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巴里 施瓦茨:选择的困惑 – 译学馆
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巴里 施瓦茨:选择的困惑

The paradox of choice | Barry Schwartz

我想在这里谈谈我这本书里的部分内容
I’m going to talk to you about some stuff that’s in this book of mine
希望它和你们已经听到过的一些事物 引起共鸣
that I hope will resonate with other things you’ve already heard,
如果有哪些你们不清楚的我在这里会试着
and I’ll try to make some connections myself,
帮你把它们联系起来
in case you missed them.
我想从一个公认的信条讲起
But I want to start with what I call the “official dogma.”
什么样的公认的信条呢?
The official dogma of what?
就是整个西方工业社会所笃信不疑的
The official dogma of all Western industrial societies.
一个信条 这个信条是这么说的:
And the official dogma runs like this:
如果我们要想使民众获得最大限度的福利
if we are interested in maximizing the welfare of our citizens,
其方法就是使个人自由达到最大化
the way to do that is to maximize individual freedom.
原因就是自由这东西在与本身就是美好的
The reason for this is both that freedom is in and of itself good,
具有价值 为人们所必需
valuable, worthwhile, essential to being human.
另外 一旦人们有了自由
And because if people have freedom,
我们每个人都可以自己做主
then each of us can act on our own
用各种办法最大限度地获得福利
to do the things that will maximize our welfare,
用不着别人来替我们做主
and no one has to decide on our behalf.
使自由达到极大化的途径就是
The way to maximize freedom is to maximize choice.
最大限度的增加选择性 人们的选择越多 自由也就越多
The more choice people have, the more freedom they have,
自由越多
and the more freedom they have,
得到的福利也就越多
the more welfare they have.
我觉得 这个观念就像掺进了我们的 自来水里那样根深蒂固
This, I think, is so deeply embedded in the water supply
以至于没人想起来会对它提出疑问
that it wouldn’t occur to anyone to question it.
同样这个观念也深嵌于我们的日常生活之中
And it’s also deeply embedded in our lives.
我来给你们举些例子看看当代社会的
I’ll give you some examples
进步发展让我们变得有可能做些什么事
of what modern progress has made possible for us.
这是我家附近
This is my supermarket.
的一个超市
Not such a big one.
不算很大 我只想说说这里的色拉调料
I want to say just a word about salad dressing.
我这家超市有175种各式色拉调料
175 salad dressings in my supermarket,
还没算上10种不同牌子的特级初榨橄榄油
if you don’t count the 10 extra-virgin olive oils
和12种 Balsamic 葡萄醋任你选购
and 12 balsamic vinegars you could buy
如果碰巧那175种色拉酱都不和你的口味
to make a very large number of your own salad dressings,
你就可以用它们调出另一大批 你自己的色拉酱
in the off-chance that none of the 175 the store has on offer suit you.
你看 这就是超级市场的样子
So this is what the supermarket is like.
然后你转身出来到一家家用电器店去配置
And then you go to the consumer electronics store
一套立体音响系统 –
to set up a stereo system —
音箱啦 CD机啦 磁带机 收音机
speakers, CD player, tape player, tuner, amplifier —
放大器就这么一家家用电器店里
and in this one single consumer electronics store,
立体音响系统就多得数不清
there are that many stereo systems.
用这家店的组件你可以配出近650万种
We can construct six-and-a-half-million different stereo systems
各种组合的立体音响系统来
out of the components that are on offer in one store.
你没法不承认这可是不小的一堆选择吧
You’ve got to admit that’s a lot of choice.
换个行业
In other domains — the world of communications.
说说通讯我还是孩子那会儿
There was a time, when I was a boy,
你要想接通电话服务
when you could get any kind of telephone service you wanted,
那就得去玛贝尔公司
as long as it came from Ma Bell.
只此一家你不用买 只需去租一架电话机回来
You rented your phone. You didn’t buy it.
