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“电锯惊魂”的哲学

The Philosophy of Saw – Wisecrack Edition

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嗨 这里是俏皮娱乐 我是杰瑞德
Hey Wisecrack, Jared again.
今天我们要谈颇受欢迎的万圣节恐怖电影系列
Today, we’re talking about an insanely popular Halloween horror series
保证你把吃下的糖果玉米都吓吐出来
guaranteed to make you barf up all your candy corn.
不 我们不谈《表情奇幻冒险》
No, not “The Emoji Movie.”
我们要谈《电锯惊魂》
We’re talking “Saw.”
自2004年以来
Since 2004,
酷刑色情电影的特权一直是把那些道德有问题的人物们
the torture-porny franchise has been locking up morally-dubious characters
锁在各种可怕的钢铁装置里
in all kinds of gruesome, steel contraptions
并把钥匙藏在出其不意的新地方
and inventing creative, new places to hide the keys.
就在你眼前
“It’s right before your eyes.”
《电锯惊魂》中那个让人毛骨悚然的主角的专用名词就是“竖锯杀人狂”
The creepy puppet-master of the Saw franchise is Jigsaw,
天啊 这变态喜欢玩游戏
and boy, does he loves playing games!
游戏是这样的 把失去知觉的人锁进潮湿的仓库里
And by playing games, we mean locking unconscious people inside dank warehouses
给他们60秒时间选择 是直接死还是自残
and giving them 60 seconds to choose between certain death, self-mutilation,
要不 就杀死身边的陌生人
or, if they’re lucky, disemboweling a stranger.
谈起《电锯惊魂》人们更关注竖锯杀人狂对人体的虐杀
When people talk about “Saw,” they tend to focus on Jigsaw’s impressive body count.
你可以从海洛因注射器坑中找到隐藏的钥匙
But just as you can pick through a pit of heroin syringes to find the hidden key,
你还可以从这个恶棍的致命陷阱中洞察游戏中更宏大的意义
you can sift through this villain’s deadly traps to find the grander meaning of his games.
敬请观看俏皮娱乐为你带来《电锯惊魂的哲学》
Welcome to this Wisecrack Edition on the Philosophy of Saw.
一如既往地 先来个剧透预警
And, as always: spoilers ahead.
电锯惊魂的哲学要义就是竖锯杀人狂的动机:
The Philosophy of Saw all comes down to Jigsaw’s motivation:
他的酷刑游戏是为受害者提供机会
his torturous games are opportunities for his victims
来忏悔自己的罪
to repent for their sins and ostensibly,
并表面上改过自新
to transform into better human beings.
如果受害者在测试中幸存(可能性不大)
If they survive his tests, (and the odds are not quite ever in their favor),
杀人狂认为他们就能学会热爱生活
he believes that they’ll emerge with a newfound ability to appreciate life.
“大多数人都毫不感恩地活着”
“Most people are so ungrateful to be alive.”
“但你不是”
“But not you.”
如果托尼·罗宾斯和撒旦育有一子 那孩子基本上就长这样
So basically, if Tony Robbins had a baby with Satan.
某种意义上 竖锯杀人狂象征了一种基督教极端道德主义者
In a sense, Jigsaw embodies a kind of extremist Christian morality,
谈这个问题之前 首先我们要看一下约翰·克里默
but before we get there, we first need to get in the headspace of John Kramer,
也就是竖锯杀人狂的来历
alias, the Jigsaw Killer.
曾经 工程师约翰是个遵纪守法的工程师
Once upon a time, John was a perfectly nice civil engineer who loved hanging out with
他怀孕的老婆吉尔开了一家戒赌诊所
his pregnant wife, Jill, who owned a drug rehab clinic.
某天吉尔的一个丧心病狂的病人西塞·亚当斯抢劫了诊所
Then, one of Jill’s tweaked-out patients, Cecil Adams, robs her clinic,
意外地伤害到妊娠中的吉尔
accidentally injuring Jill in the process.
吉尔流产了 约翰陷入深深的沮丧
She suffers a miscarriage, and John falls into a deep depression.
不久 他经诊断患有脑瘤 已到癌症晚期
A short while after, he’s diagnosed with a brain tumor and terminal cancer.
