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正确看待死亡是正确人生观的基础

The One Thought That Can Change How You Feel About Everything

The intimations of it can and do spur throughout the day,
这些启发可以而且确实会刺激你一整天
both subtle and explicit, often without our conscious awareness.
微妙且明确 往往是无意识的
Every sensation of hunger, every concern about our health,
每一次饥饿的感觉 每一次对健康的关心
every passing siren of an ambulance, every tragic news story,
每一辆飞驰而过的救护车 每一则悲惨的新闻
every photograph of our younger self,
每一张年轻时的照片
or the sight of someone aged into their last,
或者看到一个人衰老死亡的景象
the passing of dead trees in the midst of winter
枯萎的树在隆冬中死去
that weird sensation waking up just following a nap or in between sleep states,
在小睡后或在睡眠状态中醒来的奇怪感觉
all remind us in various ways
这些都在用不同方式提醒我们
that existence stands on a ground that can at any uncertain moment,
“存在”可以体现在任何不确定的时刻
and certainly at some, be cracked open,
当然在某些时候 这些会击垮我们
dropping us down into the abyss of non-existence forever.
把我们扔进不复存在的深渊
Death is our lifelong opponent always taunting us in the background,
死亡是我们一生的对手 总是在嘲弄我们
beating us up with each wrinkle, each grey hair,
通过每一条皱纹 每一根灰白的头发
each stiff neck,
每一次僵硬的脖子
and decaying function.
每一处退化的机能折磨我们
If we are lucky
如果幸运的话
and it is merciful enough to keep us around for a while.
死亡仁慈地让我们再活得久一点
Like a tree, its roots sprawl down underneath existence,
就像一棵树 它的根在“存在”下伸展
imperceptible to us on the surface,
表面上我们无法察觉
void of the explicit expression of our life,
我们的生活没有任何异常
but yet, is completely intertwined with it.
但是却又跟死亡完全交织在一起
Arguably nearly everything we do is,
可以说我们做的每件事
in some sense, pressed up on by these roots,
某种意义上都受这些因素的推动
our actions, our beliefs, our values, our goals, our life.
我们的行为 信仰 价值观 目标 生活
In his book, The Denial of Death,
在这本《死亡否认》中
20th century cultural anthropologist and writer
20世纪文化人类学家和作家
Ernest Becker
厄内斯特·贝克尔
argued that death, and more precisely, our denial of death,
认为死亡 更确切地说是我们对死亡的否认
is the primary underpinning motivational force responsible for the majority of human behavior.
是导致大多数人类行为的主要动机
As humans, one of the fundamental things that set us apart and forward
人类与地球上其他生物最基本的不同点是
amongst other earthly creatures is our unique ability to think conceptually.
我们拥有独一无二的概念思辨能力
Becker argued, however, that although this in fact does set us apart
贝克尔却认为 虽然这确实让我们不太一样
and makes us feel as though we are special in some grand way.
并且某种程度上让我们感觉自己很特别
It does not actually make us so.
然而事实并非如此
“…Man is a worm and food for worms.
“……人类是虫子并且是虫子的食物
This is the paradox:
这就是悖论:
he is out of nature and hopelessly in it;
人脱离了自然 却又深陷其中
he is dual, up in the stars
人是双性的 身处星空之中
and yet housed in a heart-pumping, breath-gasping body
但却住在一个曾属于鱼的心跳剧烈
that once belonged to a fish
呼吸急促的身体里
and still carries the gill-marks to prove it.”
身上的腮痕也佐证了这一点
Becker wrote. Consequently, humanity finds itself with a unique conflict:
贝克尔写道 因此人类认为自己有独特矛盾
the juxtaposition of its awareness of itself and its condition.
人类的自我意识和处境并存
a living thing born to die like all other living things,
和其他生物一样是一个会死亡的生物
and its lack of any reason or specialness to justify this awareness.
人类缺乏证据或特殊性来证明这种意识
Man is given no other significance or consolation
对于人类必须承担的这个重担
for this burden he must bear.
无从慰藉
“What does it mean to be a self-conscious animal?”
“有自我意识的动物意味着什么”
Becker writes,
贝克尔写道
The idea is ludicrous, if it is not monstrous.
这个想法既骇人听闻 也荒唐可笑
It means to know that one is food for worms.
意味着知道自己是蠕虫的食物
This is the terror: to have emerged from nothing,
这就是可怕的地方:从不存在
to have a name, consciousness of self, deep inner feelings,
到有名字 有自我意识 有深刻的内心感受
an excruciating inner yearning for life and self-expression
有内心对生活和自我表达的极度渴望
