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真实的奥运会

The Olympics - Mental Floss Scatterbrained

大家好 欢迎来到心理牙线频道
Hello and welcome to Mental Floss video.
今天我们要来聊一聊奥运会
Today we’re going to talk about the Olympics,
因为冬奥会马上就要开始了
because the Winter Olympics are beginning soon.
在详细介绍奥运会之前
Before we get into the Olympics proper,
我们先来看看冬奥会的花边新闻:
interesting side note about the Winter Olympics:
冬奥会对我来说是这样的
It’s the only Olympics in which I cannot do
我连参加它的任意体育项目的菜鸟级别都达不到
any of the sports even at an extremely amateur level.
但我能参加夏奥会的大多数体育项目
Like I can do most of the summer sports,
比如说 我可以参加100米短跑 但我玩不了冰球
for instance I can run 100 meters, but I cannot hockey.
关于奥运会的误解
MISCONCEPTIONS: ABOUT THE OLYMPICS
本视频就来带大家破除那些有关奥运会的误解
Okay, let’s kick off this episode with some misconceptions about the Olympics.
首先要说的是一个非常常见的误解
Starting with a really common one
即古希腊女性不能观看奥运赛事
that women couldn’t watch the ancient games in Greece.
这个说法太笼统了
This misconception is more of a generalization of something that actually is true
因为不允许观看赛事的是已婚妇女
that married women weren’t allowed to watch the Olympics
而且自杀未遂的女性也不能观看奥运赛事
and the punishment was a harsh one for women who tried–death.
但是未婚女性是可以观看比赛的
But unmarried women were allowed to watch the games
德米特的女祭司甚至是以贵宾身份观看比赛的
and the priestess of Demeter was a VIP
她就坐在体育场的圣坛上
who got to watch from the stadium altar.
一些女性甚至可以参加比赛
Some women even participated,
比如说斯巴达国王阿希达穆斯的女儿克尼思嘉
like Kyniska, the daughter of King Archidamus of Sparta,
她得过两次四马两轮战车赛的冠军
owned a four-horse chariot that won two Olympic races.
和男性奥运相对的是一个不太有名的女性奥运
And there was also a very obscure companion to
叫做“Heraean运动会”
the ancient male Olympics called the Heraean Games
参赛者为女性 也在奥林匹亚举行
which was for women and also held at Olympia.
一位年代史编者说当时的奥运会有竞走项目
One chronicler said that it involved a foot race
获胜者会得到一顶橄榄王冠和一些祭祀用的牛肉
and the winner received an olive crown and some sacrificial cow meat,
这实际上和现在的奥运会没有多大区别
which is actually not that much different from contemporary Olympics.
只是现在的获胜者的奖品是金钱
It’s just now you get money, the main purpose
反正都是要用来买牛肉吃的嘛
of which of course is to purchase sacrificial cow meat.
关于奥运会第二个误解是:
Moving on to our second Olympic misconception:
商业主义是一种现代现象
Commercialism is a modern phenomenon.
古代奥运会的观看者会买纪念品
Attendees of the ancient games bought souvenirs.
他们可以买到选手的塑像
They could get statues of the competitors
或者印有运动员功勋的花瓶
or vases with images of their athletic feats
当然也有食物和饮料可供购买
and of course there was food and drink available for purchase as well.
误解三:马拉松比赛起源于古希腊
Misconception number three: The marathon race dates back to ancient Greece.
据说约公园前490年 一名跑步者从马拉松跑到雅典
Now it is said that a runner ran the 25 miles
跑了25英里 就是为了通报一个消息:
from Marathon to Athens to tell the people of Athens that
波斯人在马拉松之役中被打败了
the Persians had been defeated in the Battle of Marathon around 490 BCE.
但是“马拉松”不是这个意思
But that’s not the definition of a marathon.
马拉松只是一场26.2英里的比赛
A marathon is a 26.2 mile race that
人们跑马拉松不是为了传递信息
people finish not in order to deliver a message,
也没有其它特别的理由
but for no particular reason.
不管怎样吧 马拉松比赛第一次出现在奥运会中是1896年
Anyway the first time the marathon was run was at the Olympic Games in 1896.