通常情况是 那电话用到死都不会坏
One consequence of that, by the way, is that the phone never broke.
那种日子早已一去不返了
And those days are gone.
如今我们几乎有无穷无尽的电话品种
We now have an almost unlimited variety of phones,
尤其是手机 (显示漫画)
especially in the world of cell phones.
这些都是未来的手机
These are cell phones of the future.
其中我最津津乐道的是中间那款
My favorite is the middle one —
-带着MP3播放机 鼻毛剪和法式焦糖布丁的喷火枪
the MP3 player, nose hair trimmer, and crème brûlée torch.
如果你还没在你家旁边
(Laughter)
的商店里见过的话
And if by some chance you haven’t seen that in your store yet,
不必担心 用不了多久你就会看到的
you can rest assured that one day soon, you will.
这事的结果是
And what this does
人们跑到商店里问: 你们有没有一款不带这么多功能的?
is it leads people to walk into their stores asking this question.
你想 回答会是什么?
And do you know what the answer to this question now is?
回答是“没有”
The answer is “no.”
如今你已经不可能买到一款不干 那么多事的手机同样
It is not possible to buy a cell phone that doesn’t do too much.
在生活里的其它一些比购物更 对我们产生影响事情上
So, in other aspects of life that are much more significant than buying things,
这种选择的爆炸同样存在
the same explosion of choice is true.
医疗保健-
Health care.
在美国 现在早已不是那种
It is no longer the case in the United States
你去看医生 医生直截了当告诉 你该如何做的时代了
that you go to the doctor, and the doctor tells you what to do.
相反 你到了医生那里
Instead, you go to the doctor,
医生会对你说:我们可以用治疗方案甲 也可以用方案乙
and the doctor tells you, “Well, we could do A, or we could do B.
方案甲有如此这般疗效和风险
A has these benefits, and these risks.
方案乙有如此这般疗效和风险
B has these benefits, and these risks.
你想怎么治?
What do you want to do?”
然后你说:“大夫
And you say, “Doc, what should I do?”
我该如何做?” 医生又说一遍 甲有这些疗效和风险
And the doc says, “A has these benefits and risks,
乙有那些疗效和风险
and B has these benefits and risks.
你想怎么治?
What do you want to do?”
你再问医生:“大夫 你要是我 你选那种?”
And you say, “If you were me, Doc, what would you do?”
医生说:“但是我不是你
And the doc says, “But I’m not you.”
” 其结果就是我们所说的“病人自治 ”
And the result is — we call it “patient autonomy,”
听起来好像挺不错的
which makes it sound like a good thing,
其实是把做决定的担子和责任
but it really is a shifting of the burden and the responsibility
从一个知道该怎么做的人
for decision-making from somebody who knows something —
我指的是医生
namely, the doctor —
转嫁到一个对治疗方案一无所知 而且正在为病痛所困扰
to somebody who knows nothing and is almost certainly sick
根本不在能做决定的状态的人身上
and thus not in the best shape to be making decisions —
那人就是病人
namely, the patient.
现在那些处方药品的广告铺天盖地
There’s enormous marketing of prescription drugs
都是针对着 你我这些普通人的
to people like you and me,
你如果仔细想想 一点也说不通
which, if you think about it, makes no sense at all,
既然我们不能直接去柜台买
since we can’t buy them.
他们为什么还要向我们做市场宣传?
Why do they market to us if we can’t buy them?
回答是 他们希望我们看了广告后 第二天早上会去给自己的医生打电话
The answer is that they expect us to call our doctors the next morning
让医生把处方上的药
and ask for our prescriptions to be changed.
换成他们的 如今像我们的性别身份这类的事
Something as dramatic as our identity
都成了选择的话题了
has now become a matter of choice,
就像这张幻灯片试图说明的那样
as this slide is meant to indicate.
现在我们的性别不是从父母那里继承下来 而是由自己来发明
We don’t inherit an identity; we get to invent it.
