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本科生也可操作的核反应堆

The Nuclear Reactor Run By Students

由文理学院的本科生们运行一个核反应堆
– A nuclear reactor runby undergraduate students at a liberal arts college
听起来很有趣
sounds like an interesting idea,
但这是真的
but it’s real and it’s been here
就发生在德勒冈州波特兰市的里德学院 已经50余年了
at Reed College in Portland, Oregon for 50 years.
好了 现在我们将要把一个相机放进反应堆
And, yeah, we’re gonna put a camera in it.
让我们开始吧
Go for it.
里德学院的研究型核反应堆是一种铀氢锆反应堆
– The Reed Research Reactor is a TRIGA reactor,
它是专为设计给学生操作的
it’s designed to be operated by students
教学用反应堆
and designed to be usedas a training reactor.
建在这里是因为在里德研究所有一位放射学家
We got it because we had aradiochemist on Reed’s faculty.
他认为让自己的学生们接触到这种
He thought that it’d be really important for his students to have access to this
核反应堆类的尖端技术是非常重要的
cutting edge technology that was nuclear reactors.
我们有一个25尺深的水槽 装满约2.5万加仑的水
We have a tank that’s 25-feet deep. It’s full of around 25 thousand gallons of water.
按照现在的使用速度 我们有足够使用百年的铀
We think we have enough uranium to continue operating at our current rate for 100 years
来操纵这个核反应堆
without having to change it out.
我们在250千瓦的功率下进行操作 其实这是一个十分低的功率
We operate at 250 kilowatts, which is actually a pretty low power.
虽然它工作起来确实会产生能量
While it does produce power when it operates,
但还不足以利用它来产生电力
there’s no way of harnessing that to make electricity.
我们反应堆的主要目的是用于科学研究
The main purpose of ourreactor is for science.
我们所做的这类研究被叫做中子活化分析
– The kind of research we do is called Neutron Activation Analysis.
这种分析方法背后的逻辑是
The logic behind it isif you don’t know exactly
如果你不大清楚某种物质的构成
what something is made out of,
你可以使它具有放射性
you can make it radioactive
然后由此准确查明它的构成成分
and then find exactly what it’s made out of.
我要逆向操作 弄清楚原始物质究竟是什么
and then my work back to feature out what it was originally,
让这个放射性物质呆在房间里直到它衰减
and let it sit in a room until it decays
直到它退变成最原始的状态
and then you have youroriginal thing back.
你可以往里面放80种物质
You can put 80 things in there.
你将它放进一支管道 然后打开机器
You drop it into a tubeand then you turn it,
机器会运转 然后得到相同数量的中子
and it turns and it gets the same amount of neutron exposure.
接着 我们用一支鱼竿把它打捞出来
And we get it out with a fishing rod.
后期处理时必须非常小心
Then afterwards, youhave to be very careful with it
因为它已经被放射物污染了
because it is contaminated.
反应器底部的水
The water at the bottom of the reactor
变得具有辐射性 其中含有N16(氮16)
becomes radioactive, it has N16 in it.
因为N16有七秒的半衰期
Nitrogen 16 because N16 hasa half-life of seven seconds.
当水循环流动时
When the water is cycling through it,
N16会通过一个管口排出
it gets diffused through a nozzle which causes the
推动新的水像这样进行打旋
new water to swirl around like this,
使得N16从反应堆底部
which makes the delivery time from the water at the bottom of
到顶部的输送时间 只比半衰期长几秒钟
the reactor to the water at the top of the reactor just a few seconds longer than it needs to be. So,
所以顶部的水没有放射性
water at the top isn’t radioactive.
那是我们整个水系统中最酷的部分之一
That’s one of the coolestparts of our water system.
核反应堆产生的辐射水平实际上非常低
– The radiation levels that the reactor produces is actually very low,
但是水提供了足够的保护
but the water provides sufficient shielding. So,
所以即便反应堆正在运行
it’s safe for us to be
这里对我们来说也是很安全的
in here while the reactor’s operating.
我们的反应堆非常小
It’s a very small reactor.
它不会热到融化 也不会爆炸
It doesn’t get hot enough to melt down.It doesn’t explode.
我们在紧急情况下
The way we shut down ourreactor in an emergency
使用一种叫做SCRAM的东西来关闭反应堆
is with something called a SCRAM.
我们有一个特殊的按钮 它被称为SCRAM按钮
We have a special button, it’slabelled the SCRAM button.
当你按压它时 它会切断那些电磁铁的电源