法国语言学者米歇尔·布里奥提议了这项比赛
French philologist Michel Bréal suggested the long-distance race.
1896年的马拉松比赛有17名选手
And that 1896 marathon featured 17 runners
他们实际上跑了24.8英里
who actually traveled 24.8 miles.
直到1908年 马拉松的赛程才定为26.2英里
It didn’t become 26.2 miles until 1908.
据说延长赛程是为了
It’s believed that it was extended to give the Royals
让皇室成员更好地观看比赛
a better opportunity to view the race.
那么 咱们来看一下最后一个误解:
Okay, let’s move on to our final misconception
现代奥运会的运动员会得到本国和赞助商的经济支持
that modern Olympians are financially supported by their country and their sponsors.
现在大约有11,000名运动员参加夏奥运
Nowadays about 11,000 athletes compete in a given Summer Olympics
近3,000名运动员参加冬奥运
and almost 3,000 participate in the Winter Olympics.
很明显他们的收入水平不是相同的
Obviously they’re not all earning the same amount,
许多运动员都不像阿里·瑞斯曼一样有一个叫拉尔夫·劳伦的大金主
say Aly Raisman with her Ralph Lauren sponsorship.
但获得奖牌的美国运动员确实能拿到奖金
But an American athlete does get a bonus
获得金牌奖励2.5万美元
for winning a medal, $25,000 for gold,
获得银牌奖励1.5万美元 获得铜牌奖励1万美元
$15,000 for silver and $10,000 for bronze,
美国奥委会确实会拿出一些钱来当奖金
and the US Olympic Committee does provide some financing.
但大多数奥运选手都需要工作
But most Olympians need jobs.
美国射击选手埃米尔·米勒夫是体育老师
Emil Milev, an american pistol shooter, taught physical education.
自行车选手玛拉·阿尔伯特在农贸市场工作
Cyclist Mara Abbott works at a farmer’s market.
克勒·皮特·凡森经营着一家披萨店
Curler Pete Fenson owns a pizza place
至于我嘛 我负责主持心理牙线频道 怎么啦?
and of course I host Mental Floss video. What’s that?
哦 很明显我不打算去参加奥运会
Oh, apparently I’m not going to the Olympics.
顺便说一下 我说的这些都是美国人的例子
By the way, all those examples were Americans,
但全世界的奥运选手都是这种情况
but the same is the case all over the world.
大多数奥运选手都不以运动为生
Most Olympians don’t do their sport for a living.
他们参加奥运会是出于兴趣所在
They do it because they love it.
还有一个原因是他们一直有这种心理:
And also because there is the ever-present dream of
赢得一些用来祭祀的牛肉
winning some sacrificial cow meat.
科学调查:奥运选手寿命更长吗?
SCIENTIFIC STUDY: DO OLYMPIANS LIVE LONGER?
也许有些事情能让人觉得枯燥的
Maybe there’s something that makes all of that
比赛训练是值得的
pizza flipping work worth it though,
这时候就要用到我最不喜欢的
it’s time to delve into a scientific study,
科学调查了
my least favorite subject.
研究者调查了1896——2010年间
The authors examined 15,174 Olympic athletes
15,174名获得奖牌的奥运选手
who won medals between 1896 and 2010.
调查对象是来自9个不同国家地区的男女运动员
They included both male and female athletes from nine different country groups.
他们或者参加过冬奥会 或者参加过夏奥会
There is also a mix of Winter and Summer Games competitors.
研究人员调查这些运动员获得奖牌30年后的情况
The researchers looked at an athlete thirty years after they had won a medal.
并将这些奥运选手和来自同一地区的
That athlete was compared with a non-Olympian
同龄非奥运选手进行比较
of the same age from the same country.
研究人员发现 奥运会奖牌获得者的平均寿命
The researchers found that Olympic medalists lived
比一般人长了2.8年
2.8 years longer on average than the general population.
获得奖牌30年后
Thirty years after winning at the Games,
这些选手健在的比率比一般人多了8%
8% more medalists were alive than regular non-Olympians.
奥运奖牌获得者更长寿这一点 无关地区 也无关体育运动
And Olympic medalists live longer regardless of country or sport.
因为长跑运动员 足球运动员 摔跤运动员都受益匪浅
Long distance runners, soccer players and wrestlers all got benefits.
奖牌获得者能活得更久
Medalists also lived longer regardless of
不管他们获得的是金牌 银牌 还是铜牌