他变得更颓废了
He plummets further into depression,
与吉尔的关系迅速恶化
and his relationship with Jill quickly deteriorates.
总结一下
“Let’s review.”
女孩爱男孩 男孩爱女孩
“Girl loves boy, boy loves girl.”
女孩怀孕了 女孩流产了……
“Boy gets girl pregnant, girl loses baby…”
男孩就变成了连环杀手
“Boy turns into a serial killer.”
约翰没有到Tinder网上交友
And instead of joining Tinder or something,
他继续和吉尔纠缠不休
Jill continues to entangle herself in her boo’s drama.
一年的浑浑噩噩后
After an all-around sh*t year,
约翰试图开车跳崖
John tries to kill himself by driving off a cliff.
奇迹是 约翰在撞击中幸存 还确定了自己的新追求:
Miraculously, he survives the crash and emerges, totally sure of his new calling:
一个一个地施加道德酷刑
dispensing morality, one torture device at a time.
“就在我决定结束自己生命的那一刻”
“开启了我的新使命”
“它能为我的人生带来意义”
“然后我决定用我的余生”
“来测试人性的质地”
为了匹配新人生使命 约翰炮制了新的道德准则
As John cooked up a fresh code of morality to match his new mission in life,
他的灵感来源看起来不太可能:早期基督教哲学
he seems to have been inspired by an unlikely source: early Christian philosophy.
具体来说 就是对痛苦的看法
Specifically, its views on suffering.
根据早期的基督教传统 上帝是好的 他创造的万物也是好的
According to Early Christian tradition, God is good, and everything he created is good.
这一点没人质疑 直到有一天
And nobody really questioned that until one day,
一个早期基督徒绊到了自己的脚趾
an Early Christian stubbed his toe and
他发现了痛苦 他说:这太糟糕了!
discovered suffering and was like, “This sucks!
TMD上帝啊!
WTF, GOD!”
一群基督教神学家开始绊伤脚趾
Once a bunch of Christian theologians started stubbing their toes,
于是他们意识到需要好好解释一下全能的上帝为什么制造痛苦
they realized that they needed to rationalize how an all-good God could have created such suffering.
他们的理论认为 痛苦是坏人在咎由自取
They theorized that suffering had to be the fault of no-good, lousy humans.
以下是他们的想法:亚当吃了智慧树的果子
Here’s what they figured: When Adam ate that apple from the Tree of Knowledge,
犯下原罪
thus committing the Original Sin,
他从纯洁完美的上帝中分出了愚蠢而邪恶的人类
he separated dumb, evil humans from the pure, perfect God,
人类偷食禁果显然惹怒了上帝
who apparently doesn’t like it when humans eat a fresh, healthy snack.
从那时起 有罪的人若想得遇上帝
From then on, sinful humans would need to suffer and repent
他需要受苦并悔改
if they wanted to be reunited with God.
而苦难则是我们自身罪恶的结果
Suffering then, is the result of our own sins,
也表现了我们与神分离时所感受到的痛苦
and an expression of the pain we feel over our separation from God.
照这样说 传统的基督教将苦难当作罪人的过错
In this way, traditional Christianity justified suffering as the fault of the sinner,
而非上帝的过错
not of God.
危机得以避免!
Crisis averted!
同样地 竖锯杀人狂也认为受害者活该受到陷阱加之于他的苦难
Similarly, Jigsaw thinks his victims deserve the suffering that they endure in his traps.
他一直提醒每个受害者都是咎由自取
He helpfully reminds each victim of the sins they’ve committed to get there,
对此他毫不隐瞒
and he doesn’t hold back.
“多年来 你们用谎言、耻辱和欺骗来焚毁身边之人”
“For years you have burned those around you with your lies, cons, and deceits.”
竖锯杀人狂认为 受害者被自己过往的不道德行为奴役
As Jigsaw sees it, his victims are enslaved by their past immorality,
而不是他的工业化酷刑装置
not his industrial-strength torture devices —
就像神学家认为 人类是被亚当夏娃的原罪所困
much like theologians believed humanity has been trapped by Adam and Eve’s original sin.
相应地 《电锯惊魂》系列也有自己的亚当
Fittingly, the Saw series has a few Adams of its own:
《电锯惊魂5》里 亚当是吉尔流产的罪魁祸首
In Saw IV, we learn that drug addict Cecil Adams is responsible for Jill’s miscarriage.
