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降低自杀率的方法 – 译学馆
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降低自杀率的方法

The Origins of Suicide

关于人类发展潜力中最令人悲伤的也是最令人惊奇的一面
One of the most surprising aspects about one of the saddest of all human possibilities,
就是随着社会愈加富裕以及发达自杀率显著上升
is that the suicide rate goes up markedly the richer and more developed a society
我们也许期望自杀率随着时间和地域不同而变化
becomes. We might expect suicide rates to vary across time and place, but not to increase
但是我们不期望自杀率随着财富 健康和安保的发展而上升
alongside developments in wealth, comfort and security. That we should be unwittingly
我们不知不觉中创造了多数人自杀身亡的国度
creating nations in which more of us end up killing ourselves at our own hands appears
这似乎与经济发展的整体目的相反 然而 这种自杀与财富增加之间令人烦恼的关联
to negate the whole purpose of economic growth. Nevertheless, the disturbing connection between suicide and increase in development wealth was
直到19世纪末才被一位著名的法国社会学家
first conclusively identified towards the end of the 19th century by the leading French
爱米尔·涂尔干最终确认 并且从此受到了持续关注
sociologist, Emile Durkheim – and has continued to be noted ever since. The suicide rate of
不发达国家的自杀率比如刚果民主共和国
an undeveloped country like the Democratic Republic of the Congo is a fraction of the
是发达国家比如南韩的自杀率的零点几
rate in a developed nation like South Korea. The crucial factor behind people’s decision
人们决定自杀的主要因素不是贫富 正如涂尔干所发现的
to end their lives is not really wealth or poverty. As Durkheim discovered, it is the
在很大程度上 身边文化将失败的责任归于个人
extent to which the surrounding culture ascribes responsibility for failure to individuals
或者其他文化则是维持一种信念 那就是怪霉运或者天意
or else maintains a faith that poor luck, or divine intervention is to blame instead.
刚好随着社会的现代化和工业化 他们时常
It so happens that as societies become modern and industrialised, they very frequently give
会放弃他们对恶魔和上帝的信仰 转而开始相信精英管理的 个人主义的人生观
up their beliefs in demons and gods and start instead to trust in a meritocratic, individualistic
告诉人们命运掌握在自己手里
philosophy that suggests to people that their fate is always in their own hands. This may
这也许听起来很有气量 但是它携带巨大的心理负担 因为这意味着
sound generous but it carries an immense psychological burden, for it means that – when failures
当失败发生 个人得承担全部责任
occur – the individual is held entirely responsible for them. Reversals start to seem
这就反转成一场对个人价值和公众耻笑的可怕衡量
like a horrendous judgement on one’s worth and a public humiliation from which there
在那里 极端地说 除了毁灭就无处可逃
may, at the extreme, seem no escape other than through annihilation.
有两种大的文化观念也许能缓解我们的压力 运气或者悲剧
There are two big cultural ideas that may help to mitigate the pressures upon us: Luck and Tragedy.
相信运气就是相信才能与成功事实上没有必然关联
To believe in Luck is accurately to observe that merit and success are in fact never reliably
有人也许是笨蛋但成功了 或者有才的人却失败了 如果我们认同
aligned; one may be a fool and win – or a virtuous person and fail. If we fully internalise
并广泛分享这种概念 那么失败的羞耻感以及伴随产生的痛苦
and widely share the notion of luck, then the shame of failure will be greatly reduced
将会大大降低 我们可以对公众以及自己承认
and our agony along with it. We will be able to admit, publically and to ourselves, that
有才的人也会在外部环境中失败 因此 专业人士的成功
decent people can fail in their outward circumstances and, therefore, that professional success
不是人类价值的唯一 甚至说关键的标签
isn’t the only, or even, the crucial marker of the merit of human beings.A Tragedy, as
悲剧 源于古希腊 是关于一个智者偶然犯了错误
it originated in Ancient Greece, is the story of a capable and intelligent person who happens
结果导致了可怕后果的故事
to make a small mistake – which, however, leads to appalling consequences. The point
公开讲述这种故事的原因 (在希腊节日 整个社区居民必须参加)
of presenting such stories in very public ways (at Greek festivals the entire community
是为了能带着一种非常重要的观念去不断结交新朋友
had to attend) was to continually renew acquaintance with a hugely important idea: that one can
一个可爱 甚至令人敬佩的人 最终在令人绝望的环境中死亡
be a likable, even admirable person, and end up in an utterly desperate situation. Tragedy
悲剧能细述灾难怎样闯入像我们一样的(甚至比我们更好的)人的生活
is the careful telling of how disaster can come into the lives of people like (or even
我们因此总是同情而不是蔑视他们
a bit nicer than) us. They – and hence we – are always deserving of compassion rather
涂尔干知道不是繁荣本身增加自杀率
than contempt. Durkheim knew that it is not prosperity by itself that increases the suicide
而是残酷的文化这种毒性元素不知不觉中将巨大的责任压力施加给我们
rate, the toxic element is an unwittingly cruel culture that assigns a high burden of
却否认机会和悲剧会持续影响我们命运的事实
responsibility to us, while seeming to deny the truth that chance and tragedy will of
正确应对高自杀率的办法
course always continue to affect our destinies. The real solution to a high suicide rate lies
就藏在一个意想不到的地方 有种意识形态提醒我们
in an unexpected place: an ideology that firmly reminds us that we are never the sole authors
我们不是自己命运的唯一书写者因此当我们胜利或者失败时 不要恐慌也不要庆祝
of our destinies. and therfore should neither panic nor celebrate when we win or loose.
我们每周会发布新的令人深思的短片
We publish new thought-provoking films every week.
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Be sure to subscribe to our channel and take a look at more of what we have to offer at the link on your screen now.

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视频概述

自己并不一定是自己命运的唯一掌控者,好运霉运同样重要

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

青字云琛

审核员

W

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fhdsaep40fU

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