whether they’d won gold, silver or bronze.
但一些选手确实获得了比其选手更多的好处
But some athletes did receive more benefits than others.
比如耐力型运动员和混合型运动员 他们的寿命最长
Like endurance athletes and mixed athletes live the longest,
力量型运动员的寿命相对较短
power athletes had the least advantage.
对不起 混合健身者们 你们可以去要求退钱了
Sorry, CrossFit folks. Get your money back.
开个玩笑 别放心里去
Just kidding, don’t come after me.
基于这些发现 我们很容易做出假设
It’s easy to make assumptions based on these findings.
那么我们可以得出一个重要的结论:
So here’s an important note from the conclusion.
这项研究并不足以佐证寿命长短和奥运选手身份的关系
“This study was not designed to explain this effect,
因为奥运选手的寿命长可能是因为遗传因素 体育运动 健康的生活方式
but possible explanations include genetic factors, physical activity, healthy lifestyle…
以及随着国际体育荣誉而来的财富和地位
and the wealth and status that come with international sporting glory.”
换句话说 我们不知道
In other words, we don’t know exactly
为什么奥运奖牌获得者的平均寿命更长
why Olympic medalists live longer on average.
但《英国医学杂志》针对这项研究和另一个同类研究
But in an article in the British Medical Journal
发表了一篇文章
about this study and another similar one,
文章的作者指出 和一般人相比
the author points out that people who spent 150 minutes per week exercising
那些每周花150分钟运动的人更具有生存优势
have a survival advantage compared to non-exercisers.
哦 我现在得去练习举重了
Oh, I need to go and pump some iron now.
关于奥运村的由来
TIMELINE: THE OLYMPIC VILLAGE
奥运选手住在一个叫“奥运村”的地方
Athletes competing in the Olympics stay in a place called Olympic Village,
但以前并不是这样的
but that wasn’t always the case.
公元1874年 希腊雅典的扎皮翁宫开始动工
In 1874 CE, construction on the Zappeion in Athens Greece started.
1896年 这里举办了击剑比赛
It housed the fencing events in 1896.
十年后 在所谓的Intercalated奥运会期间
Ten years later, the Zappeion housed many athletes
扎皮翁宫里住了许多的运动员
during the so called Intercalated Games,
这是两届奥运会后的一个一次性的奥运会
a short-lived idea for a second set of Olympics.
不过当时认为的奥运会和现在的奥运会不太一样
They were widely considered an Olympics at the time, but aren’t really today.
当时的奥运会相当复杂
It is excessively complicated.
法国人皮埃尔·德·顾拜旦被认为是现代奥运会的创始人
Frenchman Pierre de Coubertin is considered the founder of the modern Olympic Games.
1910年 他发表了关于奥运会前景的演讲
In 1910, he gave a speech about the future of the Olympics
他说:比赛期间 我们可以在赛场附近
in which he said “We might open a camp or a military camp
搭建营地或军营 为运动员提供住宿
nearby the competition terrain to provide housing for athletes during the competition.”
1912年奥运会在瑞典举行
The 1912 Games were held in Sweden.
在奥运会开幕前的整整一个月
There was housing for the Swedish athletes, with meals included,
瑞典运动员的住房 膳食都有保障
for an entire month leading up to the Olympics.
大约10年后 国际奥委会执行委员会宣布:
About a decade later, the Executive Board of the International Olympic Committee announced
必须为运动员提供住处
that athletes had to be given housing.
因此 1924年的巴黎奥运会给运动员建造了小屋
So for the 1924 Olympics in Paris, cabins were built for the athletes.
这就是第一座“奥运村”
This is considered the first “Olympic Village”.
然后1932年的洛杉矶奥运会期间
Then in 1932, the Los Angeles Olympics
运动员在鲍德温山的住宿条件就更好了
gave athletes slightly better accommodations in Baldwin Hills.
总共有550个平房
There were 550 total bungalows,
但女性运动员并没有住在那里
but the female athletes didn’t stay there.
她们住在旅馆里
They lived at a hotel.
男女运动员首次同住一个奥运村
The first time male and female athletes lived in the same village
是在1956年的澳大利亚的海德堡西
