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核废料的今生和来世

The Nuclear Waste Problem

本视频由Brilliant赞助
This video was made possible by Brilliant.
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请点击简介中的链接
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前500名注册者将享受八折优惠
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核能是世界上最清洁最有效的能源之一
Nuclear energy is one of the cleanest, most efficient,
也是世界上可获得性最高的电力资源
and most available sources of power on earth.
一户美国人家48分钟消耗1千瓦时的能量
To generate one kilowatt hour of energy—the amount an American household
要生产这些能量
consumes in 48 minutes—nuclear power plants
核电站只需排放12克的二氧化碳
only emit 12 grams of carbon dioxide— enough
就足以装满三个两公升的苏打瓶
to fill about three two-liter soda bottles. Meanwhile,
同时 假如要生产相同数量的能量
to produce the same amount of energy,
煤电站需要排放820克的二氧化碳
coal plants emit 820 grams of CO2—
这些二氧化碳足以装满一个浴缸
about a full bathtub’s worth.
把发电的环境成本这个因素考虑在内
Factoring in the environmental cost of production,
核电比水电 地热 太阳能更清洁
nuclear energy is cleaner than hydropower,
核能比除了风能以外的
than geothermal, than solar, than really
任何能源都清洁
any energy source except wind.
但这并不意味着核能是世界上的
But that doesn’t necessarily mean nuclearis the long-term
长期解决方案
solution for the world
因为核物质可能是世界上毒性最高的物质
because nuclear material is perhaps the most poisonous substance on earth.
史上两次核电站泄露
Two times in history have nuclear
都带来了很大的辐射——
power plants leaked significant amount of radiation—
1986年乌克兰的切尔诺贝利核泄漏
in 1986 in Chernobyl, Ukraine
2011年日本的福岛核泄漏
and in 2011 in Fukushima, Japan.
由于辐射 31人死在切尔诺贝利
31 people died in Chernobyl with
至少4000人以上感染了
at least a further 4,000 expected to contract
致命癌症
early lethal cancer due to the radiation.
福岛较好些 仅有两人死亡
Fukushima was better contained with only two deaths,
且这两人并非死于辐射
both unrelated to radiation,
仅有130人可能会死于早期癌症
and only 130 early cancer deaths expected,
但是此外
but additionally,
这两个地方今天仍然是大禁区
each site still today has massive exclusion zones
由于持续的辐射 人类不能在此生存
where humans cannot live due to ongoing radiation.
无数人从家乡迁走
Hundreds of thousands of people were displaced
永远都不被允许返回
from their homes and will never be allowed to return.
切尔诺贝利的经济损失估计有
The economic damage of Chernobyl is estimated
近2500亿美元
at nearly $ 250 billion dollars—
简直超过了乌克兰的国民生产总值
significantly more than the GDP of Ukraine.
同时 福岛灾难的发生波及到更多居民
The Fukushima disaster, meanwhile, having taken
灾难展开面积也更大
place is a much more populated and developed area,
估计使日本损失了
is estimated to set Japan back over
5000亿美元
$500 billion dollars
相当于日本国民生产总值的10%
—a full 10% of theirGDP.
此外 铀作为核反应堆的最常见元素
In addition, uranium, the element most commonly
并非处于无限制供应
used in nuclear reactors, is not in limitless supply.
使用现今的提取方法
Using present-day extraction methods,
铀元素的供应仅剩230年
there ’ s only about a 230 year supply of uranium left.
许多人会说核能只是减少碳排放的
Many would say nuclear is only
短期解决方案
a short-term solution to reduce carbon emissions until
除非可持续能源真的变得司空见惯
truly sustainable energy can become commonplace,
但核能的最大问题
but the biggest problem with nuclear energy is not
不是熔化时的风险
the risk of meltdown,
不是铀元素的供应短缺
it ’ s not the supply of uranium,
而是核废料问题
it ’ s this—nuclear waste.
目前所有的商业核电站都要经过
All current commercial nuclear power plants
核裂变的工作过程
work through the process of nuclear fission.
放射性元素的衰退时
As a radioactive element decays,
个体原子会成倍分裂
the individuals atoms split into multiple, but when that happens
同时核反应也释放能量
the reaction also releases energy.
有大量不同设计的核反应堆
There are plenty of different designs of nuclear reactors,
但总的来说 它们通过用它把水加热成蒸汽
but in general they capture the released energy
来捕获已释放的能量
by using it to heat up water into steam which
该能量穿过涡轮来使发电机运转
runs through turbines that spin generators.
典型的使用核元素是铀
The nuclear element used is typically uraniumwhich,
核电站持续使用6到8年的铀元素后
after about six to eight years
铀元素已经释放了足够的能量
of usage in a nuclear power plant will have released enough of its
此时核反应堆中铀元素不再有效
energy that it is no longer useful in nuclear reactors,
但这不意味着它已不能发射能量
but that doesn’t mean it’s done emitting energy.