他的原罪是约翰变成竖锯杀人狂的催化剂
His original sin is a catalyst for John’s transformation into Jigsaw.
在《电锯惊魂1》中 花时间监视他人的摄影师
Additionally, in the first film, Adam Stanheight, a photographer who spends his days spying
亚当·史丹海特成了杀人狂的一个目标
on people, becomes one of Jigsaw’s targets.
亚当对下流学问的职业寻求反映了他偷食禁果的欲望
His professional quest for seedy “knowledge” mirrors that of Adam’s desire to eat from the Tree.
所以克莱默关于人类苦难的看法和早期基督徒不谋而合
So Kramer’s view on human suffering shares a similar origin story to that of Early Christians,
就是说 看完《电锯惊魂》系列你就有资格参加教会活动了
which, hey, could mean that watching a “Saw” movie qualifies as attending church.
然而 约翰·克莱默和基督教理论家兼存在主义之父索伦·克尔凯郭尔
However, John Kramer also shares a common thread with Christian theorist and father
有着共同论点
of Existentialism, Soren Kierkegaard,
他认为苦难是个人及其精神成长的重要组成部分
who sees suffering as a critical part of personal and spiritual growth.
具体来说 如克莱默一样悲催 克尔凯郭尔
For context: much like Kramer, Kierkegaard had his share of sh*tty luck.
他也有终生身体缺陷 母亲、兄弟姐妹都英年早逝
He had a lifelong physical deformity, watched his mother, brothers and sisters die at a young age,
这让他非常确定自己将死于33岁
and became totally convinced that he was going to die at age 33.
克莱默和他深爱的未婚妻瑞金分手
Like Kramer he also broke up with the love of his life, his then-fiancee Regine,
但克莱默的余生都在为伊消得人憔悴
yet continued to pine after her for the rest of his days.
所以这两个家伙可以把酒言欢
Basically, the two of them could have shared stories over whiskey.
他们都相信苦难能净化受难者 教会其欣赏人生
They also both believed that suffering purifies the sufferer, teaches them to appreciate life,
并强迫其为自己的行为负责
and forces them to take responsibility for their actions.
你可能更愿意选择一帆风顺的生活
You might prefer your life without a generous dose of suffering,
但克尔凯郭尔可不这么想:
but hear the guy out:
他认为一个人通往“真正的自我”之路
Kierkegaard believed that an individual must pass
要分为三个不同阶段
through three distinct phases to become his or her “true self:”
第一是“审美” 由肉欲快乐驱动 缺乏道德
First: ”The aesthetic,” driven by sensual pleasures and lacking any morality;
第二是“伦理” 由个人责任中的道德和信条驱动
Second; “the ethical,” driven by morality and belief in individual responsibility,
第三是“宗教” 即信仰上帝
and third; “the religious,” driven by faith in God.
那么怎样才能从一个醉醺醺的低等“审美者”
So, how do you go from being a lowly drunk “aesthete,”
飞升为正直的“道德”君子呢?
to an upstanding, “ethical” guy?
你可以试一下竖锯杀人狂的酷刑机器
You could always try out one of Jigsaw’s torture machines!
是的 根据克尔凯郭尔的观点
That’s right: according to Kierkegaard,
苦难是进入人类发展下一阶段的关键
suffering is key to moving up to the next stage of human development.
克尔凯郭尔谈论的主要是精神和存在本身的苦难
Kierkegaard was mostly talking about spiritual and existential suffering,
而非酷刑机器带来的苦难
not being caught in a torture device,
而非 让人像《权力的游戏》里一样惨死
or worse, having people spoil “Game of Thrones.”
还有 竖锯杀人狂的酷刑机器可理解为对受害者的测试
Still, Jigsaw’s machines can be understood as a test for each of his victims,
这些受害者是典型的受性交、毒品、金钱等欲望驱动的审美者
who are typically aesthetes driven by desires for sex, drugs, or money.
杀人狂的测试使受害者陷入道德窘境
His tests present his victims, with an ethical quandary that
他强迫他们做出痛苦的抉择
usually forces them to make a painful decision.