这样我们就可以随心所欲地的 重新塑造自己的性别身份
And we get to re-invent ourselves as often as we like.
这也意味每天早上你醒来 你先得对今天
And that means that every day, when you wake up in the morning,
你想做个什么样的人 男的还是女的
you have to decide what kind of person you want to be.
做出决定 在婚姻家庭方面
With respect to marriage and family,
在过去每个人到了年龄就结婚
there was a time when the default assumption that almost everyone had
这几乎是理所当然的事
is that you got married as soon as you could,
然后就是尽快生儿育女
and then you started having kids as soon as you could.
唯一你需要选择的就是和谁结婚
The only real choice was who,
而不是什么时候结 也不是结婚以后做什么
not when, and not what you did after.
而如今呢 所有的事都可以拿来挑挑拣拣
Nowadays, everything is very much up for grabs.
我教的是一群优秀又聪明的学生
I teach wonderfully intelligent students,
可是现在我给他们布置的作业 比从前少了五分之一
and I assign 20 percent less work than I used to.
这不是因为他们(比以前的学生)笨
And it’s not because they’re less smart,
也不是因为他们不那么勤奋
and it’s not because they’re less diligent.
原因是他们现在脑子都装满了各种事情 总是在问自己:
It’s because they are preoccupied, asking themselves,
我到底该结婚还是不该结婚? 是该现在结?
“Should I get married or not? Should I get married now?
还是以后再说?
Should I get married later?
我是该先要孩子 还是先顾事业?
Should I have kids first, or a career first?”
这些都是费脑筋的问题
All of these are consuming questions.
这些问题他们都必须回答
And they’re going to answer these questions,
不论他们是做还是不做我布置的功课
whether or not it means not doing all the work I assign
也不论他们在我的课上拿个什么成绩
and not getting a good grade in my courses.
他们的确应该
And indeed they should.
去想这些问题
These are important questions to answer.
因为这都是些重要问题 如今做工作
Work —
像卡尔先前说的 我们真的是有福气
we are blessed, as Carl was pointing out,
技术的进步使得我们可以
with the technology that enables us
在一天的任何时间 在地球的任一角落工作
to work every minute of every day from any place on the planet —
当然这个篮道夫旅店除外
except the Randolph Hotel.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
但是
(Applause)
这个饭店里的确有一个地方
There is one corner, by the way,
可以无线上网 可我不会告诉你们在哪
that I’m not going to tell anybody about, where the WiFi actually works.
不告诉你的理由是我也想用
I’m not telling you about it because I want to use it.
话说回来 我们工作中的这些
So what this means,
难以置信的选择自由 给我们带来的就是我们必须
this incredible freedom of choice we have with respect to work,
在选择中做出决定
is that we have to make a decision,
一次一次 又一次地
again and again and again,
为自己现在该工作还是该休息左右摇摆
about whether we should or shouldn’t be working.
我们去看孩子踢足球的时候
We can go to watch our kid play soccer,
一个裤兜里装着手机
and we have our cell phone on one hip,
另一个裤兜里装着黑莓(Blackberry)
and our Blackberry on our other hip,
膝上还架着笔记本电脑
and our laptop, presumably, on our laps.
即使它们都关着
And even if they’re all shut off,
我们还是在看着孩子在场上争抢的同时
every minute that we’re watching our kid mutilate a soccer game,
不断地问自己
we are also asking ourselves,
接还是不接这个电话?
“Should I answer this cell phone call?
回还是不回这个Email? 我该不该写这封信稿?
Should I respond to this email? Should I draft this letter?”
即使你给自己的回答是不
And even if the answer to the question is “no,”
你对孩子的这场球赛的体验还是
it’s certainly going to make the experience of your kid’s soccer game
还是大打折扣
very different than it would’ve been.
环顾四周
So everywhere we look,
不论大事还是小事 物质的还是生活方式方面
big things and small things, material things and lifestyle things,
生活就是选择
life is a matter of choice.
