ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

第23周:奥斯曼帝国的灾难-萨勒卡默什战役 – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

第23周:奥斯曼帝国的灾难-萨勒卡默什战役

The Ottoman Disaster - The Battle of Sarikamish I THE GREAT WAR Week 23

在过去几个月里 我们看过
Over the past few months we ’ ve seen
全世界的前线 我们也看过凯旋
battlefronts all over the world, we ’ ve seen triumphs
和灾难 但这一周
and disasters, but this week, as
随着新年的到来 我们会看到
the New Year rolls in, we see
一些没见过的事情
something we haven ’ t seen, yet
全军覆没
the annihilation of an entire army.
我是印第安纳•琼斯
I’m Indy Neidell;
欢迎来到《第一次世界大战》
welcome to the Great War
上周我们了解到
Last week we saw the fighting go quiet
西线战斗的平息
on much of the western front as the soldiers
双方士兵不约而同地为庆祝圣诞而停战
of both sides celebrated a spontaneous Christmastruce.
尽管这周也没剩几天
The rest of the week though, it was
一切如常 法国军队的
business as usual as the French army ’
最新攻势在广阔的战线上展开了
s newest offensive kicked into gear along a wide front.
东线通常很平静
On the Eastern Front it was mostly quiet;
你也许会觉得太安静了
you might be thinking “ too quiet ” and
你可能是对的 德军 俄军
you might be right as the German, Russian,
和奥地利军队都在为新年重新部署
and Austrian armies regrouped for the new year.
在土耳其东北部和高加索的高原地区
And in the highlands of Northeastern Turkey and the Caucasus,
土耳其军队
the Ottoman army was
在冰天雪地中行军 与俄军交战
marching through the freezing snows to meet the Russian juggernaut.
这儿是整个事情的经过
Here’s how it all went.
法军新一轮的攻势
The French Army ’ s new offensive was
被称为香槟进攻并且
called the Champagne Offensive and it was now in
现在持续到第二周了 并会持续至新年
it’s second week. It would continue wellinto the New Year.
就像很多其他战役一样
As much of the rest of the war was,
这是一次毫无价值的战斗
it was an exercise in futility.
协约国
The Allies attacking
集中火力沿着广阔的前线
points of tactical importance in concentrated bursts
攻击战略要地
along a wide front and taking trenches
并从德军手中夺取战壕和阵地
and positions from the Germans,
然后德军在几天或几小时后以同样做法
and then the Germans days or hours later taking those same
从协约国手中夺回据点
points back from the Allies.
来来回回 一次又一次
Back and forth, again and again,
无数人为这暂时的 只有几米的胜利而死去
thousands of men dying for temporary gains of only few
但是法国将军
dozen meters. But French General
约瑟夫•霞飞确实需要这轮攻势——
Joseph Joffre really needed this offensive- see, Germany
看 德国掌握着法国大片的工业腹地
held a large chunk of the industrial heartland
并且这些地区距巴黎仅60千米
of France and were only some 60 km from Paris.
为了保持士气高涨
To keep up morale,
他必须进攻而不能只采取防御姿态
he simply had to attack and couldn ’ t just adopt a defensive posture
然后等待 看德军会作何反应
and then wait and see what the Germans woulddo.
所以这场徒增败绩的博弈仍在继续
So the back and forth continued in frustration
时间长达数周
and futility, as it would for weeks.
1915年 从与西线差不多的战壕开始
So 1915 begins on the trenches of the Western Front
但我打算
with more of the same, but I ’ m going
从死亡中脱身一会儿 来谈谈
to move away from death for a minute and talk
一些更普遍的实力 比如经济情况
about some more general forces, like economics.
尤其是 英国对德国出口的封锁
Specifically, the British blockade of German exports. Now,
在过去与英国的战争对抗中
in the past with British wars against,
比方说 拿破仑金币
say, Napoleon,
有可能发生的是 英国海军会完全
what would happen is that the British navy would completely
切断法国和其他国家的贸易 不是吗
