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意识的起源——无意识的事物是怎么产生意识的呢 – 译学馆
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意识的起源——无意识的事物是怎么产生意识的呢

The Origin of Consciousness – How Unaware Things Became Aware

意识也许是自然界最大的谜团
Consciousness is perhaps the biggest riddle in nature.
归根其本质
Stripped to its core meaning,
意识能让我们了解到
consciousness is what allows us to be aware both
所处的环境和内在的心理状态
of our surroundings and of our own inner state.
但思考什么是意识往往会让我们习惯性地兜圈子
But thinking about consciousness has this habit of taking us round in circles.
我们都直觉地知道意识是什么
We all intuitively know what consciousness is.
它是“这个”……
It’s this…
是你此时此刻所感受到的
It’s what you’re experiencing here, right now.
然而一旦我们试图精确界定“这个”到底是什么
But once we try to pinpoint just what exactly it is,
又总是云里雾里的
it leaves us grasping at thin air.
不只是我们
And not just us,
哲学家和科学家也在努力定义什么是意识
philosophers and scientists struggle to define consciousness.
不同的学派和思想互相竞争
Different schools and ideas compete with one another,
但没有人真正搞清楚意识
but no one has come close to figuring it out.
令我们惴惴不安地是
It’s unsettling to realise
我们并不明白
that we don’t understand
是什么让我们感知到自己和世界的存在
what makes us aware of ourselves and the world.
在这个模糊的区域 意识和智力也息息相关
In this fuzzy area, consciousness and intelligence are also related,
尽管它们并不相同
although they are not the same.
我们将会在其他视频中
We’ll talk in greater depth about
深入探讨意识和智力的相关理论
theories of consciousness and intelligence in other videos.
就像其他使我们成为人类的东西一样
Like much of what makes us human,
我们的意识可能是从不那么复杂的形态演变而来
our consciousness is likely to haveevolved from less complex forms,
是自然选择进化的产物
as a product of evolution by natural selection.
它也许是
It has probably emerged
从渺渺数亿年无数微小的步伐
from an immense several 100 million years sequence of countless micro steps,
聚集形成的某种意识梯度
that together make up a sort of gradient of consciousness.
从无意识到简单意识
What was the first step on thispath from
最终形成人类今天拥有的复杂意识的这条路上
from the non conscious to the basic consciousness that
我们迈出的第一步究竟是什么?
that ultimately led to the convoluted consciousness we humans enjoy today?
科学坚果
[Intro]
拿块石头
Take a stone.
一般认为石头是无意识的
The consensus is that a stone is not conscious.
虽然并不是人人都认同这个观点
Though, not everyone agrees even on this.
一些泛心论者认为石头也可能有内心世界
Some panpsychists claim that a lump of rock may have an inner life.
然而 并没有实质性的论据支持这种假设
However, there are no real grounds for any such assumption
因为石头从未表现出任何的行为
since stones never show behaviour.
它们的内心世界既不能被证明也不能被否认
Their inner life can neither be proven nor disproven.
更为常见的意识起源应从生命体中寻找
A more common starting point is with the living things.
生物抑或是自我
A living thing, or a self,
是宇宙的一部分
is a part of the universe that sustains
能支持自我的存在并创造更多的同类
itself and makes more of its kind.
为此它需要能量
To do so, it needs energy.
此时就是生物对世界的认知发挥作用的时候
And this is where an awareness of the world comes in handy.
意识最初的功能可能是
The original function of consciousness was probably to
指挥一个饥饿的可移动个体
direct a mobile self that was short of energy
寻找新鲜食物的供给
to a fresh supply of food.
对于微观的生命尺度来说
On the smaller scales of life,
寻找食物不需要用到意识
you don’t need to be aware to find food.
丝盘虫——一种最简单的随机运动的动物
Trichopax adhaerens – one of the simplest of all animals moves around haphazardly.
它在有食物的地方行动缓慢
It slows down in the presence of food,
在食物匮乏的地方行动迅速
and speeds up in its absence.
这种高效的运动方式
This is highly effective,
使得微小生物在有食物的地方
and makes the tiny creature spend more time where there is food
比没有食物的地方停留更久
than where there is not.
但是它从不为了特定的目标
But it never moves in a particular direction
朝着特定的方向移动
towards a particular target,
所以它不需要用意识来感知所处的环境
and there’s no need for it to be conscious of its environment.