燃料棒会保持足够的放射
The fuel rods will remain radioactive enough to
拆除后经过几十 几百 几千
emit a lethal dose for tens or hundreds ofthousands
仍然能放射出致死剂量
of years past their removal.
所以问题是 你拿它们怎么办?
So the question is, what do you do with them?
答案很简单 把它们放在它们可以待的地方
The answer is simple—put them somewhere where they can stay,
安静的 孤立的 永远…
undisturbed, isolated, forever,
但这并不是一件容易的事
but that’s not all that easy.
事实上 目前全世界的核废料都没待在
In fact, no nuclear waste worldwide is currentlyin what is
那些被认为可以长期储存的地方
considered long-term storage.
长期解决方案成立以前
Every bit of nuclear waste in existence isin temporary storage
每个单位的核废料都存在于暂时的储存设备里
facilities to be used until a long-term solution is built.
大多数核废料被储存在水池里
Most of that nuclear waste is stored in poolsof water.
水能有效阻挡辐射
Water does a decently good job
所以水是燃料棒储存的
of shielding radiation so this is an inexpensive
一个廉价且简单的方式
and easy way of storing the rods.
通常水体位于核电站内部
Usually these pools are physically inside the nuclear power plants so,
所以当用过的燃料从核反应堆中移除
when spent fuel is removed from the reactor,
就直接被投进水里 并且一直留在水中
it ’ s put directly into the water and left there.
此时核废料中放射性物质仍然在释放能量
The radioactive material, since it’s still emitting energy,
继续加热水源
continues to heat up the water,
但是降温系统和冷却泵使水低于沸点
but cooling systems and pumps keep the water below
而核电站需要电力来做这些事情
boiling temperature, but to do that the plantneeds power.
在断电和备用发电机失效的情况下
If the power fails and the backup generators fail,
冷却泵和降温系统会停止工作
the pumps and cooling systems
这样水温就会很快升高 并且烧完
stop working so the water heats up and can boil off.
水能阻隔辐射
The water is what blocks the radiation so,
没有水 释放出来的辐射
without water, the radiation just goes right
就会直接进入环境中
out into the environment.
实际上 福岛就发生了这种事情
In fact, exactly that happened at Fukushima.
当首要和备用电源失去作用
Both the primary and backup power
为已用燃料池装备的冷却泵和降温系统
sources failed so the pumps and cooling
就会停止工作
systems for the spent fuel pools couldn’t run
进而导致水温升高
leaving the water to heat up.
一般发生这种情况可以控制
The situation was brought under control before enough water had
但要在足够的水沸腾
boiled off to release significant amounts
并往环境里释放大量的辐射以前
of radiation into the environment,
但如果控制不了的话
but had it not been,
成千上万的人就会死亡
thousands could have been killed.
核废料在储存池里冷却个一二十年以后
Once nuclear waste has cooled down in storage pools
基本上就像
for ten to twenty years, it typically
被封在容器里一样
is encased in casks.
这些凝结式钢制容器能阻隔辐射
These concrete and steel containers block in radiation,
但这个解决方法
but this solution is far
和永久解决相比就差远了
from permanent.
这个方法承受不住地震 也禁不住海啸来袭
It does not consider earthquakes, it can not withstand tsunamis,
而且没有人类的参与
and it would not
就不能进行
work without humans.
这些容器需要保证其安全性 需要被维护
These casks require security and they require maintenance.
如果没有人类 随着时间的流逝
Without humans, they could easily be damaged or breached
这些容器就很容易损坏 出现缺口
over time and release radiation into theenvironment.
往环境里释放辐射物
Modern humans have only existed for
现代人类仅仅存在20万年
about 200,000 years, so one can hardly be
所以我们很难确定物种
sure that the species will survive for the millions
会和发出辐射的有毒核废料
of years that the most toxic nuclear
共存几百万年
waste will continue to emit radiation.
此外
What’s more,
个人很难指望
one can hardly expect thatthe dominant civilizations
目前占优势地位的
that have nuclear technology today
拥有核科技的文明会继续存在几千年
will continue to exist for even thousands of years.
罗马帝国毫无疑问是
The Roman Empire was once without a doubt the
当时世界上最强大的文明
most powerful civilization on earth.
甚至有学者认为 罗马帝国是有史以来
Scholars even believe that it is the most powerful civilization
世界上最强大的文明
to have ever existed on earth—
比美国 欧洲
more powerful than the US,
比任何现代文明都要强大
than Europe, than any modern civilization,
但它衰落了
but it fell,
西方文明也不会长盛不衰
and so too willthe west.
