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时间旅行:悖悖论

The Paradox Paradox

《维瑟科普3》
Jake Roper映画
时间旅行:悖中悖
维瑟 我是杰克 如果你能回到过去
Vsauce, I’m Jake and if you could go back
并阻止自己出生
in time and stop yourself from being born,
你会这样做吗
would you?
或者说 你能做到吗
Or should I say…can you?
因为如果你阻止了自己出生
Because if you went back in time and made it
那你就从未出生
so you weren’t born then you wouldn’t
就无法回到过去阻止自己出生
be alive to go back in time to stop your birth.
这就是逆向自杀悖论
It’s the Retrosuicide Paradox.
指的是一些你可以去做
where something that you can do
但不意味着能完成的事情
but it doesn’t mean that something you can complete.
就像我能去商店买一个鳄梨
Just like I can go to the store to buy an avocado
并不意味着我一定要带一个离开
but it doesn’t mean I should leave the store with one.
对时间旅行 时间线会一某种方式自我纠正
For time travel, the timeline self corrects in a way.
但…事实上…我正回到现在的我之前
But…actually…I’m getting ahead of myself.
让我们回到一开始的时间点
Let’s travel back to the beginning.
Jake Roper映画
时间旅行:悖悖论
维瑟 我是杰克 时间旅行本身就是个悖论
Vsauce, I’m Jake and time travel is a paradox itself
这意味着由时间旅行产生的任何悖论
which means that any paradox created by the idea of time travel
都是悖论中的悖论
is paradox in a paradox.
即悖悖论
It’s The Paradox Paradox.
容我解释一下
Allow me to explain,
逆向自杀悖论的观点是
With the Retrosuicide Paradox the idea is that things
过去发生的事情都是固定的点
that have happened in the past are fixed points.
这些事无法改变
They can not be changed
因为一旦改变 之后的所有事都会发生变化
because changing them would change all of time coming after that past event.
既然你要回到过去的时间点
And since you going back in time needs to happen,
就无法做到杀死以前的自己
there would be no way to follow through with killing your younger self.
但前提是我们假设时间线是一条
But that’s only if we assume that time is one straight line
由过去决定将来的直线
where the past dictates the present
而在时间旅行中 将来也会决定过去
if time travel were possible, the present would also dictate the past.
这是一个自我实现的循环
it’s a self-fulfilling cycle.
我们能向空间中任意方向遨游
We can travel in any direction of space
但我们能向时间里的任意方向遨游吗?
but can we travel in any direction in time?
尽管澳洲和中国都不在我现在的位置
Australia and China both exist even though
但它们都确实存在着
they don’t exist right here with me in this location.
所以有人会说“昨天”和“明天”都存在
So one could argue that yesterday and tomorrow exist
尽管它不是存在于这里……现在
even though they don’t exist right here…right now.
但实际上 “昨天”和“明天”都不存在
But the fact is, yesterday and tomorrow don’t exist.
我不能重回昨天 也不能跳到明天
I can’t revisit yesterday and I can’tskip forward into tomorrow.
更换时钟的指针会改变你个人看到的”时间”
Changing the hands on a clock changes your personal time
但不会改变外部时间
but not external time.
外部时间是时间移动的速率
External time is the rate at which time moves
是一个恒定一致的速率
which is a constant, consistent rate.
说到相对时间
When it comes to time being relative,
它指的是个人的时间
that is personal time.
如果把自己身体的速度降到
If you slowed down the rate of your body to such a degree
生命活动都受影响的地步
that every function of yourbeing were affected,
那么在你看来 别人正呼啸而过
from your perspective people would be whizzing by
但在别人眼中
but from everyone else’s perspective
你看起来静止不动
you would look frozen.
然而 外部时间仍在以同一速度移动
However, external time is still moving at the same rate.
只是你的感觉有所不同
It’s just your perception that feels different.
这就是“时间差异悖论”
It is the Time Discrepancy Paradox,
指时间之间
where there has to be a difference
一定存在差别
between time and time
但其实我们知道 时间并无差别
which we know there isn’t.
大多数时间旅行的故事是这样的:
In most time travel stories it works like this:
主角A离开A点 立即回到先前的时间点B
Subject A leaves Point A and immediately goes back in time to Point B.