迈向意识最重要的第一步或许是
The first major step towards consciousness
可移动的个体开始朝着特定的方向移动
was probably taken when mobile selvesstarted to move themselves directionally.
朝着对自身有利的方向移动 比如有食物的地方
Moving towards what was good for them, say food,
远离对它们不利的方向
and away from what was less good,
比如某些生物把它们当作食物的地方
say someone else who thought that they were food.
以虎纹涡虫为例
Take Dugesia tigrina –
以其有趣的面孔而闻名的一种小蠕虫
a tiny worm known for its funny face.
有时蠕虫会饿 有时不会
Sometimes the worm is hungry, and sometimes not.
这就意味着 当它移动时
This means that when it moves,
蠕虫本身并不仅是
the worm self is not simply
对外界刺激产生无意识的自动反应
producing an automatic response to an external stimulus,
其行动也基于内在的生理状态
but that its actions dependupon its inner, physiological state,
无论是饥饿还是饱食
whether it’s hungry or sated.
刚进食完 蠕虫显得不太活跃
When it’s just eaten, the worm is less energetic,
但当饥饿一段时间之后
but when starved for a while,
它就会驱使自身朝着有美味佳肴的地方移动
it will move itself in the direction of tasty things.
它用头部的化学感受器来嗅所处的环境
It uses chemoreceptors on its headto smell its environment,
引导自己去食物气味最浓烈的地方
and guide it in the direction where the scent of food is strongest.
找到食物饱餐一顿之后
After finding and eating a meal,
它就会回到一个阴暗的庇护所 安全地消化食物
our worm buddy heads back to a dark sheltered spot to digest it in safety,
直到再次饥饿
until it’s hungry again.
但盲目跟随嗅觉的动物
But animals that blindly follow their sense
并没有具体的可视化目标
of smell don’t have a concrete objective in view.
它们依旧不知道自己去往何方
They still lack any sense of where they are heading.
所以意识阶梯的下一步就是
So the next step on the ladder of consciousness is
获得对距离的感知
to add some perception at a distance,
比如视觉
like vision.
视觉为我们的世界增加了广度和深度
Vision adds context and depth to our world.
伴随着视觉而来的是
With vision comes a sense of
自己和食物存在于其中的空间感
the space we and our food exists in.
这为意识添加了一个全新的维度
It adds a whole new dimension to awareness,
也是迈向我们更为熟悉的意识的重大一步
and is a huge step towards more familiar consciousness.
就像眼睛这种视觉器官
An optical apparatus, like an eye,
可以让我们把目标可视化 然后锁定它
enables us to visualise our goal and lock onto it.
但即使是在这个阶段
But even at this stage,
个体也只有在看到食物的时候才会去追寻
a self is only able to pursue its food as long as it sees it.
所以下一个合乎逻辑的步骤
So the next logical step
需要发生在意识里面
needs to happen on the inside
比如说 要在食物不存在的情况下想象出食物
To visualise food in its absence, for example,
生物个体需要在内心创造世界的投影
a self needs to create some sort of inner representation of the world.
这样 即使猎物已逃离了动物的感知范围
Now an animal can continue looking for food,
它依旧可以继续寻找食物
even when it escapes its sensory range.
因为它内心有世界的投影
Because of this inner representation of what is relevant in the world,
它就可以保持对食物的专注和获取食物的欲望
it can remain focused on its food and its desire to get it.
现在自我就处于一个熟悉的世界了
Ourself now exists in a world it can get familiar with.
记忆的能力出现了
The ability to remember things has emerged.
多亏记忆的存在
Thanks to memory,
动物可以从追寻的过程中分心几秒
animals can be distracted from the pursuit for a few seconds,
然后快速回到它们之前的路径
but quickly continue their path afterwards.
一个相关的现象叫做“物体恒存”
A related phenomenon is called’object permanence’.
这一现象描述的是 我们可以意识到
This describes our awareness
即使看不见物体 但它们依旧存在
that things continue to exist even when we can’t see them.
某些哺乳动物和鸟类同样享有这种认知技能
This cognitive skill is enjoyed by some mammals and birds,
其他动物可能也有
and perhaps other animals too.
人类婴儿倾向于从8个月起展现出这项能力
Human babies tend to develop this ability around the time they turn eight months,
而小鸡在出生一两天内就会表现出这项能力
while baby chickens show this ability within a day or two of being born.
在实体不存在的情况下仍能记住它们的存在
The capacity to remember a thing in its absence
这种能力表明它们至少拥有基本的时间感
suggests at least a basic sense of time.