was the 1956 Olympic Village in Heidelberg West, Australia.
1980年的冬奥会在纽约的普莱西德湖村举行
The 1980 Winter Olympics were held in Lake Placid, New York
国会出资2800万美元建设奥运村
and Congress gave them 28 million dollars for the construction of Olympic Village.
但值得一提的是
But there was a catch.
奥运会结束后 这个奥运村就被改造了
After the Olympics, the village had to be converted into something else.
如今 它成了一个联邦监狱
Today, it’s a federal prison.
奥运村的一个经常被报道的事迹就是
One stat that often gets reported is
它提供的避孕套数量
the number of condoms provided at the Olympic Village.
1988年的汉城奥运会首次报道了避孕套的数量
At the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, that number was first reported.
满足你们的好奇心吧 当时提供了8500只避孕套
8,500, for those of you wondering.
在2016年的里约奥运会期间
And 18,000 athletes, coaches and other officials
有1.8万运动员 教练 其他官方人员住在奥运村
lived in the Olympic Village at the 2016 Rio Games.
奥运村包括31栋建筑 耗资7亿美元
It contained 31 buildings and cost 700 million dollars.
然而这些建筑中的大多数现在都被完全废弃了
Today, most of it is totally abandoned.
7个实用的运动小贴士
FACT LIST: 7 ATHLETIC TIPS
如果你也想参加奥运会
If you too want to stay in an Olympic Village
住进一个可能成为监狱的奥运村
that may become a prison someday,
那么请听我的建议
you’re gonna need some help.
咱们就直接向奥运选手学习一些运动小贴士吧
So let’s go straight to the sources and learn some athletic tips from Olympians.
获得5次金牌的美国游泳选手凯蒂·勒德基
American swimmer and five-time gold medalist Katie Ledecky
奉行100%的练习
is a big fan of practicing at 100%.
她的教练布鲁斯·格默尔曾经说过:
Her coach Bruce Gemmell once said,
那些日子她总是灾难性地失误 但她百折不挠——
“There are days she fails catastrophically…She’ll start out like,
我需要在比赛中达到这个游泳速度
‘This is the pace I need to swim in the race,
所以我得不停练习
so I need to replicate it in practice.’
然后她重复了六次
And she’ll go six repeats like that…
然后水池空了 她摔倒了
And the tank just goes empty and she falls off.
但你知道吗?
But you know what?
第二天她又回来继续尝试了
She’ll come back the next day and try it again.
然后第三天 她就能成功完成任务
And on third day, she’ll nail it.”
这就是布鲁斯·格默尔的感想
And that’s my Bruce Gemmell impression.
但是不运动时你会做什么呢?
But what do you do when you’re not exercising?
加拿大雪橇运动员林登·拉什提倡形象化
Canadian bobsledder Lyndon Rush is an advocate of visualization.
他说:我试着回想自己一年来的思想轨迹
In his words, “I try to keep the track in my mind throughout the year.
我会在淋浴或刷牙时保持思考
I’ll be in the shower or brushing my teeth.
用一分钟时间就够了
It just takes a minute, so I do the whole thing
有时候甚至能疏通一些思维死角
or sometimes just the corners that are more technical.
你要尽量保持头脑清醒
You try to keep it fresh in your head,
这样当你站在起跑线上时 你实际上已经出发了
so when you do get there, you’re not just starting at square one.
思考的力量是不可思议的
It’s amazing how much you can do in your mind.”
美国游泳选手金牌得主娜塔莉·考夫林不运动时就是在放松
USA gold medallist swimmer Natalie Coughlin is all about recovery.
2016年 她列举了她在休假期间做的四件事:
In 2016, she cited four things that she does during her time off:
按摩 按压 拔火罐 喝复健奶昔
massage, compression ,cupping and a recovery smoothie.
顺便说一下 奶昔的配方是
The smoothie recipe by the way is
杏仁乳 杏仁黄油 冰冻的黑樱桃 半根香蕉
almond milk, almond butter, frozen dark cherries and half a banana.
尤塞恩·博尔特获得8枚短跑奥运金牌
Usain Bolt who has eight Olympic gold medals for sprinting
他认为停工休息很重要
agrees that downtime is important.
他热衷于在训练期间放松自己
He’s a big fan of taking it easy between training.
他说过:大多数时候我在放松
