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他们为什么是反疫苗者?

The one thing anti vaxxers are good for

要想了解那些坚决反对接种疫苗者的内心
To glimpse inside the mind of someone who’s firmly against vaccinations,
请看这本书:
here at this book:
Melanie’s Marvellous Measles
Melanie’s Marvellous Measles
故事讲的是一个名叫蒂娜的女孩
The story follows a girl named Tina,
她从未接种过疫苗
who’s never been vaccinated before.
当她发现她的朋友梅勒妮患上风疹后
After finding out her friend Melanie has measles,
妈妈让蒂娜和梅勒妮一起玩
mom tells Tina to play with Melanie.
为什么? 因为感染风疹对你有好处
Why? Because contracting measles is good for you.
很遗憾 她并没有被传染上
Unfortunately, things don’t go as planned.
蒂娜不知为何对这个世上传染性最强病毒的免疫
And Tina somehow dodges one of the world’s most contagious viruses.
相反 一些接种疫苗的孩子最终感染了这种疾病
Instead, some vaccinated kid ends up catching the disease.
因此这个故事的寓意是疫苗不起作用
Therefore, the moral of the story is that vaccines don’t work
风疹对你有好处
and measles are good for you.
你可以自己花时间去读评论
You can take the time to read the reviews yourself.
总之 为什么人们轻易的认定这些人是傻瓜呢?
Anyway, why it’s easy to write these people off as stupid?
情况并不总是如此
That isn’t always the case.
在一些地区 受教育程度较高的父母
In some regions, parents with higher levels of education,
如大学毕业生 实际上更有可能拒绝接种疫苗
eg: college graduates, were actually more likely to refuse vaccinations.
那么 为什么人们害怕疫苗呢?
So, why then do people fear vaccines?
这基本可以归结为他们有偏见
Basically it boils down to be biased.
也许他们过去有过不好的经历
Maybe they’ve had a bad experience in the past,
或者他们只是相信神论的那种人
or perhaps they’re just the type to believe in conspiracy theories.
不管怎样 从那以后他们只会接受可信的证据
Either way, from then on, they only really take in confirming evidence.
事实上 你多半不能改变他们
In fact, there’s probably no chance you’d be able to convert them.
这相当令人懊恼
This is pretty annoying,
因为它们把每个人的健康都置于危险之中
given the fact that they’re putting everyone’s health at risk.
那么反疫苗者可能对什么有益呢?
So, what can anti-vaxxers possibly be good for?
首先考虑到他们的偏见水平与我们差不多
Well, firstly consider the idea, that their level of bias isn’t too far off from our own.
如果我们都公正地评价自己
If we were to honestly evaluate ourselves,
我们会在生活的不同领域发现相似程度的偏见
we’d find similar levels of bias in different areas of life.
只有在更好地发现其他人的偏见时
Only when much better at spotting other people’s biases,
才能发现自己的偏见
then we are at spotting our own.
例如 当611个人被询问
For example, when 661 people were asked,
与普通美国人相比 他们有多大的偏见?
how biased they were in comparison to the regular American?
只有一个人承认自己的偏见高于平均水平
Only one admitted to be more biased than average.
要说我们与反疫苗者怀有同样的偏见
Now it might be a stretch to see that our level of bias
可能有点牵强的 但也确实相似
is equal to anti-vaxxers, but it does get close.
让我们花点时间来关注我们个人信仰
Let’s take a moment to focus on our own personal beliefs.
例如 同性恋权利
For instance, gay rights.
直到90年代初
Up until the early 90s,
同性恋还被国家卫生组织
homosexuality was classified as a mental illness
归类为一种精神病
by the World Health Organization.
如今 大部分的人都同意
Nowadays the majority of people will agree
同性恋不是一种精神病
that being gay isn’t a disease of the mind.
但如果我现在给你们看五项研究
But what if I now showed you five studies
这些研究都得出
which all concluded that
同性恋实际上与精神疾病有关的结论呢?
homosexuality is actually linked to mental illness?