做完要做的事之后
Then after doing what they need to do,
又回到A点
they come back to Point A.
但这里产生了另一个更矛盾的悖论
But this is where another and more sinister paradox is created.
若沿此时间轴回溯
If we go back to this timeline,
当主角A回往过去 只有A自己回去了
when Subject A goes back in time only they go back.
而曾经的主角A 或称主角A2 仍在向A点前进
The version of them in the past, Subject A2 is still moving towards Point A
当A回到过去 这意味着
when they go back in time which means
主角A某种程度上创造了一个封闭时间循环
they have created a closed time loop in a way.
而若主角A离开A点沿时轴往右
If Subject A travels back to right when they left Point A,
主角A2也应该已经回到B点
Subject A2 will already be going back to Point B.
这个事例会一直发生
That instance will occur forever.
所以每一次时间旅行
So everytime you travel through time
不论朝过去还是未来
you will always be creating a loop
都会产生一个时间循环
no matter if you go into the past or the future
因为现在的你正在时间旅行
because you right now are time travelling,
但一天或一年之前的你并没有
but you a day ago, you a year ago, isn’t.
那时的你仍在继续前往这个固定时间点 即A点
That you is still moving up on the timeline to that fixed point you created, Point A.
因此 这也引出一个问题
So it also begs the question,
如果你在A点回到过去
does that mean that if you left that timeline at Point A and went to the past
你还存在于“现在”或“未来”吗?
would you not exist in the present and moving forward or in the future?
时间不会因你不在此处而停止
Time doesn’t stop just because you aren’t there.
所以你自己困在了时间循环里
So instead of continuing on your timeline
而非继续沿你自己或者说你们的时间线前进
you have now imprisoned yourself or yourselves into a loop.
这会创造无数个你
It creates an infinite amount of you
且每当你到达A点就会重置
that resets every time you hit Point A.
因为你在那个时刻带走了“你”
Because you take you in that moment in time.
这又产生了另一个悖论
So it creates another paradox,
即”双人房间悖论”
the Double-Occupancy Paradox,
指的是如何能有现在的你之外的”你”存在
which is how can there be more than one of your current self?
我们总认为自己独一无二
We think of ourselves as oneself.
顺便一说
Also, side note:
这带来了另一个悖论:”自由的悖论”
This brings up an additional paradox which is the Paradox of Freedom.
比如在前述场景中
Let’s say like in our scenario above,
你作为主角A从时间点A回到过去
you, Subject A, travels back in time from Point A
从而创造了一个封闭的时间循环
thus creating a closed time loop
在这之中 另一个”你” 即主角A2一到达A点
where a version of you will always go back in time
主角A2总会立刻回到过去
once they reach Point A.
你以为是自己选择在那个特定时间回去
You think that you were the one to choose to go back in time at that specific moment,
但那真的是你吗?
but, were you?
如果这是个时间闭环 你可能不是主角A
If it is a closed time loop then you might not be subject A,
但在统计学上
but more statistically possible
你更可能是主角A20或A5000
is that you are Subject A20 or A5000.
所以即使你觉得自己是自由地做出那个决定
So even though you felt like you had the freedom to choose that decision,
其实是另一个”你”早就替你做的决定
it had already been decided for you.
好 让我们回到时间线上
Ok. Let’s go back to that timeline
设想某些不同的情况
and imagine something different.
最可能的情况是只有“现在”存在
The most likely scenario is that only the present exists.
过去已经过去 未来还没有确定
The past is gone and the future has yet to be written.
但如前所述 过去已经确定了
But as I mentioned earlier the past has been written
那么“现在”和“过去”可能都存在
so it could be that the past and present exist
但“未来”不存在
but not the future.
在这个假设中 在“过去”发生了之后
In this scenario you could go back in time
既然人人都说过去已然发生
since the past did, by all accounts, happen.
你就无法改变过去
You just wouldn’t be able to change it.
但假如这是真的
But if that were true then so would the third scenario
关于时间旅行 第三种情况最常被考虑
which is most commonly thought of when thinking about time travel.