When you press it, it cutspower to those electromagnets
这会自动关闭核反应堆
and it automaticallyshuts the reactor down.
如果有人往下面掉了手机或其他东西
If someone drops theirphone or some other object
我们通常会在绳子上放上桶
into the pool, normally what we do is we get a bucket
然后试着用一根很长的棍子 把物品刮进桶里
on some string and we try to scrape the object into the bucket with a very long stick.
或者 我们将布基胶带缠绕在重物上
Or,we wrap duct tape around heavy weights
然后用一根绳子将重物放进池里
and we lower the weightinto the pool on a string
试着用那种方法捡起来
and try to pick it up that way.
我们的成功率非常高
We have a pretty good success rate.
能不能把灯关了? 这样我们就能看到蓝光
– Can we turn the lights off so we can see the blue glow?
那看起来棒极了
Wow, that looks awesome.
蓝光是切伦科夫辐射
The blue glow is Cherenkov radiation,
这有点像视觉效果上的音爆
which is a bit like the visual equivalent of a sonic boom,
但有人比我更有资格解释这个现象
but there are other people much better qualified to explain that than I am.
研究用核反应堆并不常见
Research reactors aren’t very common,
但其实比你想的要多
but there are more than you might think.
仅在美国就有几十家大学
There are a couple of dozen in the United States alone
研究所和几家公司拥有研究用核反应推
at universities and research institutes and a few companies.
其实这只是一个学生社团
This one is basically a student society,
一个要遵守很多规则的学生社团
just a student society witha lot of regulation and oversight.
在你被允许操作反应堆之前
– Before you’re allowedto operate the reactor,
你必须得到美国核管理委员会的许可
you have to get a licence from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
我们的学生在参加考试前要经过一个学年的训练
Our students train for an academic year before they sit down for that exam.
你必须做一些准备
You have to do thingssuch as memorise diagrams
比如熟记冷却系统和通风系统图
for our cooling system orour ventilation system.
你需要去解释物理学的运作方式
You need to be able toexplain how the physics work,
如何保护自己免受辐射
how to protect yourself from radiation.
及如何实际使用反应堆的控制装置
and how to actually use the controls of the reactor.
我们每年授予15名学生操作资格
We licence 15 studentsto operate every year.
目前 我们在职员工中有三四十名学生
Currently, we have 30 to 40students on staff.
你在反应堆上工作不会得到学术上的认可
– You don’t get academiccredit for working the reactor.
我想部分原因是因为我们在这里工作是有报酬的
I think part of thatis because we get paid
因为这是一份工作
to work here because this is a job.
这就是我来“里德”的原因
This is the reason why I came to Reed.
我只是觉得这真的很酷
I just thought it was really cool
这是一个只存在于学校的设施
that this was a facility that existed at a school
我的想法是 “我要操作反应堆”
and I was like,”I’m gonna do that.”
当我第一次开始培训的时候
When I first started the training programme,
我就把培训主管拉到一边去了
I had pull aside the training supervisors
说 “你必须从一开始就向我解释原子”
and say,”You have toexplain the atom to me
“因为我什么都不知道”
“from the beginning becauseI don’t know anything.”
我工作真的很努力 我只是真的很想了解核反应堆
I worked really hard and I just really wanted to know it.
现在我知道了 我仍然认为它真的很酷
Now I know it and I stillthink it’s really cool
我可以做像运行核反应堆这么酷的事情
and I get to do coolthings like operate this.
非常感谢在里德研究反应堆的每一个人
– Thank you so much to everyone at read the research react
特别是瓦尔和卡丽他们把我的相机放进去
and in particular, Val and Carrie who are putting my camera into it.
下面有更多有关里德学院和反应堆的链接
Pull down the description for more links about Reed College and about the reactor.
我正在看一个核反应堆
I’m looking at a nuclear reactor.
哦 哇
Oh,wow.
我以前从未亲眼见过切伦科夫辐射
I’ve never actuallyseen Cherenkov radiation in person before,
太神奇了
it’s amazing.

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视频概述

文科生也可以操作的简易核反应堆

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收集自网络

翻译译者

守望的孤爵

审核员

审核员YZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pLBcp3nJlFQ

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