and with all this yet to die.
但最后都会走向死亡
It seems like a hoax…”
这好像是个骗局……“
Whether we are aware of it or not,
不管我们是否意识到
according to Becker, this terror of death,
贝克尔认为我们对死亡的恐惧
and more specifically, our denial of honestly responding to and accepting it
更具体的说是我们拒绝诚实地面对死亡
is at the core of almost everything we do.
是我们做几乎所有事情的核心
And most of us are mostly unaware of it.
我们大多数人也没有意识到这一点
The conscious mind cannot square the circle of the approaching abyss;
自我意识无法将深渊从圆的变成方的
it cannot make sense of the idea that this is its only serving of forever.
也不能理解死亡是唯一可以永恒的想法
In its inept confusion over its finitude into infinite nothingness,
在对有限性到无限虚无的困惑中
it fears it, it resists it,
害怕它 抗拒它
it uses the same conceptual capacity that allows it to comprehend its death,
用同样的思考逻辑来理解死亡
to contrive methods and explanations to try to deny it.
并试图通过一些方法和解释否认死亡
As Becker would refer to it,
正如贝克尔所指出的
the individual undertakes a causa sui project or heroism project
人类为了转移和否认死亡的暗示
in an attempt to distract and deny against the implications of their mortality.
而发起一种自因的或者英雄主义的计划
We create and engage in symbolic constructs, cultural activities, and beliefs
我们试图创造象征性的建筑 文化活动和信仰
in an attempt to refuse our cosmic insignificance
来否认我们在宇宙中的渺小
and convince ourselves that we matter.
并说服自己我们是重要的
Becker suggested that people go about this a number of ways, depending on the person.
贝克尔指出不同的人采取了不同的方式
For some, it is through religion;
一些人选择了宗教
for others, it is through different means of cultural contribution and status
另一些人则选择不同意味的文化贡献与地位
like fame, success in a career field or company,
比如名声 职业或公司的成功
or the creation of things considered significant by culture
或者创造社会认为重要的东西
All methods, in some way or another, attempt to eternalize the self,
所有这些都试图以某种方式使自我永存
either by a literal eternal afterlife or by the displacement of the self
要么用永生的来世 要么用超越人物质存在
through an eternalized legacy and significance in the world beyond one’s physical existence.
的不朽遗产和意义来使自己永生
However, Becker essentially argued that ultimately all efforts toward this causa sui
然而贝克尔认为所有对这种自因 英雄主义
or heroism or immortality project are futile and destined to fail.
不朽计划的努力都是徒劳的 注定要失败的
With the belief of religious afterlives and solutions
随着对宗教来世解决方案的信仰
increasingly being eclipsed by modern knowledge and understanding,
日益被现代知识和理解所替代
man finds himself unable to do anything ultimately significant or immortalizing
人类发现无法做有终极意义或不朽的事情
as the universe is revealed to be utterly chaotic and different and meaningless
因为宇宙是完全混乱的 不同的且无意义的
Becker offered no consolation in the way of resolving humanity’s urge to heroism
对于人类对英雄主义的渴求与自身的渺小
in conflict with its plight of insignificant finitude,
之间的冲突 贝克尔没有提供任何慰藉
because he did not believe there was any.
因为他不相信英雄主义
And so, what does one do from here, then?
那么人类该怎么办呢?
For Becker, it is not purely hopeless.
对贝克尔来说 并非完全没有希望
What he offered, rather, was an alternative kind of heroism
相反他提供的是另一种英雄主义
characterized by a sort of honesty with one’s condition
其特点是认清对自己的处境
living with an intense humility and positive resignation
以谦卑和积极的态度
to the awe and mystery and chaos of the universe
面对宇宙的神秘和混乱
and our insignificant position within it.
以及我们在宇宙中微不足道的地位
This position, our absurdity, our victimization by our own death
我们的处境 荒谬和否定死亡的观点
can be transmuted in way that does not deny it, but rather, provides perspective.
通过正视它和提供视角的方式而改变
Honest perspective that can reduce and numb one’s concerns over the petty and trivial.
诚实的视角可以减少对琐碎事情的担忧
Potentially deviating or extending beyond Becker slightly.
把贝克尔的观点稍作延伸
Perhaps the best one can do in the face of death
面对死亡时 也许我们能做的
is to use it to put the life they have into perspective.