cut off French trade with the rest of theworld, right?
于是法国不得不
The French would then have to
发展可替代行业
create substitute industries,
这些行业质量低下且耗费巨大
which were of inferior quality and took a lot of money,
并且搞砸了法国经济
and it would screw up the French economy
而这时的英国 海外贸易垄断赚了很多钱
while the British overseas trade monopoly generated tons of money
英国就把这些钱
with which the British would
投给俄国人和奥地利人
pay the Russians and Austrians to do most
主要用来对抗法国 那是1814年
of the land fighting against the French. Thatwas 1814.
英国认为同样的手段在1914年仍能奏效
Britain figured that the same idea would workin 1914; that
阻断德国的出口就能毁灭德国
stopping German exports would stop Germany,
但英国大错特错
but Britain could not have been more wrong,
当出口受限时
and when exports were stopped,
在汉堡 他们期待的暴乱并没有发生
there was nothing like the expected riots in Hamburg.
相反 德国的工业巨头
Instead, the colossus of German industry adapted
对改装战时设备适应性很好并能保证质量
well to refitting for wartime production with no loss of quality and
事实上 在1915年的封锁中
actually, the German economy, with the blockade,
德国经济比其他参战国都要繁荣
would do better than all of the other warring nations in 1915.
德国还有另外一大红利
There was also a big side bonus for the Germans.
对于任何有关食品和其他物资匮乏的问题
The blockade was a great excuse for any issues with food and
封锁是一个完美的借口
other supplies that may happen to become scarce,
所以英国人
so the British were hated
甚至会因非他们搞出的匮乏而受迁怒
for scarcities that were not even of theirmaking.
不管怎样 他们没有停止进口
And they didn ’ t stop any imports anyhow,
因为这些可以通过像荷兰及国际法禁止
since these could go through neutral ports
进行贸易封锁的中立港口
like the Netherlands and International law prohibited blocking imports,
但是贸易封锁仍在继续
but the blockade on exports continued.
不管怎样 这都不是唯一封锁的地方;
It certainly wasn ’ t the only blockade anyhow;
欧洲周围的海域都被
all of the seas around Europe were blocked
某个政党以某种方式封锁 见鬼
by one party or another in one way or another. Heck,
瞧俄国的船舶 例如
look at Russian shipping, for example-
北边的白海现在结冰了
the White Sea now frozen in the North
南边的黑海是牢笼
and the Black Sea a prison in the south, as they
如同他们都被奥斯曼帝国包围
were hemmed in by the Ottoman Empire.
事实上 这一周
And this week, actually,
俄国人和土耳其人之间的战事
things that had been building between the Russians and the Ottomans
最终到头了
finally came to a head. Okay,
上周 圣诞节时我们看到 奥匈帝国军队
last week at Christmas we saw the Ottoman Imperial Army,
包括军人和后勤在内大约150000人
nearly 150,000 strong including soldiers and staff,
武装精良 但装备简陋
well armed, but poorly equipped, suffering terribly
他们极度疲惫 遭受低温的痛苦
from exhaustion and hypothermia, marching
他们翻山越岭 经过土耳其的东北部
through the high mountain passes of northeastern Turkey toward
向萨勒卡默什前进 试图把俄军赶出高加索
Sarikamis try to knock the Russians out ofthe Caucasus.
这次土耳其的攻势是恩伟·帕夏
This Turkish offensive was the brainchild
土耳其战争部长思考的产物
of Enver Pasha, Turkish Minister of War;
他是一个现代主义者 几乎凭一己之力
a modernist who brought the Ottoman Empire
使土耳其卷入了战争
into the war pretty much single handedly and sought
他追求建立具有新的民族认同感的新土耳其
to build a new Turkey with a new nationalidentity.
由于几种原因 帕夏选择
Pasha chose to undertake this specific
采取这种特殊的攻势
offensive for several reasons.
当然 它距离东线的距离很重要
Its distancefrom the Eastern Front was important, of course;