As he put it, “The majority of the time I’m chillin’.
我总是和朋友待一起 大声欢笑
I’m always with friends and laughing…and if I’m not doing that,
要不就玩电子游戏之类的让人放松的娱乐
then I’m playing video games and still relaxing…
你越是悠闲 你的身体就能越流畅快速地运行
The more relaxed you are, the smoother and faster you’ll run.
而紧张时 肌肉会绷紧
Your muscles get tight when you tense up.”
28枚奖牌获得者迈克尔·菲尔普斯
28 time medalist Michael Phelps made news in 2012
在2012年因高海拔睡眠舱上了新闻头条
for his high altitude sleep chamber.
他把它描述为公寓里的一个巨大的盒子
He described it as a giant box in his apartment
它仿照了海拔9000英尺的环境
that mimicked the conditions of about 9,000 feet above sea level.
高海拔可以促进红细胞生长
High altitude is supposed to boost red blood cells
有利于身体恢复
and be good for recovery.
或许还有其它的功效
Maybe there’s something there.
那你现在也许在想
Okay so now you might be thinking
成为运动员很容易嘛
that all you need to do to be an athlete
无非就是喝喝奶昔 好好放松 然后睡个觉
is drink a smoothie and chill, then sleep.
其实不是这样的
Not really the case.
我们来看看4次金牌得主西蒙·拜尔斯是怎么做的
So let’s move on to four-time gold medalist Simone Biles.
在一次采访中 她解释说:
In an interview, she explained that in addition to
除了所有特定的体操训练
all of the gymnastic specific training,
美国女子体操队还要进行交叉训练
the US women’s gymnastics team incorporates cross training.
2015年她们的训练项目就包括每周两次完成1英里游泳后再长跑
In 2015, that included swimming almost a mile twice a week and running.
2014年时 她们还要每周在户外骑行10英里
The year before, that required biking ten miles outside every week.
美国女子冰球队的朱慧雯建议大家要弄清楚
Julie Chu of the US women’s hockey team encourage
受伤和酸痛的区别
knowing the difference between injury and soreness.
她说:如果运动中感到不适
As she put it, “If you feel discomfort during an exercise,
我们的力量教练迈克·博伊尔就会建议你问自己:
our strength coach Mike Boyle suggests asking yourself one question:
是疼痛呢还是酸痛呢?
Is it pain or soreness?
肌肉酸痛时可以继续训练 但如果很疼
Work through soreness, but if it’s pain,
就要停下来找找原因了
stop and pinpoint the cause.”
牙买加雪橇队的小故事
SHORT STORY: THE JAMAICAN BOBSLED TEAM
最受欢迎的奥运电影之一就是
One of the most popular movies featuring the Olympics is
1993年的迪斯尼电影《冰上轻驰》
the 1993 Disney film Cool Runnings,
它讲述了牙买加雪橇队的真实故事
which tells the true story of the Jamaican bobsled team
该雪橇队参加了1988年的冬奥会
that went to the 1988 Winter Olympics.
这部电影在全球共获得1.55亿美元的票房收入
The film grossed 155 million dollars worldwide,
但受欢迎并不意味其内容必然真实准确
but popular doesn’t necessarily mean accurate.
通过今天的小故事
For today’s short story, let’s learn a little more
让我们多了解一点真实的雪橇队吧
about the actual bobsled team.
一个叫乔治·费奇的人成立了牙买加雪橇队
A man named George Fitch founded the team.
电影中以这个真实存在的男人为原型
He was one of the real-life people who inspired
这一角色由约翰·坎迪扮演
the character played by John Candy in the film.
费奇在雪橇队上大约投入了92,000美元
Fitch spent about 92,000 dollars of his own money on the bobsled team.
他曾说过:我个人对这部电影很生气
And he once said, “I was personally offended by the film
因为我并非不光彩的雪橇运动员 我不饮酒
because I’m not a disgraced Olympic bobsledder who’s a drunk,
我也没把余生浪费在台球馆里
who’s spending the rest of my life in some pool hall.
我不喜欢这个好莱坞式的我
But that’s Hollywood.”
他说得有道理
I can’t argue with that.
费奇还有一个合伙人威廉·马洛尼
He also had a cofounder William Maloney.
这俩美国人和另一个朋友谈论
They were both Americans and they got the idea after
他们觉得牙买加能在夏奥会上一显风采
talking to another friend about how Jamaica wasn’t a winter powerhouse,