最好的事就是重新审视自己的生活
Perhaps we don’t think about it enough,
也许我们对死亡的思考不够
at least consciously, to properly make use of it,
至少在意识上不够 不能恰当地认知
to strengthen the muscle of our mind enough to handle its true, inevitable weight.
内心还不够强大到承受死亡的真正意义
Perhaps to consider somewhat often and hard
如果我们时常认真去思考这一刻
that at some point none of this will matter and it will all be lost,
也许一切都不再重要 也都将失去
shines a proportionally bright light on what does matter right now.
这会让我们看清现在真正重要的事
When it comes to life and death, there are really only two certainties:
说到生死 只个两件事可以肯定:
you will die, but you are alive now.
就是你会死 但你现在还活着
Whether you agree fully with Becker or not,
无论你是否完全同意贝克尔的观点
whether you believe in some afterlife or grand meaning,
无论你是否相信来世或什么伟大意义
this is all anyone can truly know for sure.
这是所有人都知道的事
There is no telling if or what comes after death,
没有人知道死后会发生什么
there is no telling when it will come for you,
也没有人知道什么时候会死
but there is telling that you have life right now.
但可以确定的是你现在正在活着
To enjoy fully this moment now as often as you can in as many ways as you can,
充分享受这一刻 尽你所能
to fall in love with a person, a thing, a moment, yourself,
爱上一个人 一件事 一个片刻 你自己
to make the most of it all despite knowing that you will lose it all to nothing.
充分利用一切 尽管你知道你会一无所有
…is more than enough heroism.
……这不仅仅是英雄主义
What’s worse than to live a life knowing that one will die
比活着的时候知道自己会死更糟的
is to live a life knowing that one will die
是活着的时候知道自己会死
and not live as many moments as one can properly relishing in the fact that they have not yet.
却没有好好享受自己活着的时刻
At some point, you will do everything for the last time.
你会最后一次做所有的事情
You will see your last sunset,
你会看最后一次日落
you will taste your last bite of food, you will laugh your last laugh,
品尝最后一口食物 最后一次笑
you will see everyone you know a last time, you will do anything for a last time,
最后一次见认识的人 最后一次做任何事
you will be you for the last time.
最后一次做你自己
If there is nothing specific to be done, the only thing that truly matters
如果没有具体的事情要做 真正重要的就是
is that we do what matters to us while we can.
做对自己来说重要的事情
There is nothing else to do, nowhere else to go.
没有别的事可做 也没有别的地方可去
We must charge headlong into the absurdity
我们必须直面这种荒谬
embrace the futility, and live hard for nothing in every moment.
拥抱徒劳 每一刻都要为无所得而用心生活
One must be careful and mindful to not make the singularness of
人类必须小心别让自己唯一的生命
their shot at existence a pressure to get it all right,
成为一种压力而想让所有事情都正确
to do all the right things and think all the right thoughts and feel all the right feelings.
做正确的事 想正确的想法 感受正确的感觉
The point is quite the opposite; you will mostly do a lot of the wrong things,
恰恰相反 你多半会做很多错误的事情
think a lot of the wrong thoughts, and feel a lot of the wrong feelings,
想很多错误的想法 感受很多错误的感觉
but precisely because this is your one shot at life,
但恰恰因为你的生命只有一次
this must be ok.
这些错误都是可以的
You are driving blind through the most impossibly complex, strange maze
你在一个最复杂奇怪的迷宫中驾驶
that you know ends in a head-on collision with a wall.
你知道最终会正面撞向一堵墙
What use is getting more upset or guilty
在一个让你陷入困境的生活中
about feeling upset or guilty in an existence that set you up?
因为感到沮丧内疚而更沮丧内疚有啥用呢
Of course, this is far easier said than done,
当然 说起来容易做起来难
but perhaps in true, deep contemplations of one’s mortality, at least on occasion,
但也许在对死亡进行真实而深刻的思考时
this reminder can sometimes serve more as a sedative and not merely a stimulant.
这个提醒有时更像镇静剂 而不仅是兴奋剂

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视频概述

正确看待死亡是正确人生观的基础,正确看待死亡,才能积极生活。

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审核员ZZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V0E1Ren9XhY

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