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你信不信 真的是基因让我变胖的(ง •̀_•́)ง关于肥胖的一个科学事实

The number 1 fact about obesity is wrong

当肥子们把他们的肥胖归咎于基因时
When fat people blaimed their fatness on genetics,
我们认为他们在给自己找幌子
we see this as a huge cover.
当然 确实会有一些基因疾病
Sure, there are some genetic diseases
会让人不管怎么样都会变胖
that would cause you to get fat no matter what.
但是 那是极其罕见的
However, these are relatively uncommon.
那些努力去减肥却还是很胖的人们又该作何解释呢?
What about all these people who worked hard to lose their weight?
因为归根结底
Because in the end,
当我们承认基因会限制肥胖时
while we accept genetics as being somewhat limiting,
黄金定律仍然成立
the golden rule still stands.
那就是:吃多少 长多少
You only get out what you put in.
那么 如你所见
Well, as you’ll see,
我们极大地低估基因在人变胖中发挥的作用
we are vastly underestimating the role of genetics in obesity.
警告一下 接下来的内容没可那么容易“消化”
Just as a warning, the following studies aren’t easy to swallow.
好了 首先
Ok, to start off,
我们来看一下有关37对双胞胎的研究
let’s look at this study of 37 thousand pairs of twins.
研究的目标是确定
The aim of the study was to figure out
为什么到头来一些人会比其他人胖
why some people end up fatter than others.
为了研究清楚基因发挥的作用
To tease out the effects of genetics,
研究人员对比了同卵双胞胎
researchers compaired identical twins
也就是 基因完全相同的双胞胎
(ie, those who shared 100% of the DNA to fraternal twins;
和异卵双胞胎 有50%基因相同
ie, those shared 50% of their DNA.)
那么如果导致肥胖的是生活环境
Now if their living environment was to blame,
我们猜想异卵和同卵双胞胎肥胖的概率是相同的
we should expect similar rates of obesity in fraternal and identical twins.
同卵双胞胎基因相似度更高
The effect that identical twins share more of their DNA
但在这种情况下并没有起到什么作用
doesn’t make a difference in this case.
因为基因不会影响你的生活方式
Because genetics don’t impact your way.
但是 如果基因真的会发挥作用
However, if genetics did have an impact,
我们可以预测到同卵的双胞胎
we should expect identical twins
会比异卵的相似度更高
to be more alike than fraternal twins.
按这个逻辑 研究者分析了
Using this logic, researchers analyzed
28个不同的数据集
28 different data sets.
每个数据集产生了不同的结果
Each of these data sets spat out a different estimate
都在这张图表上了
as shown in this gragh.
但是总体而言 基因可以解释大约
But overall, genetics accounted for somewhere
45%到85%的一些人会比其他人胖的原因
between 45 and 85 percent of the reason for why
这就解释了很大一部分了
some people are fatter than others, which is huge.
在相同的测量方法下
Using the same measure
抑郁的可遗传性只有50%
depressions heritability is only 50%.
那么你就可以说
Now you could say
他们天生基因不好 这就完了吗?
they’re being born with bad genes, isn’t the end?
根本上来说 是否肥胖取决于你是否足够自律去
Ultimately, it’s about whether you’re disciplined enough
健康饮食 适度运动
to eat healthy and exercise right.
当然 基因也发挥了很大的作用
Well, genetics plays a role here, too.
一个更好的来显示这个结果的实验
One of the better experiments to show this
是关于14对肥胖的同卵双胞胎的研究
involves 14 pairs of obese identical twins.
四周以来 研究者仔细地控制他们的饮食和锻炼
For four weeks, researchers carefully control their diet and exercise.
在饮食方面 每人每天只允许摄入
In terms of diet, everyone was only allowed to drink
稀释过的奶昔所含的400卡路里热量
400 calories of dilute milkshake per day.
在运动方面 每人每天如我们所见
In terms of exersice, everyone performed the same daily amount
在运动生理学家的监测下做等量的运动
as we’ve seen by an exercise physiologist.
然后给每个人称重
Then everyone weighed in.
数据如图所示
Here’s what the data look like.
所以 举例来说 这个结论意味着第一对双胞胎
So for example, this thought means that in the first pair,
每个人大概都减了6kg
both twins lost about 6 kilos.
那么 有的双胞胎减了6kg
Now, there’s a lot of variation
有的减了12kg 这就是很大的不同了
with some twins losing 6 kilos and others losing 12.
但是重要的是
But what’s important is that
双胞胎中一个人减掉的重量和
the amount of weight you lost was almost identical
另一个人减掉的几乎一摸一样
to the amount your twin lost.
也就是 相同基因的人 减掉了相同的重量
(ie, if you had the same gemes, you lost the same way.)
这表明基因在很大程度上决定了
This suggests that genetics largely determines
你的身体对饮食和运动的应答情况
how your body responds to diet and exercise.
我最后要说的一点是其他行为
the last argument I’ll make is that other behaviors
比如你的自控程度
such as your level of self- control,
你的新陈代谢水平
your level of metabolism
甚至是你的食欲有多大
and even how big your appetite is
都和基因有关系
have all been linked back to genetics.
使用我之前提到的对双胞胎们所采取的研究方法
Using that same twin study technique I mentioned earlier.
那么 这些基因研究
Now, these genetic studies
在心理学范畴内产生了一些很大的影响
have some of the strongest effect sizes within psychology.
但是尽管如此 这些研究很少被媒体提及
And yet, they are rarely mentioned in the media,
你可以看出来原因
and you can see why.
如果我们接受那就是事实
If we accept them as fact,
那就意味着肥胖很重要的一个原因
then it means that a significant part of obesity
是被人不能控制的事物支配的
is dictated by something we have no control over.
所以我们应该如何应对这一情况呢?
So how should we react to this?
其实 也许肥胖问题
Well, perhaps the situation with obesity
可与精神疾病相比较
is comparable to mental illness.
两者都是健康相关的问题
Both are health-related issues.
但是 当提到精神疾病时
Yet, when it comes to mental illness,
我们认为其可遗传性比较大
we accept that it is largely heritable
也知晓攻克此类问题有多难
and acknowledge how hard it can be to work through such problems.
因此 我们也更加同情精神疾病患者们
Consequently, we are more sympathetic towards the mentally ill.
然而 每次 当肥胖的人们
However, when it comes to obesity,
提到基因时
any time genetics is mentioned.
它通常被视作苍白的辩解而被忽视
It seems to be swept away as a weak excuse.
结果是 当肥胖的人们减肥失败时 我们愈发的指责他们
As a result, we are more critical of them when they fail to lose weight.
但是令人惊奇的是 研究显示体重的区别
But surprisingly, studies have shown that weight discrimination
只让肥胖的人更难减肥
only makes it harder for obese people to lose weight.
在心碎的同时
So while it’s disheartening
我们不能试图去低估基因对肥胖的影响程度
how genetics affects obesity, we shoudn’t try to dismiss it.
或许我们能做的最好的事情就是能认识到这个事实
Perhaps the best thing we can do is to acknowlege this fact
以及对想减肥的人保持鼓励的态度
and remain supportive for those trying to lose weight.

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视频概述

为什么我减肥不成功呢?是肥胖基因在作祟吗?一起来看看吧

听录译者

简单快乐

翻译译者

来吧!尉英俊

审核员

审核员YZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oq-AkTyQprc

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