这和克尔凯郭尔对“审美到伦理存在之路”的解释不谋而合
This matches the way Kierkegaard explains the journey from aesthetic to ethical being:
“首先伦理生活使受难者遭受比之前更多的苦难”
“将他们从热锅中拉出”
“却投入火中”
“这样他体内就会有东西在叫嚣”
“这对其是有所裨益的”
但是苦难是如何将你变得更加契合伦理呢?
But how exactly does suffering help you become more ethical?
克尔凯郭尔是这样解释的:苦难迫使人类反思自己的处境
According to Kierkegaard, suffering forces a human to reflect on their situation,
只要想一想:哦 这太糟糕了
if only to think, “Oh, f**k this sucks.”
片刻的反思唤起了“第一怀疑”
That moment of reflection summons “the first doubt,”
克尔凯郭尔是这样表述这种怀疑的:
which Kierkegaard describes as the thought,
“为什么倒霉的总是我 这是必然的吗?”
“Why is this happening to me; can it not be otherwise?”
或者更直接的反应是:“TMD这到底是怎么回事?”
Or to put it more simply: “What the f**k is going on?
“我在哪里?”
Where am I?”
“这是什么?”
“What is this?”
“求你了”
“Please.”
“什么鬼?!”
这种破口大骂时刻使你立刻产生改变当前处境的欲望
That little WTF moment generates the immediate desire to change your circumstance.
“救命”
“Help!”
“救命”
“Help!”
这种欲望促使人进入到一种克尔凯郭尔所说的“伦理的自我理解”状态
This desire opens a person up to what Kierkegaard calls “ethical self-understanding.”
苦难是成长引起的 因为它“将个体转化为完整的自我”
Suffering is growth-inducing because it “turns the single individual over to himself completely.”
最成功之处是 苦难迫使人忏悔自己犯下的罪孽
At its most successful, this suffering can force a person to repent for past sins,
为自己的罪负责 并选择寻求自我存续
take responsibility for his guilt, and choose to seek his own survival.
但那之后还有后续内容
But more on that later.
当你进步到一定程度时 你原有的“错误的自我”就会死亡
As you progress up the ladder of development, a piece of your old, “false self,” dies,
就像泰勒·斯威夫特所唱的
much like the old Taylor Swift.
“老泰勒现在不能接电话”
“The old Taylor can’t come to phone right now…
“因为她死了”
‘Cause she’s dead!”
从约翰·克里默对车祸的解释来看
Judging from his own interpretation of his car crash,
他认为:
John Kramer agrees:
“与众不同的人从残骸中爬出”
克尔凯郭尔认为精神苦难的终极目标是
For Kierkegaard, the ultimate goal of spiritual suffering
彻底杀死有缺陷的虚假自我
is to completely kill off your flawed,
这样才有余地重建更好的更真实的自我
false self in order to make room for your recreation into a better, truer self.
当热烈的追随者阿曼达同意遵守克莱默的道德守则时
Kramer demands this of his most fervent follower, Amanda,
他这样要求她
when she agrees to live by his ethical code.
“你将给我你的一切”
“You will give everything to me.
“包括你身体内的每个细胞”
Every cell in your body.
“明白了吗?”
Is that understood?”
“明白”
“Yes.”
“你将生命置之身后”
“You leave that life behind.
“你选择走下去就没有回头路 明白吗?”
When you go down that corridor, there is no turning back, do you understand that?”
阿曼达以祷告者的姿势坐着 虔诚地聆听
Amanda sits in a prayer-like position, listening deeply.
《电锯惊魂》的死忠粉称这个场景为“阿曼达的洗礼”
Die-hard Saw fans call this scene “Amanda’s baptism,”
咱们可以将洗礼和苦难联系起来
which is fitting when you consider how baptism relates to suffering.
就像耶稣死而复生来挽救人类一样
Just as Jesus rose from the dead to redeem humanity,
人类受到洗礼并重生
human beings are baptised and reborn,
也就是“精神上的清洗”
“spiritually cleansed.”
基督教传统也将苦难看成一种“精神清洗”机制
Christian tradition also see suffering as a mechanism for “spiritual cleansing.”