但冬奥会就不是牙买加的菜了
despite being great at the Summer Olympics.
之后两人在牙买加偶然发现了一辆手推车
Then they stumbled upon a pushcart derby in Jamaica
他们认为这个车有点像大雪橇
and thought that it kind of resembled bobsledding,
简直是为牙买加的短跑运动员量身定做的
perfect for the country’s strong sprinters.
影片中 雪橇队由一群短跑运动员组成
In the film, the bobsled team is assembled of a group of sprinters,
但真实情况是 费奇确实试过招募那些
but in reality, Fitch did try to recruit some athletes
已经在为汉城夏奥会而训练的运动员
who were already training for the Seoul Summer Olympics.
但我们能理解这些运动员不想让自己的心灵受伤
But understandably they didn’t want to get hurt,
所以这支雪橇队最终由牙买加军队的成员组成
so the team ended up being made up of members of the Jamaican army.
雪橇队在在奥地利和纽约的普莱西德湖村训练
The team trained in Austria and Lake Placid, New York
他们有来自奥地利和美国的教练
and they had coaches from both Austria and the US.
电影里没有提到雪橇队必须去争取参赛的资格
The movie doesn’t tell you that they had to qualify in order to compete,
真实情况是他们在奥地利时一直为取得资格而努力
which the real team did in Austria.
但1988年奥运会开幕的前10天
But 10 days before the 1988 Olympics were supposed to begin,
国际奥委会试图阻止牙买加参赛
the International Olympic Committee tried to stop Jamaica from competing.
因为他们担心这个雪橇队会成为笑话
They were worried that the team would be an embarrassment.
摩纳哥的艾博特王子也是冬奥会的选手
Prince Albert of Monaco who’s a Winter Olympian himself
王子和其他人干预了此事 他们提醒国际奥委会:
and a few others intervened, reminding the IOC that
你们不能对一个光明正大的合格队伍禁赛
they couldn’t ban a team who’d qualified fair and square.
比赛期间发生的事情
As for what happened during the Games,
证明雪橇队并没有让自己难堪
the team didn’t embarrass themselves.
他们在双人雪橇比赛中排名第30 击败了其他11支雪橇队
They ranked 30th in the two-man bobsled, beating 11 other teams.
之后他们本来没打算继续参加双人雪橇比赛
They hadn’t planned on competing after that,
因为他们决定组队四人雪橇
but they decided to go for the four-man sled.
但四人雪橇发生了事故
That four-man sled did crash,
这就到了电影中最符合现实的部分
which brings me to the most accurate part of the film.
但演员不能真的去撞毁雪橇
The crew couldn’t crash an actual sled,
他们只是拍了一些特写镜头
they were only able to film some close-ups.
所以《冰上轻驰》里奥运事故确实出现过
So there’s actual footage from the real Olympics crash in Cool Runnings.
牙买加雪橇队的现状很乐观
As for how Jamaica’s bobsled is going now,
电影尽管有失真之处 却让这个雪橇队名扬四海
despite the movie’s inaccuracies, it made the team very popular.
他们筹钱来购买设备 支付其它费用
They needed money for equipment and other expenses,
以便能参加2014年的索契奥运会
in order to compete in Sochi in 2014.
他们确实筹到了17万美元
And they did, with 170,000 dollars they raised.
2018年 他们会再次参加奥运会
As for 2018, the plan is to compete again.
感谢收看心理牙线视频
Thanks for watching Mental Floss video
视频是在所有这些善良的人的帮助下制作的
which is made with the help of all of these nice people.
请在评论中告诉我
In the comments, let me know what you’re most
你最期待2018年冬奥会的什么项目
looking forward to about the 2018 Winter Olympics.
我最爱的冬奥会项目是冰上舞蹈
My favourite Winter Olympic sport is ice dancing.
如果你想看更多有趣发散的视频 请订阅我们的频道
Also subscribe to our channel, if you want to see more scatterbrained videos.
谢谢大家 祝你们活得精彩
Thank you and don’t forget to be awesome.

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译制信息
视频概述

本视频普及了那些可能会被误解的奥运知识。

听录译者

jm

翻译译者

ccz

审核员

审核员 D

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wPE9SdE7X_Q

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