就是“过去” “现在” “将来”都存在
That the past, present and future all exist
你可以随意在三者间旅行
and you can travel to any of them.
这意味着以上三者
That would mean that all 3 –
过去 现在和将来都在同时发生
past, present, future – are happening concurrently.
可想象成三个时间轴逐个在上运行
Think of it as three timelines running on top of one another.
当你在时间中前进
So when you go forward in time,
你不是在自己的时间线上
it isn’t on your timeline.
而是在你上方的时间线上
It is on the timeline above you.
如果你想从“未来”进入“过去”
And if you want to go into the past from the future,
你的时间线就会与“现在”相交
you’d intersect with the present with your timeline.
重要的是 若你离开”现在”进入了”未来”
It’s important to note that if you left the present to go into the future,
那“现在”的你就不在了
you are now gone.
所以如果你在“未来”度过一周
So if you spend a week in the future,
那么你会从“现在”消失一周
there is a week in the present where you just don’t exist anymore.
以下是我最喜欢的时间旅行实验之一
One of my favorite thought experiments about time travel is this.
如果时间旅行是存在的 那它应该一直存在
If time travel were to exist then it has always existed
而时间机器可存在于所有时间点上
as the physical machine can exist at all points in time.
因此 即使时间机器100年后才发明
So even if it were invented 100 years from now
它也存在于“现在”以及时间的开头
it still exists now and since the beginning of time.
重要的是 请记住
And it is important to remember,
甚至在三时间线理论中
even in the 3 timelines theory,
你可以回到过去 看到过去
if you went back in time you can see the past
但你无法对过去产生影响
but you can’t interact with it.
你不能改变过去
You can’t change it
因为这会扰乱现在和将来的时间线
because it would still disrupt the present and future timelines.
然而 有另一种理论
However, there is another theory
使时间旅行不再是悖论
that allows time travel to not be a paradox,
也使”时间旅行悖论”不再自相矛盾
by doing so would also make it so no time travel paradox would be paradoxical.
这个理论中 若我们重审谈过的第一个悖论
In this theory, if we revisit the first paradox we talked about,
“逆向自杀悖论”
the Retrosuicide Paradox.
你回到过去 确确实实杀死从前的自己
you’d go back in time and you could in fact kill your younger self
你将不再存在于那条时间线上
and you would no longer exist…on that timeline.
这使得时间线分裂
By doing that act the timeline splits.
时间线1创造了时间线2
So what was timeline 1 creates a timeline 2.
你在时间线1上回到过去并自杀
Timeline 1 has you go back in time and commit retrosuicide
而时间线2正常发展
while timeline 2 continues as normal.
通过制作一个记录了事情原样的副本
Time has still self corrected itself by making a new copy of events
时间可以自我纠正
as they were supposed to be,
那就是时间线2 不是你旅行的时间线1
that’s timeline 2, not as you made them, timeline 1.
如果这是真的
If this were true,
我们可以存在于任何一条时间线中
we could be living on anyone of these timelines.
这些时间线从已知时间中分裂
They fracture from the time we knew
成为我们自认为已知的时间
to what we think we know,
但我们不知道这是以什么方式完成的
but we’d have no idea either way.
这意味着有很多条时间线
That means there are multiple timelines.
某种意义上类似多元宇宙理论
an analogy in a sense for the multiverse theory,
即存在平行宇宙
that there are parallel universes,
这是指每次穿越时间
each time we travel through time,
我们实际上并不是穿过三条并行的时间线
we aren’t actually moving through three concurrent timelines
也没有创建新的时间线
or new timelines are being created
而是穿行到了另一个相似的平行宇宙中
but actually we are travelling to a different universe that’s similar to our own.
如果是这样
And if that’s the case…
我需要一直旅行 直到找到对的那一个
I need to keep traveling until I find the right one.
就像以往那样
As always.
感谢观看
Thanks for watching.

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视频概述

我们可以回到过去阻止自己出生吗?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q8gbC3SigR0

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