所以 核废料长期储存的时间
Therefore, long-term nuclear waste storage
需要比任何政治结构都要长久
needs to last longer than any political structure,
它需要在没有人类的管理下也能运行
it needs to work without the supervision of humans,
它需要真正的明确的永恒
it needs to be truly and unequivocally permanent.
芬兰正在建设核废料储存地
Finland is building just that.
该地区极少出现自然灾害
This region is largely devoid of natural disasters.
没有地震 不见海啸
It doesn’t have earthquakes, it doesn’t see tsunamis,
事实上 这里没有遭遇过
it really doesn’t encounter any natural phenomenon
任何能破坏到核废料储存地点的自然灾害
that could damage a nuclear waste storage site,
尤其是当核废料储存位于地下1500英尺时
especially if it ’ s 1,500 feet underground.
在波罗的海的海岸之下
Beneath an island on the Finnish Baltic Sea coast,
芬兰正在建设工程
the country is digging.
在地下1500英尺牢固的基岩上
They’re building the very first permanent
芬兰正在建设
nuclear waste storage facility in
世界首个永久性核废料储存设备
the world in the stable bedrock 1,500 feetbelow.
目前他们正在进行挖掘工作的收尾
Currently they ’ re just finishing their dig down
不久之后的2020年
then very soon, in 2020,
他们就会开始将核废料运进该设备里
they ’ ll start filling thefacility with nuclear waste.
他们会挖里面带小孔的长隧道
They ’ ll dig long tunnels with small holes
然后将核废料容器放置于小孔中
in which they ’ ll place casks
再用泥土将隧道填上
of nuclear waste then backfill the tunnels
将这些容器永远留在里面
with clay to be left for an eternity.
用了这个系统
With this system,
核物质泄漏进入地下水的风险
there’s near zero risk of nuclear material
基本上为零
leaking out into the groundwater and,
2120年 这个隧道被填满的那一天
once it’s filled in the year 2120,
就能永远地被放置不管
it can just be left, forever.
因为核物质将被埋在很深的地下
Because the material will be so far down and so
很难接触到其他东西
difficult to get to,
所以一旦用了该设备 人类管理就不再必要
no human management will be necessary once completed.
不需要安保 不需要维护
No security, no maintenance,
什么都不需要
nothing
这意味着它是绝对安全的
which means it should be truly secure,
但是 他们需要对抗一个东西
but before leaving it, theydo need
人类本性
to fight against one thing—human nature.
作为好奇的生物
As curious beings,
我们很难和人类强烈的探索欲望作斗争
it ’ s hard to combat a person ’ s urge of discovery.
如果有人发现几千年以前的神秘建筑物
If someone finds a mysterious structure from thousands of years ago,
他们就自然而然地想要打开它
it ’ d just be natural to want to open it up,
这是核废料地点所要面临的问题
and that’s a problem for nuclear waste sites.
本质上 我们也对埃及金字塔做了这样的事
We essentially did just that with the pyramids in Egypt.
这些建筑物作为终结而被修建
These structures were built as the final,
是埃及法老的永久安息地
permanent resting places for the elites of
但我们出于好奇心把它们打开了
Egypt and we opened them up because we were curious.
如果打开核废料储存设备
Opening the nuclear storage facilities wouldrelease
就会往未来文明里释放辐射
radiation into a future civilization,
所以我们要告诉子孙后代别去动这些设备
so we have to tell them to leave the sites alone,
但是说起来容易做起来就难了
but that’s easier said than done.
美国能源部正在进行一个研究
The US Department of Energy commissioned a study
即如何把某些危险传达给
on how to communicate the danger
遥远的将来
into the far future.
关键是要把核废料如何无趣
The key is to create a message that conveys
如何不重要
how uninteresting, how unimportant,
如何危险告诉后世人
and how dangerous nuclear waste is.
他们写下了这样的内容:
They settled on the following text:
传达这个信息对我们来说非常重要
Sending this message was important to us.
我们认为我们是强有力的文化
We considered ourselves to be a powerful culture.
这个地方不是荣誉之地
This place is not a place of honor…
这里没有高度受尊崇的行为被纪念
no highly esteemed deed is commemorated here…
这里什么价值都没有
nothing valued ishere.
这里有的是危险的 让我们厌恶的东西
What is here was dangerous and repulsive to us.
这条消息是危险警告
This message is a warning about danger.
这个危险就在某个特定的位置
The danger is in aparticular location…
越靠近它危险越大
it increases toward a center…
这里是危险中心的所在地
the center of danger is here…
地下是某种特定型号
of a particular size and shape,
特定形状的东西
and below us.
在你们的时代 危险仍然存在
The danger is still present, in your time,
危险度不减我们这个时代
as it was in ours.
