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能懂概率的鹦鹉 – 译学馆
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能懂概率的鹦鹉

The parrots that understand probabilities

The kea is a particularly intelligent species of parrot
啄羊鹦鹉是来自新西兰的一种
from New Zealand.
极其聪明的鹦鹉种类
Now, research suggests that
如今 研究显示
these birds might be smarter than anyone expected,
这种鸟类可能比我们想象中更加聪明
even outperforming monkeys in some tasks.
甚至在一些任务中的表现完胜了猴子
These kea can use probabilities to
这些啄羊鹦鹉能运用概率
predict which hand a black token is most likely to be in
预测黑色木条最可能出现在哪只手
based on where the token is picked from and on who is doing the picking,
啄羊鹦鹉能依据木条来源的瓶子和选择木条的人
even combining information from different contexts.
甚至通过结合不同情景中的信息进行预测
The kea are great fun to work with.
从事啄羊鹦鹉工作 特别有趣
They are some of the most intelligent birds I’ve ever met,
它们是我见过的最聪明的鸟类
and they all have amazing personalities.
而且它们拥有很棒的个性特质
Amalia Bastos has been working with kea,
阿玛丽娅•巴斯托斯一直从事啄羊鹦鹉工作
trying to find out whether they could predict uncertain future events.
试图考证它们是否能预知未来不确定事件
Could they understand an event that happened with incomplete information?
它们是否能明白信息缺失的事件?
Could they fill in the gaps?
它们能不能填补信息空白?
So, if you imagine that I’m placing my hand into a jar
想象我把手伸进瓶子里
with mostly blue candies and a few yellow candies,
里面有大量蓝色糖果和少数黄色糖果
and I take something from that jar
我从中拿走一个
but you can’t see what’s in my hand,
但你看不见我拿的是什么颜色的
you might guess that I’ve taken a blue candy,
你可能会猜我拿的是蓝色糖果
and we wanted to see if kea could do the same thing.
我们想看看啄羊鹦鹉能否做同样的猜测
A group of captive kea were taught that black tokens,
实验员教笼中一组啄羊鹦鹉用黑色木条
and only black tokens, could be exchanged for food.
而且只是用黑色的木条 来交换食物
They then saw an experimenter take tokens from two jars,
然后它们看见实验员从两个瓶子里拿出木条
without being able to see what was in each hand.
但看不到两只手各拿的是什么颜色
They chose a hand by tapping on it to get the token inside.
啄羊鹦鹉会轻啄所选的那只手来获得木条
In the first experiment, the kea almost always preferred the jar
在第一次试验中 即使两边瓶子中
with the highest proportion of black tokens,
黑木条实际数量相同时 啄羊鹦鹉也几乎总是
even when the actual number of black tokens in each was the same.
更喜欢黑色木条占比最大的那个瓶子
This suggests they were choosing the hand based on the probability of it containing a black token,
这表明它们是依据实验员手里有黑木条的概率进行选择的
something only previously seen in great apes.
这种情况之前只在类人猿身上看到过
A second experiment showed
第二个实验显示
they could even take into account a barrier in the middle of the jar,
它们甚至会考虑到瓶子中间的挡板
looking for the jars with the highest proportion of black tokens in the top section
寻找上半部分黑色木条占比最多的瓶子
and ignoring the rest.
而不理睬另一个瓶子
So, kea have a complex social structure,
啄羊鹦鹉的社群结构很复杂
where many individuals can live in a group and they come and go as they please,
很多个体会成群生活 并随意来来去去
and that means they need to remember the identities of multiple individuals,
这意味着它们需要记住多个个体的特征
and they have to interact with multiple individuals,
还要与多个个体交流
and of course they need to remember all of these interactions.
自然也就需要记住这些交流活动
So, we wanted to see whether kea could understand that
所以我们想看看啄羊鹦鹉是否懂得
experimenters have biases or preferences when they make their selections.
实验员在选择时是有偏好的
For example, one person might select a yellow candy
譬如 一个人即便在黄色糖果占少数时
even when the yellow candy is in the minority,
也会选择黄色的糖果
and another might select a yellow candy when they’re in the majority.
而另一个人则在黄色糖果占多数时选择黄色的糖果
And what we can assume from that
我们能够以此认为
is that the person who took yellow candy when it was in the minority
当黄色糖果占少数时拿走黄色糖果的人
actually prefers yellow candies to blue candies.
更喜欢的是黄色糖果 而不是蓝色糖果
The third part of the experiment tested their social skills.
实验的第三部分 测试啄羊鹦鹉的社交技能
The birds were shown two humans taking tokens from a jar.
鹦鹉看着两个人从瓶子里拿木条
One person looked into the jar
其中一人往瓶子里看去
and deliberately picked one of very few black tokens.
然后故意选了占比很少的黑色木条
When later offered a choice of experimenters,
实验者之后展示选择的木条时
the kea remembered this person
啄羊鹦鹉记住了这个人
and their apparent preference for black tokens.
和其对黑色木条的明显偏好
We were very surprised to find that
啄羊鹦鹉能利用社交暗示做判断 甚至是
kea can use social cues, even from humans, to make these judgements.
来自人类的社交暗示 这个发现让我们非常惊讶
Kea were looking at the biased experimenter,
啄羊鹦鹉看着那个有偏好的实验员
understanding that they had a bias or a preference for a particular type of token,
明白他们对具体类型的木条有所偏爱
and then selecting this person at test
然后 即便两个实验员拥有的木条数量一样多
when both experimenters had the same populations of tokens.
也会在实验中选择这个有偏好的人
Reading human social cues like this
像这样读懂人类的社交暗示
and remembering information about individuals to use when making predictions,
然后运用对个体信息的记忆来做预测
is another ability that’s so far only been shown in great apes.
是另一项至今只在类人猿身上见到过的能力
Kea look very intelligent
啄羊鹦鹉看起来就很聪明
and they behave very intelligently,
它们行为表现也很聪明
I just didn’t expect them to
我只是没有料到它们能
perform quite as well as chimpanzees do.
表现得跟黑猩猩一样出色
This experiment marks the first evidence
这项实验首次证明
that birds can make predictions about future events using probabilities,
鸟类可以运用概率预测未来事件
and that they can combine information from different contexts
以及它们能把不同内容中得来的信息
to make those predictions.
结合起来做预测
I can’t wait to see what kea do next
我迫不及待想看它们还能做什么
because they keep surprising us,
因为它们总给我们带来惊喜
so I can’t wait to see what the next step brings.
所以我特别想知道接下来还有什么收获
OK, Plankton can you move?
好了普兰克顿 你能让开吗
OK, just a little bit…
好了 就挪一点儿
Planky! Can you move please?
小普兰克 麻烦你让让好吗?
You can’t stand in front of the camera! Huh?
你不能挡在镜头前面啦

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视频概述

这种来自新西兰的鹦鹉几乎跟大猩猩一样聪明。实验员们对他们进行了几个测验,来看看他们的表现吧!

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收集自网络

翻译译者

原来是阿树

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审核员SR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yj718A7_s4A

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