时间感是意识阶梯上的一大步
A sense of time is a big step on the ladder of consciousness.
这也许能使个体
It may also enable a self to look forward
立足当下 展望未来
from the present moment and anticipate the future.
以成年鸡为例
Adult chickens, for example,
如果它们预料到不吃眼前这一顿就能获得一顿大餐
are able to resist a meal put in front of them
它们就能抵挡住眼前的食物诱惑
if they expect to receive a bigger meal as a prize for holding back for a while.
这种延迟的满足感意味着
This sort of delayed gratification means
它们能够预料到只存在于未来的奖赏的能力
there is an ability to visualize a reward that only exists in the future,
这对成年人来说也是一个很大的挑战
which can be quite a challenge even for adult humans.
西灌丛鸦是延迟满足的专家
Western scrub jays are experts in delayed gratification.
它们甚至表现出对未来更精密的筹划力
They show an even more elaborate sense of the future
它们会把食物藏匿起来 以便日后取回
when they hide food in a cacheto retrieve it at a later date.
如果它们意识到潜在的小偷在偷窥它们
The scrub jays will even rehide their food
它们甚至会重新藏匿食物
if they become aware that a potential thief has been watching them.
这意味着它们知道
This means that they know
外面有其它的饥饿的个体
that there are other hungry selves out there,
这些个体以它们与众不同的视角感知这个世界
who are aware and see the world from their own, different perspective.
聪明的灌丛鸦能读懂同类的心思
Crafty scrub jays can sort of read the mind of their fellow birds.
这种读心术对于复杂的意识层次至关重要
This ability to mind-read is crucialfor complex levels of consciousness.
通过换位思考
By putting yourself in the position of others,
你能智胜一个有力的对手
you can outsmart a rich competitor,
也能同情一个饥饿的朋友
or empathise with a hungry friend.
语言把读取想法和表达不存在的事物的能力
Language takes the ability to read minds and
提升到了一个全新的水平
represent what is absent to a whole new level.
语言让我们对世界构建设想
Words enable us to constructhypotheses about the world,
制定详细的计划 并与他人沟通
make detailed plans, and tocommunicate them with others.
语言促使我们思考自身
Words enable us to think about ourselves
以及我们在宇宙所处的位置
and our place in the universe,
甚至是关于我们自身的意识
and even about our own consciousness,
这也是我们在后期的视频中会讲到的
which is something we’ll be doing more in future videos.
所以我们意识的起源是什么?
So what is the origin of our consciousness?
它可能始于
It probably began as
一个饥饿的个体朝着食物来源的方向运动
the directed motion of a hungry self towards a source of food.
与随机运动和完全不运动的对手相比
With the survival benefits,
这是更有利的生存优势
this gave it over competitors that moved at random or not at all.
这一切可能都始于对更多食物的渴望
It probably all started with the urge for more food.
所以即便有着这种能让我们梦想太空
So even with the sophisticated consciousness that allows us to dream about space,
建造摩天大楼 痴迷小说的复杂意识
build skyscrapers, or obsess about novels,
也不用讶于我们仍在不停地思考着
it’s not surprising that we can’t stop thinking
下一顿饭在哪里吃
about where we’ll get our next meal.
总的来看 我们为了获取食物
Collectively, we’ve put so much thought
花了这么多的心思和智慧
and ingenuity into getting food
现在我们只需花费很少的脑力
that we can now just get our food
就能让食物送到我们面前
to come to us with little conscious effort.
这个视频是“生命和宇宙的终极大问题”三部曲系列的第一部分
This video is part one of a three-part video series relating to big questions of life and the universe,
由邓普顿世界慈善基金会赞助
made possible by a grant from theTempleton World Charity Foundation.
你可以在视频描述里查看信息来源 展开深入阅读
You can find our sources and further reading in the video description,
或者从下方的链接免费获得鲁伯特·格拉斯哥的《意识》一书
or get the consciousness book by Rupert Glasgow for free- link down below.
如果你想帮助我们制作更多的视频
If you want to help us make more videos,
你可以通过patreon.com支持我们
you can do so on patreon.com,
或是在我们的商店购买我们的海报
or get one of our posters from our shop.

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意识的起源是什么?意识是怎么形成的?无意识的个体是怎么产生意识的呢?这个视频将会告诉你答案。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H6u0VBqNBQ8

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