我们过去生活的世界是这样的
And the world we used to live in looked like this.
就是说
[Well, actually, they are written in stone.]
选择还是有的
That is to say, there were some choices,
但不是事事都需要选择
but not everything was a matter of choice.
而今天我们生活的世界则是这样的
And the world we now live in looks like this.
问题是
[The Ten Commandments DYI Kit]
这到底是好事还是坏事?
And the question is, is this good news, or bad news?
答案是肯定的
And the answer is, “yes.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我们都知道它的好处
We all know what’s good about it,
那么就让我来说说它的不好之处吧
so I’m going to talk about what’s bad about it.
所有这些选择对人们有两个影响
All of this choice has two effects,
而且是两个负面的影响
two negative effects on people.
其一 说起来有些自相矛盾 就是
One effect, paradoxically,
(选择)给我们带来的不是解放
is that it produces paralysis, rather than liberation.
而是束缚 是麻痹 面对这么许多的选择
With so many options to choose from,
人们发现要做出决定非常困难
people find it very difficult to choose at all.
让我给你举个非常生动的例子来说明这点
I’ll give you one very dramatic example of this:
这是一个关于对等退休金 计划投资方面做的调查
a study that was done of investments in voluntary retirement plans.
我的一个同事有幸接触到 Vanguard的投资记录 Vanguard
A colleague of mine got access to investment records from Vanguard,
是一家巨大的互助基金公司
the gigantic mutual-fund company
拥有约百万员工和2 000多个办公地点
of about a million employees and about 2,000 different workplaces.
她的调查发现是
And what she found
当这些客户(向他们的雇员) 提供的互助基金种类每增加10个
is that for every 10 mutual funds the employer offered,
参加的人数就减少2个百分点
rate of participation went down two percent.
你提供50种基金 雇员参加的 人数比你提供5种基金时
You offer 50 funds — 10 percent fewer employees participate
下降百分之十
than if you only offer five.
为什么呢?
Why?
因为面对50种基金来选择
Because with 50 funds to choose from,
想要决定选那种那简直是难上加难
it’s so damn hard to decide which fund to choose,
所以你干脆放到明天再说
that you’ll just put it off until tomorrow.
明日复明日
And then tomorrow,
明日何其多
and tomorrow, and tomorrow,
当然 明天永远也不会到来
and of course tomorrow never comes.
我们知道这其实意味着
Understand that not only does this mean
当人们退休时 可能只有用狗粮充饥
that people are going to have to eat dog food when they retire
因为他们没有划出足够的钱给将来 同时
because they don’t have enough money put away,
由于做决定是一件如此之难的事
it also means that making the decision is so hard
以至于连雇主给他们的那笔相当 可观的对等补助金都白白放弃了
that they pass up significant matching money from the employer.
不参加这种对等计划 他们每年让多达 5千元的雇主对等补贴从手边溜掉
By not participating, they are passing up as much as 5,000 dollars a year
雇主本来是很
from the employer,
乐于提供这种补贴的
who would happily match their contribution.
所以 选择可能性过多的结果是麻痹僵化
So paralysis is a consequence of having too many choices.
它使得我们的世界变成这样样子
And I think it makes the world look like this.

[And lastly, for all eternity, French, bleu cheese, or ranch?]
笑声)
(Laughter)
当你进入极乐世界时 你一定希望你做出的决定是正确的
You really want to get the decision right if it’s for all eternity, right?
是吗?在那里你一定不想再选错互助基金 或者是沙拉调料
You don’t want to pick the wrong mutual fund, or the wrong salad dressing.
刚才那是第一个(负面)影响
So that’s one effect.
再来说说第二个
The second effect
即使我们通过努力克服了僵化和 麻痹而终于做出了一个正确的决定
is that even if we manage to overcome the paralysis and make a choice,
我们对自己的做出的决定
we end up less satisfied with the result of the choice
反而不如可选性少时做出的决定更加满意
than we would be if we had fewer options to choose from.