你将会做出什么回应?
How would you respond?
有一项研究就是这么做的
Well, one study did exactly this.
研究人员给参与者看的研究报告
Researchers gave participants studies
要么证实了他们对同性恋的看法
which either confirmed or
要么就否定了他们的观点
disconfirmed their views on homosexuality.
当面对不可信的证据时
When faced with disconfirming evidence,
不足为奇的是 参与者并没有改变他们的观点
not surprisingly, participants didn’t change their opinion.
相反 他们给出了科学
Instead, they just concluded that
在这种特殊情况下不能被使用的结论
science can’t be used in this particular case.
也许这些研究出现了偏差
Perhaps the studies are biased,
又或者精神病不是你可以估量的东西
or maybe mental illnesses aren’t something you can measure.
这说得对
This is fair enough.
然而 这项研究后来问了那些人
However, the study then asked those people
科学是否能回答更多的一般性问题
whether science can answer more general questions,
例如:打小孩屁股是否管用
eg: whether spanking a child is effective
或者第六感是否真的存在
or whether a psychic sixth sense exists.
那些曾经被科学挑战的人
Those who previously had been challenged by science
更有可能得出科学是没用的结论
were now more likely to conclude that
不但是对同性恋这件事
scientific evidence was useless not just in the case of homosexuality,
而且是对所有平常的事
but for all these general cases too.
现在 尽管这样的影响还不是很大
Now, while the effect isn’t nearly as strong,
但对于科学的否认听起来和反疫苗者的事例很像 不是吗?
this denial of science sounds similar to the case of anti-vaxxers, right?
这有一个更有力的例子
And here’s a more extreme example.
参与者观看同样的
Participants were shown the exact same news clip
关于以色列和巴勒斯坦的新闻剪辑
about a Israel versus Palestine conflict and
并且被问到这是不是偏见
asked whether it was biased.
那些以色列支持者说
Those who were pro-Israel said
媒体对于以色列过于苛刻
the media was being too harsh on Israel.
他们对以色列的一个好评
They claimed that for every one good mention of Israel,
对应着3.5个差评
there was 3.5 bad mentions.
但是巴勒斯坦支持者却持相反意见
Yet the pro-Palestinians saw the complete opposite.
他们说媒体对于以色列太过宽容
They said the media was being too lenient towards Israel,
声称对于以色列的一个差评
claiming that each bad mention of Israel was
就有1.5个好评
actually balanced out by 1.5 good mentions.
这种大规模的证据扭曲再次与反疫苗者一样
This massive distortion of evidence once again parallels the case with anti-vaxxers,
双方都暴露在相同的信息下
both sides are exposed to the same information,
他们都拿出了截然相反的观点
and both come out of it with wildly opposing views.
现在 想象一下涉及政治的例子
Now, imagine getting into examples involving politics.
这些个人信仰只会有更强烈的偏见
These personal beliefs would only hold stronger biases,
不管你是左翼还是右翼
such that regardless of whether you’re left or right wing,
在争论中很难保持公正
it’s going to be hard to stay impartial during arguments,
最终我们都愿意认为自己是理性的
so ultimately as much as we’d like to think we’re rational,
我们都会和反疫苗者一样受偏见的折磨
we all suffer from the same biases as anti-vaxxers.
这并不是说两者的偏见程度一样
This isn’t to say we’re just as biased as them.
然而 如果说反疫苗者有什么好处的话 那只有一件
However, if there’s only one thing anti-vaxxers are good for,
是为了提醒我们 如果我们不停下来反思
it’s to remind us what could happen
自己的偏见会发生什么
if we don’t pause to reflect on our own biases.

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视频概述

对疫苗的偏见,你有吗?

听录译者

Daisy

翻译译者

_ C_

审核员

审核员HL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dpaLakuOZAA

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