加强从波兰到高加索的防御
it would be hard for Russia to reinforcethe Caucasus all the
这对俄军很难 并且俄国高加索军队已经
way from Poland, and the Russian Caucasus army had been stripped
被剥夺了很多当初被送到北方的人
of a lot of men who ’ d been sent north
但是还有另一件重要的事情
in the first place, but there was another big thing;
帕夏真的认为这不仅对土耳其人
Pasha really believed this would have an emotional importance not only to
的情感很重要 对其他人也是
Turks, but other peoples as well.
俄国在高加索的统治是强加的
Russian rule in the Caucasus had been imposed,
统治常常是残暴的 持续了100多年
often brutally, for over 100 years
影响各种各样居住在这儿的人
on the various peoples living there.
帕夏认为当他攻击时 他们会支持
Pasha thoughtthat when he attacked they would rally to
他的举动 但问题是 在1915年前
his cause, but the problem was that by 1915
他们自己的民族认同感觉醒了
they were waking up to their own national identities.
在过去的40年间
Within the past 40 years a bunch
一堆国家真正从奥斯曼帝国解放出来
of nations had actually been liberated from
例如赛尔维亚 阿尔巴尼亚 罗马尼亚等
the Ottoman Empire- Serbia, Albania, Romania,
阿拉伯人和库尔德人看到了
and so forth, and the Arabs and Kurds saw
并有他们自己的国家议程
this and had their own national agendas,
事实上 奥斯曼军队的库尔德人有时
and actually Kurds in the Ottoman army sometimes
甚至被抛弃并参加俄国军队
even deserted and joined the Russians,
他们经常被奥斯曼人残酷镇压
having themselves been often brutally repressed by the Ottomans,
所以现实当中事情不会像
so thing weren ’ t at all in reality
帕夏认为的那样发展
as Pasha believed them to be.
总的来说 战场的位置
And the scene of the battles is a
不适合进行地理上的攻击
bad place to attack geographically in general, but Pasha
但是帕夏坚持这样做 他在冬季
compounded this. He attacked in winter,
温度低于零下20度甚至更低时 展开了攻势
when temperatures can drop below -20 even at lower altitudes,
但战役期间远低于这个温度
but during the campaign were farlower.
这里只有一条铁路线
There was only a single railway and
道路被积雪覆盖
the roads were covered in snow,
所以他的补给线完全混乱
so his supply line was complete chaos
并且大多数火炮不能到位
and most artillery couldn’t get through.
即使俄国人撤退到卡尔斯
It also didn’t helpthat Enver Pasha though the Russians were
这对恩伟•帕夏也没有帮助 何况他们没有
retreating to Kars. They weren’t. Still,
土耳其人还在坚持
the Turks persevered and
与俄国人在萨勒卡默什的冲突最后爆发于
the actual clash with the Russians at Sarikamis finally
12月29日
took place December 29th.
两个军团 超过10000多人 发动攻势
Two army Corps,over 10,000 strong, attacked, but failed to
但没能攻入城市 并且损失大半的兵力
break into the city and lost about half theirnumbers.
接下来的一周
Over the next week,
土耳其人继续对萨勒卡默什施压
the Turks would keep pressing against Sarikamis to
却徒劳无功 直至俄国派来更多的军队
no avail, even as the Russians brought in more troops
开始他们的反攻
and began their counter attack.
土耳其军队在战役途中 不夸张地说
Turkish units on their way to the battle, literally
全军覆没 因为许多士兵冻死了
melted into nothing as many soldiers froze to death.
援兵无法赶到 某篇报告中显示
Reinforcements were unable to arrive and one report has
在一场暴风雪中损失了40%的兵力
a division losing 40 % of its troops in a snowstorm.
帕夏本人已得到情报
Pasha himself got information
俄国正试图包围土耳其军队
that the Russians were attempting to surround the Turks, but
但无论如何 攻击都要继续
continued the attack anyway.
在一月二日之前 帕夏的战场指挥说
By January 2nd, Pasha ’ s field leaders said
他们太虚弱了无法继续进攻
they were too weak to continue the assaults.
帕夏坚持他们无论如何要继续坚持
Pasha insisted they do so anyhow,