这里有几个原因
And there are several reasons for this.
其中之一是
One of them
面对如此多的沙拉调料品种
is that with a lot of different salad dressings to choose from,
如果你买了一种 觉得不尽如人意
if you buy one, and it’s not perfect — and what salad dressing is? —
你很容易去想象如果你挑另外一种就好了
it’s easy to imagine you could have made a different choice
结果
that would have been better.
怎么样?
And what happens
这种想象中的另外选择引得你对 你已经做出的决定感到后悔
is this imagined alternative induces you to regret the decision you made,
这种后悔心情让你对你原先做出的
and this regret subtracts from the satisfaction
选择的满意度打了折扣
you get out of the decision you made,
即便那其实是个很不错的选择
even if it was a good decision.
选择越多 就越容易莫名其妙地 对一些事感到后悔
The more options there are, the easier it is to regret anything at all
这就是其一 总是不满意自己做出的
that is disappointing about the option that you chose.
选择决定其二 是经济学家称之为“机会成本”的东西
Second, what economists call “opportunity costs.”
今天早些时候丹 吉尔伯特讲了个大道理就是
Dan Gilbert made a big point this morning
我们看一个东西的价值
of talking about how much the way in which we value things
取决于那些我们用来作比较的那些其他的东西嗯
depends on what we compare them to.
当人们有很多选择可以考虑时
Well, when there are lots of alternatives to consider,
就很容易去想象那些你放弃了的选择的
it is easy to imagine the attractive features
吸引人的方面
of alternatives that you reject
这就使得你总是对你选中了的那个觉得美中不足
that make you less satisfied with the alternative that you’ve chosen.
举个例子吧
Here’s an example.
不过你如果不是纽约人的话 我先道个歉
[I can’t stop thinking about those other available parking spaces on W 85th street]
(笑声) 但这是你此时此刻应该想的事
Sorry if you’re not New Yorkers.
看看汉普顿的这两口子
Here’s what you’re supposed to be thinking.
昂贵的富人区
Here’s this couple on the Hamptons.
华丽的海滩
Very expensive real estate.
阳光明媚 他们拥有这一切 还能比这更好么?
Gorgeous beach. Beautiful day. They have it all to themselves.
这位此时却在想“哼
What could be better?
真倒霉 ” “现在是八月啊”
“Well, damn it,” this guy is thinking,
“曼哈顿的邻居们都不在家”
“It’s August. Everybody in my Manhattan neighborhood is away.
“我要是回去就能把车停到我自己
I could be parking right in front of my building.”
的门前了 ” 结果整整两个星期他都被这么个想法折磨着
And he spends two weeks nagged by the idea
天天都在念叨失去
that he is missing the opportunity,
了占到那个
day after day, to have a great parking space.
好停车位的机会 “机会成本”总是让
Opportunity costs
我们对已经做出的 决定不够满意
subtract from the satisfaction we get out of what we choose,
哪怕这个决定实际上很英明
even when what we choose is terrific.
我们面临的选项越多
And the more options there are to consider,
这些选项里吸引人的东西也就越多
the more attractive features of these options
这些东西最后都成了机会成本
are going to be reflected by us as opportunity costs.
这又是一个例子
Here’s another example.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
这幅漫画说明了好几个问题
Now this cartoon makes a lot of points.
它也说出了“活在当下”这个道理
It makes points about living in the moment as well,
也许还包括做事情要一步一步来
and probably about doing things slowly.
但是
But one point it makes
其中一条道理就是 当你选择了做某件事
is that whenever you’re choosing one thing,
你同时就选择了不做其它的事
you’re choosing not to do other things
这些其它的事往往会有很多吸引你的地方
that may have lots of attractive features,
并且会削弱你正在做的事对你的吸引力第三点
and it’s going to make what you’re doing less attractive.
