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无头骑士的起源

The Original Headless Horseman

There’s a famous tale about a pumpkin-headed demon
坊间有一个著名南瓜头恶魔的传说
that for many captures the spirit of Halloween,
充分体现了万圣节的恐怖精神
Washington Irving’s headless horseman
那就是华盛顿·欧文笔下的“无头骑士”
But I actually think there’s a much scarier headless monster
但我认为 还有一个更恐怖的无头怪物
with the potential to keep you up at night year round.
能把你吓得在几年时间内 都彻夜难眠
One that began in the folklore of my ancestors
我的祖辈流传着这样一个传说:
the Irish Dullahan.
爱尔兰的无头骑士
I’m Dr. Emily Zarqa,
我是Emily Zarqa博士
and this is Monstrum.
欢迎收看《怪物理论》
Before we really get into the legend of the Dullahan,
在进入正题之前
let’s address the pumpkin in the room,
还是先说南瓜的来历吧
the Headless Horseman of Sleepy Hollow.
它出自《沉睡谷传说》
Washington Irving wrote the short story
华盛顿·欧文在1820年写下
“The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” in 1820.
《睡谷传说》这部短篇故事
In it, Ichabod Crane and his rival Brom Bones,
书中 伊卡博德·克莱恩和他的情敌布鲁姆·伯恩斯
both fall in love with Katrina Van Tassel
同时爱上了卡翠娜·凡·塔赛尔
because of her great beauty
他们不仅为她的美貌倾倒
and her large inheritance.
更对她家的财产垂涎不止
One night, after a rejection from Katrina,
在卡翠娜拒绝伊卡博德当晚
a drunken Ichabod is chased down
伊卡博德喝的醉醺醺
by a black-cloaked figure on horseback,
被一个身披黑袍的骑士追赶
and then mysteriously vanishes,
之后他便神秘地消失了
only his hat and broken pieces of a pumpkin left behind.
只剩他的帽子和几块碎南瓜
With Ichabod out of the picture, Katrina marries Brom
伊卡博德神秘消失后 卡翠娜便嫁给了布鲁姆
and the townspeople are led to believe
镇上的人自然都认为
Ichabod was carried away by a terrifying headless horseman
伊卡博德被可怕的无头骑士带走了
of supernatural speed and strength.
那个骑士有着超自然的速度和力量
Most of us know the Headless Horseman
大多数人都从童话书
through children’s books or the Disney version.
或是迪士尼动画了解到无头骑士
There’s also that movie that’s loosely based on the story,
还有一部基于这个传说 粗略改编的电影
which has a lot of issues,
其中漏洞百出
including it’s demonization of women.
甚至将女性妖魔化了
But let’s move on.
切回正题
I believe it’s not only possible, but likely
我认为有很大可能
that Irving knew about the Irish Dullahan
欧文在写这部惊悚小说前
before writing his famous spooky story.
就知道爱尔兰无头骑士的传说
His mother and father were immigrants with an English and Scottish heritage.
他的父母分别是英格兰和苏格兰的移民
He had a Scottish nanny.
他的奶妈也是苏格兰人
He travelled extensively across Europe.
他遍览欧洲各地
He was friends with noted author Sir Walter Scott,
又是著名作家沃尔特·斯科特爵士的好友
who was indeed Scottish.
而这位好友也来自苏格兰
So it’s hard not imagine that Irving was exposed to Celtic culture.
所以我们不难想象 欧文接触到很多凯尔特文化
We could also give credit to Irving’s other possible European influences
欧洲文化可能也给他留下很大影响
like “Tam o’Shanter” by Robert Burns,
比如罗伯特·伯恩斯写的《谭·奥尚特》
and “The Wild Huntsman” by Gottfried August Bürger,
戈·奥·毕尔格写的《荒野猎人》
both poems that have supernatural horse chases.
两部诗歌中都有骑马追逐的疯狂场面
Basically Irving took the concept
可以说欧文笔下无头骑士的原型
of a headless horseman from the Dullahan,
就来自这个爱尔兰传说
and added elements that would make it
他还添加了其他元素
more frightening for his target audience, Americans.
让他的受众——美国人更觉得渗人
Irving uses the name of an actual town in the United States
欧文引用了一个真实美国村庄的名字
and his villain is called the “Galloping Hessian”
书中的怪物被称作“飞驰的麻袋”
a reference to the real German soldiers hired by the British
指的是英国殖民者在美国独立战争中
to fight in the Revolutionary War
雇佣的德国官兵
who were known for their extreme violence.
他们以残暴闻名于世
So Irving takes fact and adds it to his fiction
所以欧文把这一背景融入他的作品
saying “it is said by some to be the ghost of a Hessian trooper,
写道“据说这是一个黑森佣兵的鬼魂
whose head had been carried away by a cannon-ball,
在独立战争的一次无名战役中
in some nameless battle during the revolutionary war.”
他的头被炮弹打飞”
The story of the Headless Horseman in popular culture
在流行文化中 无头骑士的故事
usually has horses, nighttime journeys,
经常和马 夜间旅行
carriages, and graveyards,
四轮马车以及墓地相关联
all things that we find in Dullahan legends.
这些元素都能在爱尔兰版本中找到
But, what’s unique about the Dullahan that’s different from other monsters
但爱尔兰无头骑士与其他怪物的不同之处在于
is that it doesn’t actually kill you.
他并不会直接杀了你
You might get your eyes whipped out
但有可能会挖了你的眼睛
because that’s a thing they do,
这就是他们的行当
but your life isn’t immediately in peril.
你不会马上有生命危险
What the Dullahan is though is a grave forewarning.
他们的出现代表着死亡警告
If you seen one, it’s not good.
要是撞上了他 这可不是什么好事
You, or someone you love, will die,
你 或者你爱的某人个 会死
or suffer in some terrible, horrible, eyeless way.
或者在失去双眼的痛苦中度日