但俄国现在已经对土耳其形成了半包围
but the Russians now had the Turks in a semi-circle
正在收紧罗网
and were closing the net.
整个土耳其军队被包围 到1月4日之前
An entire Turkishcorps surrendered and by January 4th, the
土耳其军队向埃尔祖鲁姆撤退
Turkish army was in retreat toward Erzurum,
俄军此时也尾随而至
with the Russians now on their heels.
撤退和反击又将持续两星期
The retreat and counter attack would continue
但我打算继续
for another two weeks but I ’ m going to go
并给你一些数据
ahead and throw some numbers at you rightnow.
据约翰•基根所说 到一月中旬之前
According to John Keegan, by mid January
95000名参加战斗的土耳其士兵
only 18,000 of the 95,000 Turks who actually
只有18000人幸存 但可能更糟
fought the campaign survived, but it may have been even worse.
帕夏施行的攻势完全是场灾难
Pasha’s hands-on offensivehad been a complete disaster, and his army
他的军队完全被毁了
was totally, totally destroyed,
但他的失败显而易见 我是说
but his failures were so obvious- I mean, how many thousands
有超过半数的士兵
of his men- more than half- weren ’ t
甚至不是被敌军杀死 而是在到达战场前
even killed by the enemy, but froze to death in
被冻死在积雪当中
the snows long before they’d even gottento the battle?
如此巨大的浪费
Such a colossal waste.
那就是我们1915年初的情况 不变的是
So that’s where we stand as 1915 begins. Constant,
西线没完没了的进攻和反击
never-ending attacks and counter attacks on the western front,
俄国人改变位置攻击
the Russians moving into positions to attack the passes
东部喀尔巴阡山的关口
in the Carpathian Mountains in the East,
整个军队被毁 这是不必要的浪费
and an entire army destroyed, needlessly wasted-
供应不充分 疲劳行军
poorly supplied, marched to exhaustion,
最后在远离家乡的东土耳其和高加索
and finally freezing to death far from home in
被冻死
the snows of eastern turkey and the Caucasus.
帕夏在萨勒卡默什之后再未领兵
Pasha never led in the field again after Sarikamis,
但他还是保留了自己的职位
but he did retain his position.
我们之前说了 恩伟•帕夏
We’ve spoken before of Enver Pasha,
和他关于现代土耳其的梦想 但我们从未
and his dreams for a modern Turkey, but we ’ ve never seen the
看到他如此的无能
staggering scale of his incompetence,
以及他愿意牺牲无数同胞
or his willingness to sacrifice huge numbers of his
来达成虚无缥缈的目的 事实上
countrymen to achieve his nebulous goals. Actually,
他首先让奥斯曼帝国陷入战争
the deviousness with which he brought the Ottoman Empire into the war
应该发出警告信号
in the first place should have sent off warning signals
这个人有能力做任何事 但只是现在
that this man was capable of anything, but only now,
新年伊始 我们开始看到结果
as the new year begins, do we begin to see the results.
事情没有变得更好
It ’ s not going to get better
我将用一组数据结束这个插曲
and I ’ m going to end this episode with one more statistic:
在很大程度上拜恩伟•帕夏所赐
thanks in large part to Enver Pasha,
第一次世界大战期间
during the first world war,
整个土耳其人口的四分之一会送命
one quarter of the entire population of Turkeywould die.
如果你想知道更多关于恩伟•帕夏
If you ’ d like to see more about Enver Pasha
以及他是怎样让奥斯曼帝国首先陷入战争泥潭的
and how he brought the Ottoman Empire into the war in
可以查看这集
the first place, you can check out that episode right here.
像我们在脸谱网上看到的各种很酷的东西
And like us on Facebook to see all sorts of cool extra stuff.
下周见
See you next week.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

关于奥斯曼帝国在第一次世界大战的灾难

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

寻瑶草

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ew39InPunOY

相关推荐