期望值增高
Third: escalation of expectations.
这点在有一次我去买一条 新牛仔裤时对我触动很大
This hit me when I went to replace my jeans.
我差不多总是穿牛仔裤过去
I wear jeans almost all the time.
牛仔裤就那一种样式
There was a time when jeans came in one flavor,
你买回来 裤子不合适
and you bought them, and they fit like crap,
糟糕透顶 而且非常不舒服
they were incredibly uncomfortable,
直到你把它穿得时间足够长 洗了无数次以后
if you wore them and washed them enough times,
裤子才变得凑合
they started to feel OK.
就这么 穿了这许多年的旧裤子 我终于上街去要买条新的了
I went to replace my jeans after years of wearing these old ones,
我说:“喂 我想要一条牛仔裤 这是我的尺寸 ”
and I said, “I want a pair of jeans. Here’s my size.”
店员说:
And the shopkeeper said,
你要紧身型的 舒适型的 还是宽松型的?
“Do you want slim fit, easy fit, relaxed fit?
前面要扣子的还是拉锁的?石磨的还是酸洗的?
You want button fly or zipper fly? You want stonewashed or acid-washed?
要那种快磨破的么?
Do you want them distressed?
直口的 还是缩口的?他喋喋不休地问着
You want boot cut, tapered, blah blah.” On and on he went.
我的下巴差点掉下来
My jaw dropped.
等我缓过神来 我问
And after I recovered, I said,
“我要的是那种曾经是唯一一种的样式 ”
“I want the kind that used to be the only kind.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
他一头雾水
He had no idea what that was,
结果我花了一个
(Laughter)
钟头试穿了 所有这些该死的牛仔裤最后
so I spent an hour trying on all these damn jeans,
说实话
and I walked out of the store — truth! —
我带着一条我从未有过的最合身的裤子走出店门
with the best-fitting jeans I had ever had.
我做得的确不错
I did better.
这些选择 使得我有机会做的更好
All this choice made it possible for me to do better.
但是心里感觉
But —
却更糟
I felt worse.
为什么?为这我还专门写了一本书 来为我自己找借口
Why? I wrote a whole book to try to explain this to myself.
让我感觉
The reason —
更糟糕的理由
(Laughter)
就是
The reason I felt worse is that,
由于有了这么多的可选性
with all of these options available,
我对于一条牛仔裤到底该有多好 才算好的期望值大大升高
my expectations about how good a pair of jeans should be went up.
我以前期望值很低 当牛仔裤就那么一种时 我没有过多指望
I had very low, no particular expectations when they only came in one flavor.
当它们有一百种规格时 哼 最好至少有一条是极致完美的
When they came in 100 flavors, damn it, one of them should’ve been perfect.
我那条的确不错 但是它还是不够完美
And what I got was good, but it wasn’t perfect.
所以我拿我已有的去和我期望的进行比较
And so I compared what I got to what I expected,
和我期望的比起来 我这条就变得令人失望了
and what I got was disappointing in comparison to what I expected.
在人们的生活里加进选择
Adding options to people’s lives
除了提高人们对事情到底能有多好的
can’t help but increase the expectations people have
期望值以外并没有给人们带来多少好处
about how good those options will be.
带来的只是使人们对结果不那么满意了
And what that’s going to produce is less satisfaction with results,
即使那是好结果
even when they’re good results.
搞市场的人没有人懂得这个道理
Nobody in the world of marketing knows this.
因为如果他们里面有人懂的话
[It all looks so great. I can’t wait to be disappointed.]
你也就不会有机会知道这是什么意思了
Because if they did, you wouldn’t all know what this was about.
事实很像这个(漫画文: 在所有东西都很糟糕的
The truth is more like this.
过去一切都比现在更好 )
[Everything was better back when everything was worse]
(笑声)原因在于
The reason that everything was better back when everything was worse
当一般的东西都不怎么好时
is that when everything was worse,
人们有可能
it was actually possible for people
体验到某些惊喜
to have experiences that were a pleasant surprise.
