radar coverage.
现在假设我们得到了许可 我们就会朝着RAFIN航点航行 同时确保
Assuming we’re granted clearance, we’ll head towards RAFIN waypoint and make sure
我们的通信卫星系统连接正常 然后我们会检查
that our satellite communication systems are working, then we’ll check to see if the
高频无线电是否正常 用以防止其他通信设备出现故障
High Frequency Radio is working—a backup in case other communications go down.
通过RAFIN航点就分钟后 控制中心会告诉我们“雷达服务结束
Minutes later, just after passing RAFIN waypoint, the controller will say “radar services
晚安“ 之后我们就得靠自己了
terminated, have a good night,” and then we’re on our own.
整段北大西洋航线都是自动驾驶 所以
All the North Atlantic Tracks are preloaded onto autopilot, so there’s nothing really
除了等待别无他法
to do except wait.
当我们飞过西经30度线时 我们就进入了靠近西欧的山威克机场
When we we hit 30 west, we enter the Shanwick airspace approaching Western Europe.
我们把收音机调到Shanwick的频率 然后再飞几个小时就会到我们的海洋出口点
We switch our radios to Shanwick’s frequency, then fly a few more hours to our Oceanic Exit
GUNSO航点 这就意味着我们我们成功穿越北大西洋
Point—GUNSO waypoint—meaning we’ve successfully traversed the Northern Atlantic.
希望你喜欢Wendover出品的视频
I hope you enjoyed this Wendover Productions video!
请务必查看我在关岛的最后一段视频
Make sure to check out my last video on Guam here.
也请点击这里订阅我们的节目
Please also subscribe to this channel by clicking here.
如果你订阅了但还没有在推特上关注我 恭喜你 你是那98.7%
If you’re already subscribed and not following me on twitter, Congratulations, you’re in
当中的一员 请在推特上关注WendoverPro来帮我减小
the 98.7%, but help me make that percentage smaller by going and following me on twitter
那个百分率
@WendoverPro.
你可以打开网址www.Reddit.com/r/WendoverProductions 是这个节目在reddit上的一个粉丝论坛
There’s also a fan-moderated subreddit for this channel that you can find at www.Reddit.com/r/WendoverProductions.
这是一个讨论视频的好地方所以一定要订阅这个视频
That’s a great place for discussion of the videos so make sure to subscribe to that.
再次感谢收看 下一段视频见
Thanks again for watching and I’ll see you soon for another Wendover Productions video.

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译制信息
视频概述

你不知道的真相,西太平洋航线到底如何运行,看看就知道

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

survivor

审核员

与光同尘

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-aQ2E0mlRQI

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