The Dullahan story first appeared in writing in the 19th century in collections of Irish folklore
无头骑士在19世纪的爱尔兰传说集中首次出现
like Fairy legends and traditions of the south of Ireland by Thomas Crofton Croker,
比如托马斯·克拉夫顿写的《南爱尔兰民间传说集》
and Fairy and Folk Tales of the Irish Peasantry by W.B. Yeats
以及叶芝的《爱尔兰童话和民间故事》
which introduced Irish legends to the masses.
向民众介绍了许多爱尔兰的传说故事
The Dullahan can be either male or female,
无头骑士男女兼有
always travels by horse, and is headless.
他们总是骑着马四处游荡
Most of the time, their head is still with them.
大多数时候 他们的头其实就在身边
Sometimes it floats close to their bodies
有时候就在身体周围漂浮着
or is tucked under their arm, or is even inside their pocket.
有时夹在胳膊下 甚至装在口袋里
In many stories, the horse is headless, too.
很多故事中 马也没有头
Dullahan can also travel in packs.
无头骑士也会结队出行
In “The Harvest Dinner”, a carriage full of headless passengers
在《丰盛的晚餐》中 车厢里满载着无头乘客
is driven by a headless driver,
马车由无头车夫驾驶
and pulled by headless horses.
前边是几匹无头马
Other accounts of the Dullahan show them in the company of Banshees,
在其他记录里 女鬼和无头骑士一起出现
racing human riders,
他们追着恐吓人类骑手
and even bowling with their own skulls.
甚至拿自己的头骨打保龄球
That would be the party of a lifetime.
那场面真是太热闹了
In the aptly named “the death coach”
在《死亡马车》里就生动描绘了
a Dullahan wields a long whip and drives a team of headless horses.
无头骑士挥舞着长鞭 驾着好几匹无头马
His carriage wheels are made from human thigh bones
车轮是人类的大腿骨做的
the carriage is lit by two hanging skulls
马车上还挂着两盏骷髅灯
In some versions, the whip they carry is even more horrifying,
有的版本里 他们使的鞭子更恐怖
it’s actually made from a human spine.
它们由人类的脊椎骨做成
The Dullahan is the personification of death.
无头骑士就是死亡的化身
The headless corpse was something the Irish were all too familiar with.
无头尸的传说在爱尔兰家喻户晓
They were a predominantly Catholic culture,
属于天主教文化的重要组成部分
with many stories and paintings that depict martyred saints
有许多故事和图画都描绘了殉难圣人
walking around carrying their heads
手持首级四处行走的场景
as a symbol of how they were executed.
作为他们被处决的标志
Even before Catholicism was introduced in the 4th century,
甚至在4世纪天主教传入之前
early Celts would take and preserve the heads of slain enemies
早期凯尔特人也会将敌人的首级削下
to dehumanize them.
让其不再是完整的“人”
They believed the head was where the soul was located.
因为凯尔特人坚信头颅保存着人的灵魂
So removing the head damages the spirit.
砍掉头颅便摧毁了灵魂
Decapitation was practiced in Medieval Ireland
中世纪的爱尔兰实行斩首制
both in battle and as a form of punishment.
不论是在战场或是刑罚场上
During late Tudor rule,
在刚铎王朝统治后期
the British government even offered “head money”,
大不列颠政府还会提供“人头金”
to anyone who could present the head of a known rebel to the crown.
给任何呈上叛徒首领首级的人
There are written accounts of these beheadings, and also archeological evidence.
如今还有这些斩首的文字记录 以及考古证据
Across Ireland, both male and female skeletons have been discovered
在爱尔兰 有考古发现了男女尸骨
with their heads forcibly removed.
他们的头部都被残忍的砍掉了
This might explain tales of headless monsters,
这或许能解释无头怪物的传说
but what about the headless horses?
但无头马又是怎么一回事呢?
Well, the Irish believed one of the greatest insults
爱尔兰人认为最大的侮辱之一
was to bury a human with a dead animal.
就是把一个人同动物死尸埋葬
And, in fact, many skeletons have been found
事实表明 有很多挖掘出的尸骨
buried with dead animals with missing heads.
都和砍掉头的动物埋在一起
So the Dullahan’s headless horse may have come from this tradition.
所以 无头马有可能来自这一传统
The Dullahan is a reminder to never “lose one’s head”
无头骑士的传说提醒人们不要“丢掉自己的脑袋”
both literally and metaphorically.
字面意思和隐喻意皆有
The appearance of a Dullahan often occurs
他们总是会在受害人
after the victim has succumbed to lustful thoughts
脑中产生邪恶的想法时
or has been drinking too heavily.
或者喝的醉醺醺后出现
It serves as a midnight warning,
作为一个午夜警告
that keeps men and women at home, sober, and in their own beds.
它警告人们待在家中 保持清醒 乖乖躺在床上
Oral folklore, religion, and literary history
口口相传的故事 宗教 以及文学作品
all have a hand in creating this monster.
都影响了这个怪物的创作
One of the most terrifying things about the Dullahan
关于无头骑士传说最瘆人的一点是
is that it closely resembles
它与中世纪时期
the gruesome realities of Medieval Ireland
爱尔兰的残忍社会现实高度相似
and combines fact and fiction,
当事实与想象结合
blurring real beheadings with imaginary ones.
历史和虚构的故事也变得混淆不清
And you thought the Headless Horseman
而你却认为无头骑士的传说
was just a Halloween story.
只是一个万圣节故事

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视频概述

本期《怪物理论》将会研究无头骑士的起源。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

刘小贵

审核员

审核员YY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S91lr1mnF3o

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