如今 在我们这些富裕的 工业化的市民生活的世界里
Nowadays, the world we live in — we affluent, industrialized citizens,
尽善尽美已是理所当然的
with perfection the expectation —
对于每一件东西你最多也只能
the best you can ever hope for
希望它不比你预期的差
is that stuff is as good as you expect it to be.
你再也不会被什么所惊喜
You will never be pleasantly surprised
因为你我的期望值比天还高
because your expectations, my expectations,
什么
have gone through the roof.
是幸福的秘密 这是你们今天来这里想要知道的
The secret to happiness — this is what you all came for —
幸福的秘密就是:
the secret to happiness
知足常乐
is low expectations.
不要期望过高 (笑声)
(Laughter)

[You’ll do]
掌声)
(Applause)
我想
(Laughter)
抽一点
I want to say —
时间说说自己
just a little autobiographical moment —
我娶了我现在的太太
that I actually am married to a wife,
她是一个很好的妻子
and she’s really quite wonderful.
这件事上我没有凑合
I couldn’t have done better.
我尽力了
I didn’t settle.
但是能凑合并不一定是坏事
But settling isn’t always such a bad thing.
最后
Finally —
买一条不合身的牛仔裤的结果之一就是
One consequence of buying a bad-fitting pair of jeans
当商店里只有一种样式可以买到时
when there is only one kind to buy
你觉得不满意 想知道为什么
is that when you are dissatisfied, and you ask why,
这责任归谁?
who’s responsible,
答案很明显 这个世界该为此负责
the answer is clear: the world is responsible.
你有什么能做的么?
What could you do?
现如今店里有上百种牛仔裤供你选择
When there are hundreds of different styles of jeans available,
你买了一条回来
and you buy one that is disappointing,
觉得不满意 这时候你问为什么
and you ask why, who’s responsible?
谁的责任?现在这个问题的答案显然就是:
It is equally clear that the answer to the question is “you.”
你 你完全可以做得更好
You could have done better.
那里摆着上百种牛仔裤
With a hundred different kinds of jeans on display,
你没有借口把事情搞砸结果是
there is no excuse for failure.
当人们做出决定时
And so when people make decisions,
即使那个决定达到的结果很好
and even though the results of the decisions are good,
他们还是(对决定)感到失望
they feel disappointed about them;
要责备自己
they blame themselves.
在我们过去的这一代人里
Clinical depression has exploded
工业化世界中临床压抑症爆炸性增长
in the industrial world in the last generation.
我相信造成这种爆炸性增长的 压抑和自杀的一个重要的
I believe a significant — not the only, but a significant — contributor
不是唯一的 但是是重要的因素
to this explosion of depression, and also suicide,
就是人们所有的那些的令人失望的经历
is that people have experiences that are disappointing
原因就是他们的标准太高
because their standards are so high,
当他们必须去解释这些经历到底是怎么回事时
and then when they have to explain these experiences to themselves,
他们认为这是他们自己的过错
they think they’re at fault.
最后的净效果就是 尽管客观上 我们做得比以往好了
And so the net result is that we do better in general, objectively,
但是感觉上却不如从前
and we feel worse.
我再提醒大家
So let me remind you.
这个(选择带来幸福)的公认的信条 我们都觉得是对的
This is the official dogma, the one that we all take to be true,
其实是错的
and it’s all false.
完全不对
It is not true.
毫无疑问有选择比没选择要好
There’s no question that some choice is better than none,
但是不能就此推论
but it doesn’t follow from that
选择越多越好
that more choice is better than some choice.
这里有一个关键值 我不知道是多少
There’s some magical amount. I don’t know what it is.
但是我可以肯定我们早就远远超出了 ‘选择令我们富有’
I’m pretty confident that we have long since passed the point
所需要的这个关键值了
where options improve our welfare.