和爱徒聊天时
Jigsaw frequently references this concept of rebirth,
拼图杀人狂频繁提及“重生”这个概念
whether he’s chatting with his favorite disciple —
“不要恐惧”
“你的生命才刚开始”
他也欢迎新受害者落入陷阱
– or welcoming a new victim into one of his traps —
“欢迎你的重生”
“今晚我给你机会”
“来面对你的妄念”
在一次普通的绑架中 竖锯杀人狂失去一贯的高冷贞操
Jigsaw even loses his “kidnapping” virginity during a literal celebration of rebirth:
因为他遇到了中国新年庆典
The Chinese New Year celebration.
且当年是猪年
Because it’s the year of the Pig,
所以克莱默甚至挑了个蠢萌的猪面具
Kramer even picks up his sweet trademark pig mask at the event.
克尔凯郭尔和竖锯杀人狂还有其他重要的共同点
Kierkegaard and Jigsaw have a few other important ideas in common.
具体而言 他们都重视个人责任
Specifically, they both value personal responsibility.
克尔凯郭尔写道 成为一个“真正的人”的第一步也是不可或缺的一步
Kierkegaard writes that the first indispensable step of becoming “a real man” isn’t
不是获得脱胎换骨 而是成为一个“在上帝面前负责任的人”
getting strange new body hair, but by becoming a “responsible individual before God.”
克莱默向受害者提出了相同的要求
Kramer demands the same from his victims:
“你不能帮他们”
“他们必须自救”
承担责任的关键是什么?
And what’s the key to taking responsibility?
做出选择
Making a choice.
克莱默刺激受害者进入生命确认行动
Kramer spurs his victims into life-affirming action.
“我觉得认识到你儿子即将死亡”
“是你行动的诱因”
“原谅他所有的罪”
“擦净石板”
“为什么我们执着于此”
“为什么生活如刑柱”
克尔凯郭尔相信 做选择的那一刻人才“成为他自己”
In the moment of making a choice, Kierkegaard believed, a man “becomes himself.”
同样地克莱默坚持认为受害者“选择”自己的行为
Similarly, Kramer is adamant that his victims “choose” their actions,
甚至这种犹大式束缚也是他们自己选的
even ending each of his games with this yoda-like refrain:
“生或死”
“由你来选”
“生或死”
“由你来选”
“选择权在你”
他还坚持认为 在游戏权限内
He also maintains that the individual is responsible for the outcome of their decision
个人要为自己的选择带来的结果负责
within the confines of his game.
我从来没有杀过人
“I’ve never murdered anyone in my life.
是他们自己在做决定
The decisions are up to them.”
许多电影都涉及终极救赎
While many horror films offer an ultimate salvation —
“去死吧 克鲁格”
“You’re dead, Krueger!”
但《电锯惊魂》让你看不到明天的曙光
— Saw does not offer any kind of hope for a better tomorrow.
而它批判的似乎是传统基督教道德的极端版本
Instead, it seems to critique this extreme version of traditional Christian morality.
整个系列中 克莱默被定位为神一般的存在、僧侣、甚至烈士
Throughout the series, Kramer is positioned as a god-like figure, monk, or even martyr.
他身着黑色曳地连帽斗篷
He dresses in a long, black hooded cape,
获得大群的信徒 为他们“洗礼”
acquires flocks of disciples, performs “baptisms.”
他还保持着全知的能力
He also maintains a quality of omniscience —
他总是通过相机监视器和窥视孔来观察受害者
he’s always watching his victims through camera monitors or peepholes.
所以竖锯杀人狂或许是神一样的存在但他很失败
So, Jigsaw may be a God-like figure, but he’s a seriously failed one —
他试图建立的道德秩序并没带来
his attempt to establish a moral order does not bring
他所宣称的那种有意义的改变
about the meaningful change that Kramer professes it will.
大多数初来乍到的受害者都没能通过测试
For starters, most of his victims fail their tests —
他们或者在压力下崩溃 或者无法忍受疼痛
they crumble under pressure, or can’t withstand the pain.
那些通过测试的人也患上精神创伤
Those who do pass are frequently traumatized.
“一堆垃圾”
“Bunch of bullsh*t!
“你想知道我身上发生了什么好事儿吗”
You wanna know the best thing that happened to me
“我不得不砍掉自己的手臂”
after having to cut off my own arm?