这个危险会伤害你的身体 甚至致死
The danger is to the body, and it can kill.
危险的形式是某种能量的发散
The form of the danger is an emanation of energy.
只要你充分扰动到某个实际地点危险就会释放
The danger is unleashed only if you substantially disturb this place physically.
最好避开此处 不要让人居住于此
This place is best shunned and left uninhabited.
这个消息里的观点
The idea would be to translate a message
会被用联合国语言翻译出来——
like this into every United Nations language—
阿拉伯语 英语 法语 俄语 西班牙语
Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian,and Spanish.
这样做是一种合理的期望
There ’ s a reasonable hope that,
数千年以后
at least in the next couple thousand years,
这些语言中至少有一种能被理解
one of those languages would be understood.
但在几百几千年这个范围年限
But in the scope of hundreds of thousands of years, there’s
这些语言依然存活的希望很渺茫
just little expectation that these languages would survive.
就连人类还存不存在都是个问题
There’s not even a reasonable expectationthat humans would survive.
所以需要用语言以外的方式传达这个信息
So, you need to convey the same message without language.
该研究建议
What the study suggests is to
通过设计传达危险的图画
further push the message by building a landscape that
更明确地表达危险信息
conveys danger.
可以画一幅布满荆棘 尖钉 禁止障碍的图
It could be a scene of thorns, or spikes, or forbidding blocks.
为了饱足发现者的好奇心
To satiate the discoverer’s curiosity,
要使用象形文字
it’s also suggested
写上对该地点历史的大体解释
to add monoliths explaining the history of the site through pictographs.
还要包括这样的图像
Also included would be images like this,
刻上图案的石头
engraved in stone,
表示该物质有危险
conveying that the substance has danger that will be passed
触碰的话会伤及人类
onto humans if touched,
但是这个问题的困难在于
but the difficulty of this is
10万年以后
that it very well might not be humans exploring
探索地球的可能不是人类
earth 100,000 years from now.
它可能是一个与早就灭绝的物种
It could be a species that doesn’t recognize the likeness
毫无相似性的物种
of what might be a long-extinct species.
我们能给出的建议就是 忘了这个地点吧
What some have suggested is to just let the site be forgotten,
根本别做任何标记
to not mark it at all,
将它封存 然后离开
to just seal it up, and leave, but having something
但是化一件大事于无形并不简单
that significant disappear isn’t simple.
位于芬兰的这个核废料储存地不需要隐蔽和监管
The site in Finland is designed to not need security or oversight,
但是它目前的位置
but its current location is verywell
已通过一种潜在的不可逆的方式被记录在案
documented in a potentially irreversible way.
通过书 大脑 网络
With books and brains and the internet, records of
该地点的记录至少会存在到人类文明终结
the site might exist until at least the end of human civilization.
最好是该核废料储存地真正被忘记
To truly be forgotten,
真正作为大自然的一部分留下
to truly be left as part of nature,
不过这样人类也将被遗忘
so too must humans be forgotten.
如果你想了解更多有关清洁能源和其它方面的信息
If you want to learn more about clean energy or anything else,
请访问Brilliant
you should try Brilliant.
他们有非常棒的课程
They have a fantastic course
他们用通俗易懂的解释 直观的图表
on solar energy complete with approachable explanations,
激发思考的谜题介绍太阳能
straightforward graphics, and thought-provoking puzzles.
我非常享受使用Brilliant的过程
I ’ ve really been enjoying Brilliant
因为他们的课程
because their courses do a great job of providing
在以一种人人都懂的方式综述复杂话题方面做得很好
an overview of complex topics in a way that anyone can understand.
作为一个喜欢学习的
As a Wendover Productions viewer who
严肃对待科学的Wendover Productions的观众
enjoys learning or is serious so too must humans
Brilliant上互动式的谜题会帮你探索
about science, Brilliant ’ s interactive puzzles
各种有趣的东西
will help you explore all kinds of interesting stuff.
如果你想了解一下相关内容
If you want to check them out,
请访问brilliant.org/Wendover
head over to brilliant.org/Wendover.
注册该网站的前500名用户将享有8折优惠
The first 500 who do and sign up will receive 20 % off.
我强烈建议你试一下Brilliant
I absolutely suggest that you give Brilliant a try
因为它真的是一个非常棒 非常有用的网站
because it ’ s truly a great website
它使Wendover Productions视频的播出成为可能
and doing so helps make Wendover Productions possible.

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视频概述

本视频介绍了目前核废料处理所面临的难题以及取得的成就,芬兰的一座超级安全的核废料处理地点即将投入使用,而科学家担心的是,目前的人类文明终结以后,以后的文明若像人类一样好奇,就像打开埃及金字塔一样打开这个被封存的核废料储存地怎么办?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员Z

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uU3kLBo_ruo

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