我快说完了 现在说说一个政策问题
Now, as a policy matter — I’m almost done —
我们该想想的一个政策问题是
as a policy matter, the thing to think about is this:
给我们这个工业化社会带来
what enables all of this choice
这么多选择的 是物质的极大丰富
in industrial societies is material affluence.
我们这个世界上还有很多地方
There are lots of places in the world,
至少我们听说过其中几个
and we have heard about several of them,
在那里问题不是选择太多
where their problem is not that they have too much choice.
而是几乎没有
Their problem is that they have too little.
所以我在这里谈的这个话题是现代富裕的西方社会的
So the stuff I’m talking about is the peculiar problem
一个特殊问题
of modern, affluent, Western societies.
史蒂夫 里维特昨天就说过
And what is so frustrating and infuriating is this:
令人气愤的问题是 我们生产的那些
Steve Levitt talked to you yesterday
昂贵而又难以操作的婴儿汽车座椅
about how these expensive and difficult-to-install child seats
于事无补
don’t help.
只是在浪费钱
It’s a waste of money.
而我今天要说
What I’m telling you
的就是这些昂贵的 复杂的选择
is that these expensive, complicated choices —
不仅仅是于事无补
it’s not simply that they don’t help.
它们其实在给我们带来伤害
They actually hurt.
它们其实让我们变得不如从前
They actually make us worse off.
如果我们把给这个社会创造出 这些选择的人力物力
If some of what enables people in our societies
拿出一部分来
to make all of the choices we make
投入到那些现在人们还没有足够选择的社会中去
were shifted to societies in which people have too few options,
那么不仅那里人们的生活可以得到改善
not only would those people’s lives be improved,
我们自己的生活质量也同样得到提高
but ours would be improved also,
这就是经济学家称之为的帕累托改善的做法
which is what economists call a “Pareto-improving move.”
产品的再分配会使得所有人 不仅仅是穷人
Income redistribution will make everyone better off —
的生活好起来
not just poor people —
因为我们摆脱了那些像瘟疫般困扰
because of how all this excess choice plagues us.
我们的多余的选择
So to conclude.
结束之前 你们该看看这幅漫画
[You can be anything you want to be — no limits]
并站在一个智者的立场说 “哼
You’re supposed to read this cartoon, and, being a sophisticated person, say,
这条鱼懂什么?
“Ah! What does this fish know?
告诉你 在这个鱼缸里一切都是不可能的
You know, nothing is possible in this fishbowl.”
” 毫无想象力 目光短浅-
Impoverished imagination, a myopic view of the world —
我第一次看到这幅画时是这么解读的
and that’s the way I read it at first.
可是 我越想越明显地感到
The more I thought about it, however,
这鱼肯定知道些什么
the more I came to the view that this fish knows something.
因为说实话
Because the truth of the matter
如果你想让一切都变得有可能而把鱼缸打破
is that if you shatter the fishbowl so that everything is possible,
你得到的不是自由
you don’t have freedom.
而是瘫痪(鱼会死)
You have paralysis.
如果你想让一切都变得有可能而把鱼缸打破
If you shatter this fishbowl so that everything is possible,
你反而降低了满意度
you decrease satisfaction.
你增加了的是瘫痪 减少了的是满足
You increase paralysis, and you decrease satisfaction.
每个人都需要这么个“鱼缸”
Everybody needs a fishbowl.
至于这个(鱼缸)嘛 对这条鱼
This one is almost certainly too limited —
可能是小了点 对于我们几乎肯定是太小了
perhaps even for the fish, certainly for us.
但是 没有这么个象征性的鱼缸那就 意味着苦难将至
But the absence of some metaphorical fishbowl is a recipe for misery,
也许是
and, I suspect, disaster.
灾难
Thank you very much.
非常感谢 (掌声
(Applause)

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VO6XEQIsCoM

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