“我能用商场的残疾人停车位了”
It’s handicapped parking at the damn mall!”
能进一步证明竖锯杀人狂的失败之处的是
Further revealing the full extent of Jigsaw’s failure
他将门徒引向病态的宿命论
is his ill-fated quest for the right apprentice.
他的门徒都扭曲了他的哲学
Each of his contenders twist his philosophy.
竖锯杀人狂创造的游戏可以让你赢
While Jigsaw creates games that are truly winnable —
只要你遵循游戏规则就能续命
if you follow the rules, you can choose to preserve your life —
只要你愿意砍掉……比如说你的左胳膊
as long as you’re willing to part with, say, your left arm.
但是 他的门徒专横地制造了永远也赢不了的死亡陷阱
His mentees, on the other hand, create rigged games that are unwinnable death traps.
“如果竖锯杀人狂的游戏目的是在炸弹爆炸前逃脱”
“If the aim of Jigsaw’s game was to get out before the bomb went off,
“那为什么门也被焊接上了”
then why was the door welded shut?”
他的门徒用游戏来报私仇
His disciples just use the games to get revenge on people they don’t like.
最后他们全部被困 并因嫉妒而互相残杀
Eventually, they all end up trapping and killing one another out of jealousy.
对他们来说 游戏的重点是惩罚 而非重生
To them, the point of the games is punishment, rather than renewal.
这完全背离了竖锯杀人狂的初衷
So much for Jigsaw’s legacy.
《电锯惊魂》里的角色不断提醒观众
The characters in the Saw films frequently remind the audience that
这种道德规范有严重的缺陷
this is a seriously flawed moral code.
“你一会说你想谈谈”
“You said you wanted to talk.
“你一会又说你想玩个游戏”
Then, you said you wanted to play a game.
“你说啊 废话连篇”
You’re talking, but it means nothing!”
克莱默死之前 阿曼达谴责他
Just before her death, Amanda denounces him:
“TMD根本没人改变”
“没人重生”
“都是你在胡说八道”
最后 竖锯杀人狂是上帝般的存在
Lastly, because Jigsaw is presented as a God-like figure,
所以你希望他的正义得到公平分配 但事实并非如此
you would expect that his justice be dispensed fairly – but it’s not.
他是《电锯惊魂》系列的反派
He’s the villain of the series,
他的道德教训经常牺牲无辜的人命
and his morality lessons frequently sacrifice innocent human lives.
同样地 你希望竖锯杀人狂的死能换来救赎或补救
Similarly, you’d expect his death to result in salvation or redemption,
他的死确实给受害者杰夫提供了一个原谅他的机会
but instead, he dies after offering one of his victims, Jeff, the opportunity to forgive him.
“我原谅你”
“I forgive you.”
但是 杰夫狂暴地杀死了克莱默
Instead, Jeff violently kills Kramer.
克莱默的死也表明他的测试最终是失败的
Even Kramer’s own death is the result of one of his test’s ultimate failures.
他甚至都没有吃到美味可口的苹果
And he didn’t even get to eat a tasty, delicious apple.
想找寻精神上的重生 却背道而驰
So much for finding spiritual rebirth in a reverse bear trap!
尽管如此 我们中的很多人都从不太深重的痛苦经历中找到了价值
Still, plenty of us seem to find value in less intensive experiences of suffering —
不信就看看马拉松运动员或者吃热狗竞赛者
just look at marathon runners or competitive hot dog eaters!
所以谈到自我提升 那句“没有痛苦就没有收获”真的对吗?
So when it comes to self-improvement, is it “no pain, no gain”?
若有朝一日我们发明了双用途的食物传送带或电视流应用
Or will human suffering be eliminated once we invent the perfect, dual-purpose food delivery
人类的苦难就能消除?
and TV-streaming app?
请在评论区告诉我们你的想法
Let us know what you think in the comments!
感谢观看
再见

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视频概述

《电锯惊魂》系列是经典恐怖电影,剧情主要围绕一个癌症患者设计的陷阱游戏展开。他设计了近乎苛刻的道德规范,绑架那些他认为没有活下去的必要的人,并以酷刑的方式试图让受害者得到重生……可那些受害者真的得到救赎了吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ccz

审核员

审核员Z

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NnXRQ_j_xB4

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